Geographic Information Systems Technology and its Applications

Geographic Information Systems Technology and its Applications

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Description: Geographic Information Systems are a system of software and hardware that supports capture, management, manipulation, analysis, and the display of geographic information. The GIS concept is that information has a locational dimension in which you are able to link locations with descriptive attributes, providing a unified database that allows for manipulating and analyzing geographic information in new ways. GIS industry is growing at an average rate of 15% per year over the last two decades.

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Author: Dr. Baqer Al-Ramadan (Fellow) | Visits: 2535 | Page Views: 2567
Domain:  High Tech Category: Photo Subcategory: GIS 
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Contents:
INTRODUCTION TO GIS TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
By Dr. Baqer Al-Ramadan, City Cit and R i d Regional Department lD t t King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

GIS
GIS: Geographic Information Systems A system of SW & HW that supports:
capture, management, i l ti manipulation, analysis, and display of "Geographic Information"
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 2

Geographic Information
Data that specify:
Features Location F t i ti Attributes Features D Descriptive Att ib t

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

3

Examples of Features
Water Wells (point features) Streets/Roads (line features) Land Parcels (polygon features)

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

4

Features Representation: Points, Lines, and Polygons
Point (example: W t Well) P i t( l Water W ll) Line (example: Road/Street)

y

Polygon (example: Land Parcel)
x
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

5

Features Representation

Retail stores

Streets

Land uses

Points

Lines
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

Polygons
6

Examples of Descriptive Attributes
Water Wells (point features):
Depth Year Drilled Volume of Water Production

R d (line features): ) Roads (li f t
Name Width Number of Lanes
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 7

Examples of Descriptive Attributes ...
Land Parcels (polygon features):
Area Owner Name and Address Permit Number

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

8

Descriptive Attributes Files D i ti Att ib t Fil
Stored in predefined format files as:
sets of alphabetical characters string of values g

Referred to as Feature Attribute Tables:
Each row is a record for a single feature Each column is a field for all features
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

9

Location and Attributes: Example

Streets

Locational Data

Descriptive Attributes

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

10

Location & Attributes: One-to-One C O t O Correspondence d
Point Features
101

Points Lines

Line Features
201

Polygon Features
301

Polygons

Features Location

Descriptive Attributes

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

11

GIS Concept: Information Has a p Locational Dimension
Locations Networks Areas Areas

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

12

GIS Show Content & Context
Seeing the Whole
Patterns Linkages Trends

Managing Places

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

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Benefits of GIS: Examples
Linking Location and Descriptive

Attributes Att ib t

Providing a "Unified Database" g Manipulating & Analyzing Geographic Information in new ways Automating map making and updating g p g p g

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

14

Scattered Islands of Geographic Information

Maps

Descriptive Attributes

Maps

Descriptive Attributes p

Maps

Descriptive Attributes

Maps p

Maps Descriptive Attributes
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 15

Unified Island of Geographic Information

Maps

Descriptive Attributes

Maps

A Unified GIS Database Descriptive Attributes p Descriptive Attributes

Maps p

Descriptive Attributes
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

Maps
16

Layers Concept
Land Ownership Transportation T n p t ti n Surface Waters Boundaries B d i Geodetic Control Elevation Aerial Imagery Flood Zones Demographics Land Cover Water Lines L nes Sewer Lines Soils

Reality
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

17

Why GIS is Attractive
Local governments functions involve managing information about physical infrastructure. Examples:
land, roads, sewers, water, schools.

Around 95% of these information has a spatial dimension ld
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 18

Even information handled by private sector h a spatial dimension such as t has ti l di i h location of:
branches, competitors competitors, customers..etc.

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

19

GIS Industry & Market
Average growth around 15% per year A th d over the last two decades U.S. vendors dominate world market Currently around 34% of GIS expenditures made by government world-wide Business customers rapidly increasing, starting to dominate market
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 20

History
History began in early 1960's Prof Ian McHarg first to set the Prof. theoretical foundation of GIS
His well known book "Design with Nature" (published 1969)

Extensive commercial activity relatively recent starting late 1980's/early 1990's 1980 s/early 1990 s
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

21

GIS in the Academia
Two Research Groups:
Harvard Lab For Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis at Harvard University The E Th Experimental Cartography Unit, UK i lC h U i

Both had major influence on the development of GIS until early 1980s
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

22

Milestones
1965: "Canada GIS"; first nation-wide GIS

Resources Inventory System" y y Information System"

