MODELING, CONFIGURATION AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES

MODELING, CONFIGURATION AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES

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MODELING, CONFIGURATION AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES by

Jinming Liu

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Mechanical Engineering) in The University of Michigan 2007

Doctoral Committee: Professor Huei Peng, Chair Professor Jeffery L. Stein Professor A. Galip Ulsoy Associate Professor Jing Sun



Jinming Liu All Rights Reserved

2007

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my earnest gratitude to my advisor, Professor Huei Peng. His guidance, assistance, patience, and encouragement have been of enormous importance to my research and the completion of the dissertation. I would also like to thank my other committee members, Professor Jeffery Stein, Professor Galip Ulsoy, and Professor Jing Sun, for their helpful advice and comments. I am indebted to the Automotive Research Center at the University of Michigan for the financial support for my graduate study. Especially thank Professor Zoran Filipi and Doctor Hosam Fathy for their helps from the research center. It has been a great pleasure working in the Vehicle Dynamics Lab as a doctoral student. Many thanks to my fellow graduate students for their help, discussion, and all the good times we have had in the office: Chen-Chiao Lin, Kangwon (Wayne) Lee, Hyungpil Moon, Daekyun Kim, Minjoong Kim, Jing Zhou, Ashish Deshpande, Konstantinos Varsos, Yi-Hsuan Hung, Yong-Song Chen, Cheng-Huei Han, Youseok Kou, Jeong-Seok Kim, Dongsuk Kum, Sehyun Chang, Sean Yang, Satyanarayanan Raghavan, Chiao-Ting Li, Dongsoo Kang, Youngjae Kim, and Jonathan Hagena. Finally, my deepest thanks to my parents for all the love and support they have given me. I would also like to thank my fianc�e, Qiang Li, for her encouragement and companionship during these years.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................ ii LIST OF FIGURES ...........................................................................................................v LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... ix LIST OF APPENDICES ...................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................1 1.1. Motivation.................................................................................1 1.2. Background ...............................................................................4 1.3. Literature Review....................................................................15 1.4. Contributions...........................................................................23 1.5. Outline of the Dissertation ......................................................25 CHAPTER 2 .....................................................................................................................26 DYNAMIC MODELING OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES.............26 2.1. Overall Architecture................................................................27 2.2. Sub-Systems/Components Modeling......................................28 2.3. The Powertrain Modeling .......................................................37 2.4. Validation of the Powertrain Dynamic Model........................48 CHAPTER 3 .....................................................................................................................52 AUTOMATED MODELING OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES..................................................................................................52 3.1. The Universal Format of the Model Matrix............................53 3.2. Automated Modeling Process .................................................56 3.3. Automated Modeling Demonstration .....................................58 CHAPTER 4 .....................................................................................................................70 CONFIGURATION SCREENING OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES..................................................................................................70 4.1. Physically Feasible Powertrain Configuration........................72 4.2. Drivability and Power Source Component Sizing ..................77 4.3. Mode Shifting and ECVT Efficiency .....................................82 CHAPTER 5 .....................................................................................................................87

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COMBINED CONFIGURATION DESIGN, COMPONENT SIZING, AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION OF THE POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES.................................................................................87 5.1. Dynamic Program ...................................................................88 5.2. Configuration Optimization ....................................................96 CHAPTER 6 ...................................................................................................................104 IMPLEMENTABLE OPTIMAL CONTROL DESIGN OF THE POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES..................................................104 6.1. Power-Split and Engine Optimization ..................................105 6.2. SDP for Power-Split Hybrid Vehicles ..................................109 6.3. ECMS for Power-Split Hybrid Vehicles...............................115 6.4. Result and Discussion ...........................................................120 CHAPTER 7 ...................................................................................................................125 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ............................................................125 7.1. Conclusion ............................................................................125 7.2. Future Work ..........................................................................127 APPENDICES ................................................................................................................129 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................................153

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: World crude oil price have increased over 400% since 1998 (DOE, 2007) .... 3 Figure 1.2: United States petroleum production and consumption (ORNL, 2006). ........... 3 Figure 1.3: EPA NOx and particular matter regulation trends (DieselNet, 2007). ............. 4 Figure 1.4: Parallel HEV configuration. ............................................................................. 8 Figure 1.5: BSFC fuel map for a Saturn 1.9L (95 kW) DOHC SI engine.......................... 9 Figure 1.6: Series HEV configuration. ............................................................................. 10 Figure 1.7: Power-split HEV configuration...................................................................... 12 Figure 1.8: Powertrain configuration of a single-mode hybrid system. ........................... 14 Figure 1.9: Powertrain configuration of a dual-mode hybrid system. .............................. 15 Figure 1.10: Hierarchical control architecture of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle... 20 Figure 1.11: Combined configuration design and control optimization procedure. ......... 25 Figure 2.1: The overall architecture of a power-split HEV in Matlab/Simulink. ............. 28 Figure 2.2: Composition of the planetary gear set............................................................ 29 Figure 2.3: Force analysis on a planetary gear set. ........................................................... 30 Figure 2.4: Planetary gear set and lever diagram.............................................................. 31 Figure 2.5: THS engine look-up table............................................................................... 32 Figure 2.6: THS engine BSFC map. ................................................................................. 32 Figure 2.7: Efficiency map of the MG 1 (15 kW). ........................................................... 34 Figure 2.8: Efficiency map of the MG 2 (35 kW). ........................................................... 34 Figure 2.9: Internal R battery model. ................................................................................ 35 Figure 2.10: THS battery lookup tables (R and Voc against SOC).................................... 36 Figure 2.11: Driver Simulink model................................................................................. 37 Figure 2.12: Free body diagram of the THS powertrain................................................... 38 Figure 2.13: Free body diagram of the dual-mode powertrain. ........................................ 41

