Erasing NAND-Based SSDs Securely

Erasing NAND-Based SSDs Securely

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Description: NANDBased Solid State Drives, SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs, Micron SECURE ERASE methodology, C400: SECURE ERASE, SECURE ERASE command, SECURE ERASE of individual files.

 
Author: Jon Tanguy (Fellow) | Visits: 1298 | Page Views: 2112
Domain:  High Tech Category: IT Subcategory: Security 
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Contents:
SECURE ERASE in NANDBased Solid State Drives (SSDs)
Jon Tanguy Applications Engineer Micron Technology, Inc.
Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
ATA specification requires that SECURE ERASE deletes all user, partition, and OS data irretrievably Some methods for SECURE ERASE were inherited from HDD industry More correctly, SSD should use erase features native to NAND

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
Micron SECURE ERASE methodology: SECURE ERASE command from host initiates NANDlevel BLOCK ERASE command to all NAND devices Execute with as much parallelism as possible within power supply limit Erase all user accessible areas, including user data, OS, and partition; areas used for over-provisioning are erased, as is the FTL page table (which is subsequently rebuilt)
Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA 3

SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
C400: SECURE ERASE can be completed in 60 seconds for a 512GB drive What is not erased?
Firmware copies SMART data Bad block tables

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
How secure is SECURE ERASE?
Very! While there may be stray electrons remaining in cell after erase, it is statistically impossible to tell the difference between a previous 1 or 0 SECURE ERASE may be interrupted by POWER cycle, but will restart on next powerup Drive cannot return 50 status until SECURE ERASE successfully completes

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
Some concerns remain Bad blocks due to erase failure:

Drive makes every effort to erase data even in retired blocks If block returns erase fail status, erase cannot be guaranteed Typically, the erase fail affects several bits; observations show that >90% of bits in block are successfully erased Bad blocks remain inaccessible through interface

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
Some concerns remain SECURE ERASE of individual files:

No standard method exists Data pages cannot be erased until garbage collection arranges deleted areas in contiguous blocks

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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Other security steps can be taken

SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs

Selfencrypted drive (SED); AES hardware encryption If encryption key security is maintained, reading back NAND component will yield nonsensical data ATA CRYPTO ERASE command
Delete (and erase) the encryption key SECURE ERASE for good measure

Non-interface ERASE commands Destructive erase

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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SECURE ERASE in NANDBased SSDs
Questions?

Revisit the Micron FMS presentations at www.micron.com/fms
Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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Jon Tanguy
� Applications Engineering, NAND Solutions Group, SSD Product Marketing, Micron Technology, Inc. � Facilitates new product integration and qualifications for notebook and desktop applications � Data storage experience in HDD and solid state industries in manufacturing, new product and process development, quality/reliability, and applications � Earned a BS degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder
Revisit the Micron FMS presentations at www.micron.com/fms
�2011 Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Products are warranted only to meet Micron's production data sheet specifications. Information, products and/or specifications are subject to change without notice. All information is provided on an "AS IS" basis without warranties of any kind. Dates are estimates only. Drawings not to scale. Micron and the Micron logo are trademarks of Micron Technology, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Flash Memory Summit 2011 Santa Clara, CA

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