Energy and Bottled Water

Energy and Bottled Water

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Description: Why do people drink bottled water, is it a safer alternative to tap water? The boom of the Bottled water industry and the true cost of bottled water. What are the environmental impacts of bottled water and its energy implications? A complete analysis of the energy required to manufacture, process, clean, fill, cap, label, transport, and cool water. What can you do? .

 
Author: Janna Dettmer (Fellow) | Visits: 2664 | Page Views: 2789
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Environmental 
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Contents:
By: Janna Dettmer jdettmer@kentlaw.edu Chicago�Kent College of Law Energy Law Fall 2009

Presentation Summary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Boom of the Bottled Water Industry Cost of Bottled Water Why do People Drink Bottled Water?
a.

Is Bottled Water a Safer Alternative to Tap Water

Environmental Impact Energy Implications of Bottled Water �Gleick & Cooley Study
a. b. c. d. e.

Energy Required to Manufacture Plastic Bottles Energy to Process Bottled Water Energy to Clean, Fill, Cap, and Label Bottles Energy to Transport Bottled Water Energy to Cool Bottled Water

6. 7.

Bottled Water Cost Calculator What you Can Do

The Boom of the Bottled Water Industry

Image: http://www.flex-news-food.cm

The Cost of Bottled Water
Bottled water consumers spend 240 to over 10,000 times more per gallon purchasing bottled water than it does purchasing a gallon of average tap water
Source: National Resources Defense Council, Bottled Water Pure Drink or Pure Hype? (1999), available at http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/chap2.asp Image: http://www.iowawaterquality.org/snapshots.htm

Why Do People Drink Bottled Water?

Source: Robert Glennon, Unquenchable: America's Water Crisis and What to Do About It, 44 (2009).

Examples of Nestl� Waters Advertising
Did You Know? As its name implies, Ice Mountain� Brand Natural Spring Water is crisptasting and "Pure As The Driven Snow!�." It is the local favorite of Midwesterners
Image and Source: http://www.nestle watersna.com/Menu/OurBrands/Ice+Mountain.htm

Examples of Nestl� Waters Advertising
Pure water from a pure place�
Zephyrhills� Brand Natural Spring Water was born of the ocean. Tens of thousands of years ago, Florida was under water. As sea levels lowered, its mineralrich limestone bedrock remained, creating a natural filter for groundwater to flow through. The mineral content gives Zephyrhills� its natural purity and distinctive taste.
Image/Source: http://www.nestle watersna.com/Menu/OurBrands/Zephyrhills.htm

Bottled Water, a Safer Alternative to Tap Water?
National Resources Defense Council's 1999 Study:
1/3 of bottles tested contained significant contamination Contaminants present: Heterotrophicplatecount bacteria Coliform bacteria Arsenic Synthetic Organic Chemicals
Source: National Resources Defense Council, Bottled Water Pure Drink or Pure Hype? (1999), available at http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/chap2.asp Image: http://www.newsli.com/2008/03/11/nycdepreleaseda statementtocounterwatercontaminationclaims/

Environmental Impact of Bottled Water
GAO believes that the environmental impact of bottled water is threefold:

1. 2. 3.

Municipal landfill capacity of discarded water bottles; The effect of groundwater extraction for the purposes of bottling water The effects on U.S. energy demands from the manufacture and transport of plastic water bottles

Source: U.S. GOV'T ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, BOTTLED WATER: FDA SAFETY AND CONSUMER PROTECTIONS ARE OFTEN LESS STRINGENT THAN COMPARABLE EPA PROTECTIONS FOR TAP WATER 23 (2009).
Image: http://images.usatoday.com/news/_photos/2006/04/16/water.jpg

The Study: Energy Implications of Bottled Water
Peter H. Gleick & Heather Cooley
Pacific Institute

2009 Published Paper
Energy Implications of Bottled Water
The Paper DOES NOT "develop a single comprehensive life cycle energy estimate" The Paper "estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation and use"

Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 1 (2009).

Chart: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4 (2009).

Megajoules for Dummies
A Joule represents the "energy exerted by a force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one metre."
" The megajoule (MJ) is equal to one million joules, or approximately the kinetic energy of a one ton vehicle moving at 160 km/h (100 mph)."