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Figure 2.14: The synchronized mode shifting of the dual-mode power-split powertrain (The engine speed is assumed constant). .................................................................. 46 Figure 2.15: Simulink model for a dual-mode power-split powertrain. ........................... 47 Figure 2.16: Power distribution of the Toyota Hybrid System (Hermance, 1999)........... 49 Figure 2.17: THS Engine simulation results compared with published experiment results (Duoba et al., 2001) under the same driving cycle. .................................................. 50 Figure 2.18: AHS powertrain simulation results (a) compared with published patent results (b) (Holmes et al., 2003)................................................................................ 51 Figure 3.1: The powertrain of a double planetary gear system......................................... 59 Figure 3.2: GUI for the model rapid generation, which shows speeds of the engine and electric machines as functions of vehicle speed. ...................................................... 61 Figure 3.3: The powertrain of the triple planetary gear system in (Schmidt, 1999)......... 63 Figure 3.4: Composition of the compound planetary gear set. ......................................... 66 Figure 3.5: The powertrain of the compound PG system in (Hermance and Abe, 2006). 68 Figure 4.1: The powertrain configuration identified by the example D matrix in (4.1). .. 73 Figure 4.2: An unfeasible configuration that has the engine connected to the vehicle shaft. ................................................................................................................................... 76 Figure 4.3: Torque values for a 30 kW MG2 in the THS configuration. ......................... 79 Figure 4.4: Torque values for a 90 kW MG2 in the THS configuration. ......................... 80 Figure 4.5: Torque values for a 30 kW MG2 in the 2-PG AHS configuration................. 80 Figure 4.6: Vehicle launching at constant power (100 kW). ............................................ 82 Figure 4.7: Two possible dual-mode systems correspond to (4.13) and (4.14): (a) represented by matrix D and Dmode21; (b) represented by matrix D and Dmode22. ...... 85 Figure 5.1: Formulation of the DP problem on a power-split system. ............................. 92 Figure 5.2: Example vehicle control performance results by DDP. ................................. 94 Figure 5.3: SOC under the same driving-cycle with different initial values. ................... 98 Figure 5.4: Relationship between fuel consumption and change in battery SOC. ........... 98 Figure 5.5: Electric power circulation under a launching maneuver (PT2, MG1=20kW and MG2=40kW). ..................................................................................................... 99 Figure 5.6: Fuel economy contour plot for DDP results with different gear sizing (PT2, MG1=20kW and MG2=40kW). ............................................................................. 101

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Figure 5.7: MG2 efficiencies of two different design cases (High fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=2.2, and low fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=1.6)................. 101 Figure 5.8: MG2 speeds and torques of two different design cases (High fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=2.2, and low fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=1.6)........ 102 Figure 5.9: Vehicle speeds and battery SOC of two different design cases (High fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=2.2, and low fuel efficiency case: K1=1.6 and K2=1.6).................................................................................................................... 102 Figure 5.10: In the PT2 configuration, increasing K2 results in higher speed of MG2 at the same vehicle speed............................................................................................ 103 Figure 5.11: Potential fuel economy comparison between different configurations. ..... 103 Figure 6.1: Two-step control of the power-split powertrain showing system optimization and engine optimization.......................................................................................... 107 Figure 6.2: Feed-forward and feed-back controller for the MG1 torque control............ 108 Figure 6.3: The stochastic dynamic programming design process on a parallel hybrid vehicle. .................................................................................................................... 109 Figure 6.4: The stochastic dynamic programming design process on a power-split hybrid vehicle. .................................................................................................................... 110 Figure 6.5: Example of power demand probability map. ............................................... 111 Figure 6.6: Example of optimized engine power map from SDP................................... 113 Figure 6.7: Calculated driving power (a) and vehicle speed (b) in the Markov chain model....................................................................................................................... 114 Figure 6.8: SOC weighting factor f(soc) for the ECMS algorithm (Paganali et al. 2002). ................................................................................................................................. 117 Figure 6.9: Speed constraint calculation in THS. ........................................................... 117 Figure 6.10: Optimal solution searching process for the ECMS algorithm.................... 119 Figure 6.11: Example optimized engine power map from ECMS.................................. 120 Figure 6.12: The engine operating point densities for both SDP and ECMS approaches in FTP75 cycle. (Sampling: 1Hz). .............................................................................. 122 Figure 6.13: Engine power by DDP, SDP and ECMS algorithms during a vehicle launch. ................................................................................................................................. 124 Figure B.1: General power-split ECVT lever diagram................................................... 133