1967: "New York Land Use and Natural 1969: "Minnesota Land Management
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

23

Commercial GIS Packages
ArcGIS (ESRI) GeoMedia (InterGraph) GeoGraphics (Bentley Corp.) MapInfo (MapInfo Corp.) AutoCad MAP (AutoDesk) STAR

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

24

Commercial GIS Packages..
New competitors still entering the market k t Current domination is by several large vendors such as ESRI and Intergraph

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

25

Urban Applications
More than 90% of urban affairs involve the th use of G f Geographic Information hi I f ti This applies to all information about urban features such as
land parcels, roads, utilities, schools, medical centers...etc
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

26

Urban Applications Examples
Permit Issuing and Tracking Municipal F iliti M M i i l Facilities Management t Land Records Management g Inventory of Utilities T t ti Analysis d Pl i Transportation A l i and Planning Optimum Site Selection for
schools, hospitals, commercial centers..etc.
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 27

Other Applications
Natural Resources Management Water Wells Inventory Forestry/Wild Life Management Environmental Impact Assessment Oil Spill Tracking Geology and Oil Exploration
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

28

Simple Query
Identify specific features

Identify features based on conditions
Florida counties with a population greater than 300,000
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 29

Advanced Analysis y
Which parcels are within 50 feet of the road?

Proximity
Well type Building owner Soil t S il type Drilled Smith Sandy S d

Overlay

Network
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

30

Soil Erosion Hazard Assessment

LAND DATA
Ownership Class Hydrology Topography Soils Land Cover Base Map

DERIVED DATA

ANALYSIS

Slope Erodability Runoff Potential Soil Erosion

Source: American Farmland Trust

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

31

Typical Layers in a GIS D t b Database
Base map layer, often the parcel (cadastral) l ( d t l) layer, includes: i l d
Geodetic control points p Contour lines Permanent geographic features such as coastlines and rivers

Land L d parcels layer, if not included in the l l t i l d d i th base map
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 32

Typical Layers in a GIS Database...
Aerial Photo or satellite image as background b k d Streets/Roads centerline network layer / y Infrastructure/Utilities network layers:
Electric Electric, Phone, Water, and W t d Sewer
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 33

Typical Layers in a GIS Database...
Planning layers Existing land use Planned land use/zoning Urban growth management lines Vacant land inventory y y , Facility location layers - schools, health centers, etc.
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 34

Typical Layers in yp y a GIS Database...
Demographic/political boundary layers
Municipal boundaries Neighborhood boundaries Census t acts Cens s tracts and blocks

Event location layers:
crime incident maps, clients, location of transit clients etc

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

35

Typical Layers in a GIS Database...
Environmental layers Well sites Contour maps Hazardous waste sites Flood plains/ wetlands

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

36

GIS Components
Software & Hardware

Database

GIS Data

Users
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 37

Data Input Systems
Manual Digitizing Automated Scanning

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

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Manual Digitizing
Done through a digitizer Coordinates entered through a cursor Slow and costly Accurate results

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

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Automated Scanning
Maps scanned through a scanner Faster and lower cost Requires substantial amount of editing Lower accuracy

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

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Capturing data
Hardcopy maps Digital data

Coordinates
480585.5, 483194.1, 485285.8, 485285 8 484327.4, 483874.7, 3769234.6 3768432.3 3768391.2 3768391 2 3768565.9 3769823.0

GIS Data

GPS
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

41

Data Output Peripherals

Printers

Plotters
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

42

Display
Maps

Graphs

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

Reports

43

Output
Internet Paper map

GIS Data

Image
Florida.jpg Florida jpg
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

Document
Florida.mxd

44

Recent GIS Trends
Data sharing/data partnerships Higher Hi h resolution satellite imagery l ti t llit i Commercial data sources provide more p data Internet mania (thousands of GIS web pages; data clearinghouses; interactive map sites providing data and geoservices)
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 45

Recent GIS Trends...
Research & Development (R&D) areas defined b d fi d by more unified GIScience ifi d GIS i community
Example: UCGIS (University Consortium for Geographic Information Science) g p )

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

46

Future Directions
Increased data sharing/data partnerships t hi within local go e t oca government, e t, across governmental levels, public/private partnerships More Intranet and Internet delivery of spatial data
Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications 47

Future Directions...
Increased sophistication in modeling and analysis using GIS d l i i Development o more spec a ed e e op e t of o e specialized decision support systems with GIS as one component

Introduction to GIS Technology and its Applications

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