Real Life examples:
One Joule =
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule

Manufacture of Plastic Bottles: Energy Needed
Bottles are made out of Polyethylene Terephthalate Study found that:
Energy to produce PET resin is approximately 7083 MJ kg1 Energy needed to produce preforms and turn into bottles requires 20 MJ kg 1
Equals 100 MJ(th(kg1 or 100,000MJ(th)/ton of PET

The Study also found that:
Average 1 liter bottle weighs approximately 38g

1 liter PET bottle weighing 38g = 4 MJ

Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 23 (2009). Image: www.earthodyssey.com

Manufacture of Plastic Bottles: Energy Needed
2007 100 billion liters of bottled water was sold
100 billion liters x 38g = 3.8 million tons of PET

2007 approximately 3 millions tons of PET were produced globally
3 million tons of PET x 100,000 MJ(th)/ton Equals 300 billion MJ(th) of energy
Citation: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 23 (2009). Image: http://www.:earth911.com/plastic/ plasticbottles/

Manufacture of Plastic Bottles: Energy Needed
� One barrel of oil contains

around 6,000 MJ
�If it takes 300 billion MJ(th)

to manufacture plastic bottles

�It is "the energy equivalent of

approximately 50 million barrels of oil per year, worldwide."
�Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 3 (2009).
�Image: http://people.bu.edu/ragsdale/ImageWithEqualSigns/OilBarrels.jpg

Energy to Process Bottled Water

Water Treatments:
micro or ultra filtration Ozonation Ultraviolent radiation Reverse osmosis 1,800 kWhe per million liters 1,800 kWhe per million liters 10 kWhe per million liters 1,800 kWhe per million liters

Energy: between .0001 and 0.02 MJ(th)11
Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 34 (2009). Image: http://halmapr.com/news/aquionics/beveragebottledwaterandfoodprocessing/

Energy needed to clean, fill, seal, and label bottles
Average to clean, fill, seal and label bottles
0.014 MJ(th) per bottle .34% of the energy contained in the bottle itself.

Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 4 (2009). Image: http://http://nazret.com/blog/media/blogs/new/bottl e_water.jpg

Transporting Bottled Water: Energy Requirements
The energy required for transporting water is sizable as water is heavy. Dependent on two factors:
Distance between bottling facility and market Type of Transportation

Study looked at three scenarios of bottled water coming to Los Angeles, California:
"Processed municipal water that is distributed locally by truck; Spring water produced in the South Pacific (such as Fiji spring water) transported by ship to LA and distributed locally by truck; Spring water packaged in France (such as Evian) shipped to the eastern United States transported by freight railcars to LA and distributed locally by truck."

Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 45 (2009).

Transporting Bottled Water
locally produced and transported: 1.4 MJ11 Spring water shipped from Fiji: 4.0 MJ11 Spring water shipped from France: 5.8 MJ11
Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 45 (2009).

Image: www.uslogistics.us/ Trucking.html

Energy to Chill Bottled Water
Two Considerations
Energy it takes to cool bottled water from room temperature to the temperature of the refrigerator or cooler
0.2MJ11

How long the bottled water is cooled for
0.2MJ11
Source : PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 5 (2009). Image: http://www.vendorsequipment.com/FOUNDATIONS/STORE/pr oducts/true_gdm_49_generic.jpg

Energy Summary
In comparison to tap water
2000 times more in the amount of energy needed
Manufacture Plastic Bottle Treatment at bottling plant 4.0 0.00010.02

Study estimates that the US consumption of bottled water is equivalent to 32 54 million barrels of oil
1/3 of a percent of total US primary energy consumption
Source: PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, 6 (2009).

Fill, label, and seal 0.01 bottle Transportation Cooling Total 1.45.8 0.20.4 5.610.2 MJ(th)11

Bottled Water Cost Calculator:
How much water do you drink?
Enter the total number of 16 oz bottled of water you drink in a year: Cost of Tap Water per Gallon: Cost of 16 oz Bottled Water (typical is $1.50)

365 0.002 $1.50 57 gallons 114 gallons 37 megajoules 9 gallons 68 pounds $546.77

Impact
Total Water Consumed: Extra Water Required for Production and Purification: Energy Required for Manufacturing; Oil Required to Produce the Plastic Bottle(s): CO2 to Manufacture Plastic Bottle(s): Your Extra Cost for Bottled Water: Available at : http://www.newdream.org/water/calculator.p hp

What You Can Do...
Use Reusable Bottles Check Your Water Quality Report Encourage Others To Stop Using Bottled Water
Local government Restaurants Office Friends and Family
Source: http://www.newdream.org/water/ways.ph ; http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/water/bottled/SmartWaterCard.pdf Image: http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/supportus/shop

List of Sources
http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/water/bottled/SmartWaterCard.pdf http://www.nestlewatersna.com/Menu/OurBrands/Ice+Mountain.htm http://www.nestlewatersna.com/Menu/OurBrands/Zephyrhills.htm http://www.newdream.org/water/calculator.php http://www.newdream.org/water/ways.php National Resources Defense Council, Bottled Water Pure Drink or Pure Hype? (1999), available at http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/chap2.asp PH Gleick and HS Cooley, Energy implications of bottled water, Environ. Res. Lett. 4, (2009). Robert Glennon, Unquenchable: America's Water Crisis and What to Do About It, 44 (2009). U.S. GOV'T ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE, BOTTLED WATER: FDA SAFETY AND CONSUMER PROTECTIONS ARE OFTEN LESS STRINGENT THAN COMPARABLE EPA PROTECTIONS FOR TAP WATER (2009).

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