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Figure B.2: Relative speed, torque, and power of the MG1 in input-split system.......... 136 Figure B.3: Relative speed, torque, and power of the MG2 in input-split system.......... 136 Figure B.4: Relative speed, torque, and power of the MG1 in compound-split system. 138 Figure B.5: Relative speed, torque, and power of the MG2 in compound-split system. 138 Figure D.1: Engine-in-the-loop setup for studies of the parallel hybrid electric propulsion. ................................................................................................................................. 146 Figure D.2: The beginning part of the FTP75 reference driving schedule compared with simulation and experiment results. ......................................................................... 147 Figure D.3: Comparison of engine throttle commands between (a) the initial control design and (b) the refined control design (right). ................................................... 149 Figure D.4: Comparison of (a) engine speed and (b) engine torque results between simulation and experiment with an initial control design....................................... 149 Figure D.5: Comparison of control maps between (a) the initial control design and (b) the refined control design (right). ................................................................................. 150 Figure D.6: Comparison of (a) engine speed and (b) engine torque results between simulation and experiment with a more accurate and smoother control design. .... 150 Figure D.7: Comparison of transient soot concentration profiles during a 185s-205 sec interval of the FTP75 driving schedule. Refined SDP power management strategy (light blue) eliminates the transient spikes of soot emission seen with the initial strategy (dark red). .................................................................................................. 152 Figure D.8: Final fuel economy and soot emission comparison between the conventional vehicle and different control designs. ..................................................................... 152

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Hybrid electric vehicles on the horizon (Fueleconomy.gov, 2007)................... 6 Table 2.1: Rule-based THS powertrain control strategy. ................................................. 49 Table 3.1: Matrix D for the popular power-split powertrain designs. .............................. 69 Table 4.1: Specifications for the super-size power-split hybrid HMMWV...................... 72 Table 4.2: Comparison of attributes and cost of three type of traction motors (Cuenca et al., 1999). .................................................................................................................. 78 Table 5.1: States and inputs in different types of vehicles (Assume the objective is to analyze the control of the powertrain power flow at the system level) .................... 91 Table 5.2: The selected grid points in DDP...................................................................... 92 Table 5.3: Vectorization approach effect on simulation time........................................... 96 Table 6.1: Fuel economy comparison between different control algorithms. ................ 121 Table C.1: DDP results for different gear dimensions and MG sizing on PT1. ............. 141 Table C.2: DDP results for different gear dimensions and MG sizing on PT2. ............. 142

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A: NOMENCLATURE.................................................................................. 130 Appendix B: POWER-SPLIT SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS ........................... 132 Appendix C: DESIGN EVALUATION RESULTS. ...................................................... 141 Appendix D: ENGINE-IN-THE-LOOP STUDY ON MAP ACCURACY EFFECT OF SDP ......................................................................................................................... 145

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Motivation Studies on new fuel-saving technologies have been popular in recent years because of decreasing global crude oil supplies and growing environmental concerns. The price of crude oil, according to the Department of Energy (2007), is over 400% higher than ten years ago (Figure 1.1) and is likely to continue to surge in the future because of shrinking oil supplies. To reduce oil consumption by ground vehicles, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) was enacted by the US Congress in 1975. The CAFE legislation is overseen by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which sets fuel economy standards for cars and light trucks (trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US. While the CAFE standards have remained relatively constant for the last twenty years, the discussion of increasing it is significant in the past fifteen years regarding shrinking oil supplies and increasing oil demands (Figure 1.2). Concurrent with the implementation of increasingly stringent fuel-economy regulations is the adoption of the ever-tightening emission standards. These emission standards were set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was formed in 1970 to develop and enforce regulations to protect the environment (EPA 2007). These standards focus on limiting the production of harmful tailpipe pollutants. The Tier 1

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standards for example (DieselNet, 2007), published as a final rule in 1991 and phased-in progressively between 1994 to 1997, limited the allowable emission levels of THC, CO, and NOx for all light-duty vehicles. The Tier 2 standards, adopted in 1999, is almost an order of magnitude more stringent compared to Tier 1 (Figure 1.3). In light of the impending increases in CAFE regulations and the implementation of Tier 2 emissions standards, the automotive industry faces substantial challenges to improve fuel economy while reducing emissions. Various engine-based technologies-- such as variable valve timing, turbocharger application, and cylinder deactivation--have only limited impact on fuel economy (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., 2005). Continuously variable transmission is promising, but its in-field performance has not been satisfactory (Setlur et al., 2003). Diesel-fueled vehicles have been offered in the US with limited success. Recent availability of low-sulfur (15ppm) diesel fuel paves the way for more light-duty diesel vehicles, which might jump-start the sales of light diesel vehicles in the US. Currently, however, with only a handful of models from Mercedes, Volkswagen, and Jeep on the market, it is unlikely the sales volume of diesel vehicles will take off quickly in the near future. Fuel-cell vehicles, with hydrogen gas as a power source replacing the conventional engine, draw numerous interests because they have the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions. However, there are still many unsolved challenges and the high-volume production of fuel cell vehicles is still decades away. Among all the technologies that are currently under development, the hybrid electric propulsion seems to be one of the most promising short-term solutions.

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80

70

60

Price (Dollar per Barrel)

50

40

30

20

10

0 1998

1999

2001

2002

2004

2005

2006

2008

Figure 1.1: World crude oil price have increased over 400% since 1998 (DOE, 2007)

Figure 1.2: United States petroleum production and consumption (ORNL, 2006).

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Figure 1.3: EPA NOx and particular matter regulation trends (DieselNet, 2007).

1.2. Background A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) adds an electric power path to the conventional powertrain, which helps to improve fuel economy by engine right-sizing, load leveling, and re-generative braking. A right-sized engine has better fuel efficiency, lower heat loss, and reduced peak power. The reduced power is compensated by an electric machine (or machines) during surged power demand. Compared with internal combustion engines, electric machines provide torque more quickly, especially at low speed. Therefore, launching performance can be improved, even with reduced overall rated power. Load leveling can also be achieved by the electrical path. With the electric drive assistance, the engine can be controlled to operate in an optimal region regardless of the road load. Finally, when the vehicle is decelerating, the electric machine can capture part of the vehicle's kinetic energy and recharge the battery.

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Due to their significant potential in reducing fuel consumption and emissions, HEVs are now actively developed by many car companies. In late 1997, Toyota Motor Corp. released the first-generation Prius, which features the Toyota hybrid system (THS). It came to the US market in MY2000. Four years later, the MY2004 Prius model was released. It featured an improved powertrain, the THS-II, with significantly improved vehicle performance, interior volume, and fuel economy. The new Prius is the most successful hybrid to date: Toyota has sold more than 350,000 Prius models in North America; Monthly sales averaged about 15,000 units in 2006. With this success, a scaledup and more sophisticated version of THS (a.k.a. Toyota Synergy Drive) was developed, and two hybrid SUVs (Highlander and Lexus RX 400H) were offered in 2006. The Toyota hybrid family is getting bigger with the introductions of the Camry Hybrid and the Lexus GS 450h in 2007. Honda, another pioneer in the field of commercial HEV, introduced its first commercial hybrid vehicle, Insight, to the US in 1999. It earned the highest combined EPA rating for fuel economy in a passenger car at 60/66 mpg (city/highway). In 2002, Honda released the Civic Hybrid as a competitor to the Prius and remains at the forefront. American automotive manufacturers started to realize the impact of the hybrid electric vehicles entering the 21st century and initiated catch-up efforts in recent years. Ford, the first US automaker offering hybrids, released the Ford Escape hybrid SUV in late 2004. A more upscale version, the Mercury Mariner, was introduced at the same time. Gerneral Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW launched a joint effort to explore hybrid technologies and compete in the market with a new Hybrid Development Center

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formed in 2006. Many new HEV models are expected to be released in the US in the near future (as shown in Table 1.1).

Table 1.1: Hybrid electric vehicles on the horizon (Fueleconomy.gov, 2007). Manufacturer Chevrolet Chevrolet Chevrolet GMC Mazda Chevrolet Ford GMC Mercury Model Equinox Malibu Tahoe Yukon Hybrid Tribute Hybrid Silverado Hybrid Fusion Sierra Hybrid Milan Hybrid Type SUV Mid-size Car SUV SUV SUV Full-size Pickup Mid-size Car Full-size Pickup Mid-size Car Estimated Date Available 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008

As the HEV development getting more and more attentions, various designs and technologies emerge and apply to the production vehicles. These designs can be categorized by their degrees of hybridization or their powertrain configurations. Based on the degree of hybridization, the HEVs can be divided into several categories: mild hybrid, power-assist hybrid, full hybrid, and plug-in hybrid. A mild hybrid is a conventional vehicle with an oversized starter motor, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restarted quickly. A power-assist hybrid uses the engine for primary power, with a torque-boosting electric motor connected to a largely conventional powertrain. The electric motor, typically

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mounted between the engine and transmission, operates not only when the engine is off, but also when the driver "steps on the gas" and requires extra power. A full hybrid, sometimes called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the battery, or a combination of both. A large, high-capacity battery pack is needed for the battery-only operation. A plug-in hybrid is a full hybrid, able to run in electric-only mode, with even larger batteries and the ability to recharge from the electric power station. They are also called gas-optional, or griddable hybrids. Their main benefit is that they can be gasoline-independent for daily commuting, but also have the extended range of a hybrid for long trips. Based on the powertrain system design, the HEV models can be divided into three categories: parallel hybrid, series hybrid, and power-split hybrid. The definition and characteristics of each type are described in the following sections. My work mainly focuses on the power-split type of HEVs.

1.2.1. Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle The parallel configuration, as shown in Figure 1.4, includes two separate power paths. In addition to a conventional engine transmission powertrain, a power assist device, often a motor/generator (MG) supplied by a battery or ultra-capacitor, is built in as the alternative propulsion system. When the secondary power source (i.e., the MG) is relatively small (mild hybrids or power-assist hybrid), it can not fully drive the vehicle without engine power. When the secondary power source is relatively large (full hybrids), the engine and MG can drive the vehicle individually or simultaneously.

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Inverter

Battery

Engine

Transmission

Motor

Power Flow
Vehicle Vehicle

Electrical Linkage

Figure 1.4: Parallel HEV configuration. The role of the MG is to assist the engine to operate efficiently and to capture regenerative braking energy. The BSFC fuel map of the Saturn 1.9L (95kW) DOHC SI engine is shown in Figure 1.5 as an example representing a typical engine. The most efficient spot is located at the middle of its operating range (between the two doted lines). Outside of this region, the fuel efficiency decreases. For the area pointed by arrow A, the MG is driven to supply the power demand to avoid using the engine inefficiently. On the other end as pointed by arrow B, the power that the engine can produce approaches its limit and becomes inefficient. The MG turns on to supplement the engine power.

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Fuel consumption map (g/kw/h) 200 180 160 140 Te (Nm)
30 0
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120 100 80 60

B
0 25

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300 400 35 0 40 4 0 350 00 35 500 450 400 400 450 550 650 500 0 45 5 20 600 700 750 55000 500 600 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 Ne (rpm)

Figure 1.5: BSFC fuel map for a Saturn 1.9L (95 kW) DOHC SI engine Depending on the connection between the transmission, MG, and the engine, the parallel configuration may have many different formats (Rahman et al., 2000). However, the power-flow analysis remains the same and relatively straightforward. For a mild parallel hybrid, the power management control becomes much simpler, as the two power sources do not work simultaneously. While for a full parallel hybrid, the control algorithm can be a lot more elaborative (Nedungadi and Dardalis, 1999; Lin et al., 2003; Delprat et al., 2004; Sciarretta et al., 2004). Honda's hybrid Civic with the integrated motor assist system (IMA) (Ogawa et al., 2003) clearly belongs to the parallel type. Because the MG cannot be used to both charge the battery and assist the engine simultaneously, the power assistance has to be constrained to avoid draining the battery. This situation mostly occurs during city driving, where frequent stop-and-go demands

A

9

30 0
350

force the engine to produce power in its low-efficiency range. This is why most parallel HEVs do not have impressive city fuel efficiency if compared to other types of hybrid vehicle with a similar size.

1.2.2. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle The series configuration only has the motor (sometimes motors) driving the wheels--the engine is not directly connected to the wheels (as shown in Figure 1.6). The motor power is supplied by either a power-storage device (such as a battery), or a generator (transforming the mechanical power from engine into electric power), or the combination of both with a split ratio determined by the power management controller. Since the engine operation is independent of the vehicle speed and road condition, it is controlled to operate near its optimal condition most of the time. In addition, because the mechanical power transition path is eliminated, the energy loss due to the torque converter and the transmission is avoided.

Generator

Inverter

Battery

Engine

Motor

Power Flow
Vehicle Vehicle

Electrical Linkage

Figure 1.6: Series HEV configuration. The control strategy of the series configuration is relatively simple (Waltermann, 1996; Jalil et al., 1997; Michelena et al., 2001), because the power-flow analysis for 10

series HEV is straightforward and the engine is controlled separately from the vehicle operation. Many prototype hybrid buses and trucks use the series hybrid configuration (Brahma et al., 2000). A disadvantage of the series configuration, however, is that the efficiency of the electric machine(s) reduces the overall performance. The power flow through an electrical path has a lower efficiency than that through a mechanical path because the additional magnetic electric field transformation and the heat lost of the electric accessories. Since the driving power of a series hybrid vehicle flows through the electrical path all the time, it becomes relatively inefficient when the vehicle reaches the driving range that could be more efficiently driven by engine directly. This is true especially when the vehicle is running on the highway.

1.2.3. Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle This research focuses on the power-split type of HEVs. The powertrain configuration of the power-split hybrid system, also known as parallel/series hybrid or combined hybrid, is interesting because with proper control strategy it can be designed to take advantage of both parallel and series types and avoid their drawbacks. As shown in Figure 1.7, the power-split configuration combines the parallel and series powertrains. On one hand, similar to the parallel configuration, it has the separate engine power-flow path and battery-motor power-flow path. Instead of transmission, it implements a power-split planetary gear set, to link the engine with the final drive. On the other hand, similar to the series configuration, it has the engine-generator power-flow path. The engine drives a generator to either charge the battery or supply power to the motor. With such a configuration, a power-split hybrid can operate like a series hybrid 11

when driving at low speed to avoid the drawback of parallel hybrid and can switch to the parallel hybrid when running at high speed to avoid the drawback of series hybrid. Because it has more energy flow paths and operating modes compared to other configurations, the power management control becomes more complicated.

Generator

Inverter

Battery

Engine

Planetary Gear

Motor

Power Flow Vehicle Vehicle Electrical Linkage

Figure 1.7: Power-split HEV configuration. Development of the power-split mechanisms can be tracked back to the late 1960s (Livezey, 1969) and early 1970s (Gelb et al., 1971). The earliest of such devices appeared in the hydrostatic power-split transmission commonly used on lawn tractors. Considered as an electric continuously variable transmission (ECVT), operating at different speeds without actuating a clutch, it became useful for power transfer. As reviewed by Miller and Everett (2003), the flywheel-transmission-internal-combustion hybrid vehicle (Beachley and Frank, 1980; Besel and Hou, 1980; Cornell et al., 1980) and planetary gear train with CVT mechanism (Wohl et al., 1993) were designed and studied as early powersplit devices. But this power-split concept was not applied to passenger vehicles until the late 1990s. The first production power-split passenger vehicle, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS), was introduced by Abe, (1997), Sasaki (1998), and Hermance (1999). This

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system, often known as a single-mode system, is the major framework of the vastly popular Prius and the rest of the hybrid fleet from Toyota. New technologies of the hybrid electronic control unit (Nagasaka et al., 1998), variable-voltage power circuit including a DC/DC boost converter (Muta et al., 2004; Kawahashi, 2004), front-and-rearmotor drive (Kimura et al., 2005), motor speed-reduction device (Kamichi et al., 2006), and modification of the planetary gear train (Hermance and Abe, 2006) kept this system as a front-runner on the market. Another major design for power-split HEV on the market is the Allison Hybrid System (Holmes et al., 2003), also known as AHSII. This system, invented by GM as a dual-mode power-split system, is applied to several mid-sized SUV and pickup trucks and has become a major competitor in recent years. Figure 1.8 shows a powertrain design example of the single-mode power-split hybrid system. A single planetary gear set serves as a power-split device that transfers the engine power to the vehicle through two paths: a mechanical path and an electrical path. The engine power through the mechanical path goes directly to the final drive of the vehicle. The rest of the engine power goes to the motor/generator 1 (MG1), where it is transformed into electricity. This power is then either stored in the battery or send to the motor/generator 2 (MG2) by a controlled power bus. The design of the planetary gear allows the engine speed to run at a continuously variable ratio in respect of the vehicle speed, which benefits the fuel efficiency. This CVT type of operation is controlled by maneuvering the electric motors, an operation often referred as ECVT (Miller 2005). Obviously, the engine power going through the electrical path is less efficient than the mechanical path from an instantaneous viewpoint. However, the energy stored in the

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battery may be used more efficiently later, which helps to improve the overall vehicle fuel economy. In this powertrain design, the carrier gear connected to the engine is the input node. The ring gear connected to the final drive is the output node. One of the electric machines is also connected to the output node, with the other MG connected to the third node of the planetary gear set. This setup is called an input-split system because the engine torque is split into two paths from the input node (More detailed definition of different split modes is given in Chapter 4). The split power then goes to the output node without any further split ratio. And since this is the only operating mode, it is called a single-mode system.

Planetary Gear Set

Power Bus Battery

Engine

MG 1

MG 2

Mechanical Linkage Vehicle Electrical Linkage

Figure 1.8: Powertrain configuration of a single-mode hybrid system. Figure 1.9 shows a powertrain design example of the dual-mode power-split hybrid system. Compared to the single-mode system, this dual-mode system has one more planetary gear set and two clutches. Similar to the single-mode system, the engine power flows into the gear trains and is split into a mechanical power path and an electric power path. The dual-mode is named as such because it consists of two different powersplit modes and can be switched from one to another by coordinately locking and 14

unlocking the two clutches. The powertrain shown in Figure 1.9 can be operated as an input-split system, which is the same as introduced in the last section, and can be operated as an compound-split system, in which after the engine torque input is split, these torques go through two different paths to the final drive with another split ratio (This concept will be explained in details in the Chapter 4). Although the system appears more complex, such dual-split modes prove to provide higher flexibility (Conlon, 2005; Grewe et al., 2007).

Inverter Clutch 1

Battery

MG 2 Clutch 2

MG 1

Engine

Vehicle

Planetary Gear 2

Planetary Gear 1

Mechanical Linkage Electrical Linkage

Figure 1.9: Powertrain configuration of a dual-mode hybrid system. The two examples described above are just two possible configurations of the numerous power-split powertrain designs. Besides these two, there are many different power-split configurations under development. Detailed review is addressed in the next section.

1.3. Literature Review

1.3.1. Modeling of Power-Split HEVs

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Having a proper modeling and simulation tool is very important in the early design and analysis stage. This is even more critical for the power-split HEVs since there could be numerous possible configurations/components and various control strategies. One of the most popular HEV simulation model packages is the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2007). ADVISOR is an empirical, map-based simulation tool that combines the vehicle dynamics model with the efficiency map of each component to predict system performance. It calculates the powertrain operation backward from a given driving schedule, based on a quasi-static assumption that inverts the physical causality (Guzzella and Amstutz, 1999; Wipke et al., 1999; Markel et al., 2002; Wang, 2002). Another popular HEV simulation model is the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) which was developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) (Rousseau et al., 2001a). Research with hardware testing on power-split HEVs has been under development in ANL for years (Duoba et al., 2000; Duoba et al., 2001; Ng et al., 2001), The experiment data is applied to validate and improve the simulation model (Rousseau et al., 2001b). In contrast to ADVISOR, PSAT is a forward-looking model that calculates the powertrain states, based on driver input. It is suitable for investigating the dynamic response of individual components as well as designing the control strategy for hybrid vehicles, although forward models are computationally more intensive than backward models. Besides these two highly refined software, Rizzoni et al. (1999) used high-level, unified power flow concepts, defined a general structure for each sub-system, and parameterized the structure's characteristics to allow for design study; Lin et al. (2000) developed a vehicle simulation model in Matlab/Simulink, which was applied to a power

16

management optimization study. But these models have not been applied to power-split configurations. As attention was drawn towards power-split HEVs, studies on their powertrain systems modeling became popular. Zhang et al. (2001) derived a dynamic model to evaluate the transmission performance. This model focused on a particular dual-mode powertrain design. Rizoulis et al. (2001) presented a mathematical model of a vehicle with a power-split device based on the steady-state performance. A split-type hybrid vehicle model was developed by Zhang et al. (2004) to apply sequential quadratic programming to achieve the optimal control algorithm. Miller (2005) summarized the models of current power-split HEV architectures. A comparative analysis of the system efficiency among different power-split configurations was done by Conlon (2006), who used a mathematical model to present the gear split ratios regardless of the powertrain designs. Despite these early efforts, to our knowledge a complete power-split HEV forward-looking dynamic model that is suitable for both configuration design and control-algorithm development does not yet exist in the literature. Such simulation model needs to be complex enough to accurately describe the powertrain dynamics, and yet simple enough to be used in iterative optimizations. It is also important for this model to be flexible enough to cover a wide variety of different designs.

1.3.2. Configuration Design of Power-Split HEVs The configurations of power-split HEVs can be varied with different engine-togear connections, motor-to-gear connections, or clutch-to-gear connections. Besides serving the purpose of power transferring, these different gear train linkages allow different kinematic relations between the power source components and provide different 17

powertrain operating options. As mentioned before, the Toyota Hybrid System is a single-mode power-split design (Koide et al., 1999). It has been modified with different gear linkage to achieve motor torque multiplication for heavier vehicles in recent years (Hermance and Abe, 2006). Schmidt (1996a) from GM introduced the concept of multimodes on a power-split system based on the conventional transmission design knowledge. Although the planetary gear with electric machines provides CVT type of operation, having multi-gear modes on different driving scenario can be beneficial for overall transmission efficiency and relax the constraints on power source components. Investigation on this direction was continued and numerous designs with gear train variations can be found in the literature (Schmidt, 1996b; 1996c; Holmes and Schmidt, 2002; Schmidt, et al., 2006, etc.) Some of these designs consist of two planetary gears (Holmes et al. 2003; Ai and Mohr, 2005) and some of these designs consist of three or more planetary gears (Schmidt, 1999; Raghavan et al., 2007). For a single planetary gear, there are three gear nodes that can be used to link to other gears or power sources. More planetary gears provide more flexibility in gear gains and gear shifting options. With this large number of configuration possibilities, there can be thousands of design options for a power-split vehicle. This provides great freedom for the hybrid vehicle design, but the tasks of exploring various designs and finding the optimal solution with the best control execution become challenging. To design a power-split hybrid vehicle, the engineer typically first selects one, among many different configurations, to focus on. The design parameters (e.g., motor size, battery size, planetary gear sizes, etc.) and control strategy then need to be determined. Obviously, to achieve near-optimal overall performance, an iterative process

18

needs to be executed. However, the problem for this approach is that even with the optimal performance, how one can claim the selected configuration offers the best solution among all possible configurations. To achieve this goal, the exact same process from selecting another configuration and iteratively approaching the optimal performance has to be repeated. Moreover, only when the optimal performance is gained for each configuration, then the comparison between them is a sensible exercise. With the numerous options for the configuration design variations, such an iterative process only can be achieved with a systematic method with many underlying techniques, which including automated model generation and simulation with optimal design and optimal control techniques. Computer-aided method for gear design is not a new concept (Achtenova and Svoboda, 2003). In fact, many systematic ways to search among different designs have been proposed for transmission designs (Freudenstein and Yang, 1972; Kaharaman et al., 2004). The studies on power-flow analysis of planetary gear trains were mostly performed as a part of efficiency formulations. Pennestri and Freudenstein (1993a; 1993b) and Hsieh and Tsai (1998) showed good examples of such investigations. Pennestri and Freudenstein (1993a) used the same fundamental circuits proposed earlier (Freudenstein and Yang, 1972) for a complete static force analysis. Hsieh and Tsai (1998) applied a similar formulation in conjunction with their earlier kinematics study (1996) to determine the most efficient kinematic configurations. The work by Castillo (2002) further generalized the efficiency formulations of gear trains formed by single- or double-planet arrangements. In this dissertation, a computer-aided method to study the power-flow on planetary gear trains in a power-split HEV is introduced. It opens a door

19

for investigating massive number of designs and approaches the optimal solution systematically.

1.3.3. Control of power-split HEVs In the control of power-split hybrid vehicles, two-level hierarchical control architecture is commonly used (Figure 1.10). On the lower level, every sub-system (e.g., engine, motor, battery, etc.) is equipped with sensors, actuators, and a control system to regulate its behavior. On the higher level, a supervisory control system represents a vehicle-level controller that coordinates the sub-systems to satisfy certain performance targets (e.g., fuel economy). It must determine the desired output to be generated by the sub-systems and send these output signals to the corresponding sub-systems.

Driver

Supervisory Powertrain Control

Engine Control ECU

Motor Control ECU

Battery Control ECU

Clutch Control ECU

Brake Control ECU

Engine

Power-Split Device Motors Battery

Vehicle

Figure 1.10: Hierarchical control architecture of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle. In general, the supervisory control strategies of hybrid vehicles in the existing literature can be classified into three categories. The first type employs heuristic control

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techniques such as control rules/fuzzy logic for control algorithm development. This approach is based on the concept of load-leveling, which attempts to operate the internal combustion engine in an efficient region and uses the reversible energy storage device (e.g., battery or ultracapacitor) as a load-leveling device to provide the rest of the power demand (Jalil et al., 1997; Rahman et al., 2000; Jeon et al., 2002). A popular strategy is to adopt a rule-based structure in the control logic by defining a set of thresholds through an optimization process (Piccolo et al., 2001; Wipke et al., 2001). There has been much other research on the implementation of load-leveling and charge-sustaining strategy by using a fuzzy logic technique (Farrall et al., 1993; Lee and Sul, 1998; Schouten et al., 2002). The second approach is based on instantaneous optimization methods that decide at any moment the proper split between the energy sources by minimizing a cost function. Equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is a typical example of the instantaneous optimization. In this strategy, electric power is translated into an equivalent (steady-state) fuel rate to calculate the overall fuel cost (Kim et al., 1999; Paganelli et al., 2000; Paganelli and Ercole et al., 2001; Paganelli and Tateno et al., 2001; Won et al., 2005). A recently developed method, the adaptive-ECMS technique (Pisu et al., 2004; Musardo et al., 2005), periodically refreshes the converting factor according to the current road load to sustain the battery SOC. The third approach is based on optimization methods that optimize a cost function over a time horizon. A popular method used is dynamic programming (DP), which calculates the optimal control signals over a given driving schedule (Lin et al., 2001; Lin, Peng, Grizzle, Liu et al., 2003; Lin, Peng, Grizzle, and Kang, 2003; Zhang et al., 2004). Another method, developed by Delprat et al. (2001; 2004), applied optimal control theory by (Lewis and Syrmos, 1995)

21

to achieve global optimal strategy. The solutions from all these approaches are optimized with respect to a specific driving cycle and might be neither optimal nor chargesustaining under other cycles. To solve this problem, Lin et al. (2004) proposed a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) method, in which the vehicle model is deterministic but the driver power demand is stochastic. This reflects the fact that the optimization is not for any specified driving cycle but rather for general driving conditions with known power demand probabilities. This approach is also computationally extensive and to avoid such a problem, Kim and Peng (2006) suggested a parameterizable, near-optimal controller inspired by SDP, and Tate (2006) quantized the state space and solved a shortest path SDP by using a combination of linear programming and barycentric interpolation. Despite these efforts of the supervisory control development, the development of the control strategies for the power-split hybrid vehicle systems is still worth of investigating. Firstly, the power-split system offers more control inputs and more flexible operating options than other vehicle systems. As a result, the optimal control development that involves with intensive computation (e.g., DP) faces more challenges that never occur before. Secondly, the powertrain configuration of a power-split HEV compromises extra kinematic constraints between different power sources which imply modifications in the existing control strategies. Thirdly, to our knowledge there has not been any comparison between different optimal control strategies on the power-split HEV systems. This dissertation will address our work on these areas.

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1.4. Contributions This dissertation focuses on the process of power-split HEV modeling, design, and control optimization. A dynamic power-split hybrid vehicle simulation model is derived with a universal format created to present different powertrain configurations. Using this model, a combined configuration design and control optimization strategy is proposed for power-split HEVs. As shown in Figure 1.11, the iteration between the configuration design evaluation and automated model generation will provide an optimal solution for a power-split HEV with its benchmark performance. Different control optimization strategies are then applied to approach this benchmark. The main contributions of the dissertation include the following:
� A forward-looking dynamic model is created for power-split hybrid electric

powertrain systems. The supervisory powertrain controller, driver model, and subsystem models (e.g., engine, power-split device, motor/generator, battery, and vehicle dynamics) are integrated to perform a closed-loop simulation. This simulation tool can be used to analyze the interaction between sub-systems and evaluate vehicle performance using measures such as fuel economy and drivability.
� A math-based universal model format is created that presents different designs of

power-split powertrains. This universal model format presents the powertrain dynamics regardless of the various connections of engine-to-gear, motor-to-gear, and clutch-to-gear. With such a model format, a technique to quickly and automatically generate dynamic models for power-split hybrid powertrains is developed. This technique automates the process from powertrain design to dynamic model, and makes it possible to explore and evaluate many different configurations systematically.

23

� With the help of the automatically-generated dynamic power-split models, possible

configuration designs can be systematically explored and screened. A design screening process is developed based on various design requirements including feasibility, drivability, power source component sizing, transmission efficiency, and possible mode shifting.
� A optimal control design procedure based on deterministic dynamic programming

(DDP) is adopted in the power-split HEV fuel efficiency optimization study. DDP is employed to find the optimal operation of the power-split system and achieve the benchmarks for different powertrain configurations. The results are then applied to compare and evaluate different designs. This approach provides design engineers with fast, quantitative analysis of the power-split hybrid powertrain systems.
� With the DDP suggesting the potential performance benchmark of the selected

powertrain configuration, two implementable control strategies are developed to apply to the power-split hybrid vehicles. The first design is based on the stochastic dynamic programming (SDP), which solves the power management problem based on a stochastically generated driver model. The second control design is developed from the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), an instantaneous optimization concept. The configuration of the power-split system enforces more constraints to both of the control strategies. Both algorithms provide state-feedback controllers that can be used for real-time implementation.

24

Automatically Generated Dynamic Model Model Performance

Dynamic Programming Performance Evaluation Desgin Candidate SDP or ECMS Control Optimization

Figure 1.11: Combined configuration design and control optimization procedure.

1.5. Outline of the Dissertation The organization of this dissertation is as follows. After the introduction in Chapter 1, the development of an integrated model for power-split hybrid electric vehicles is presented in Chapter 2. This model is further generalized to a universal format in Chapter 3. Based on this format, a method of automatically generating power-split powertrain models is proposed. This method allows us to systematically explore possible design candidates and approach optimal design and control solutions. Chapter 4 presents the configuration screening process and Chapter 5 presents the design and control optimization process. The optimal control in Chapter 5 benchmarks the potential performance in the optimal design. Two implementable control strategies by SDP and ECMS are developed in Chapter 6, which can be applied in real-time and approach the performance benchmark. Finally, a summary of this dissertation and suggested future work are presented in Chapter 7.

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CHAPTER 2 DYNAMIC MODELING OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID VEHICLES

In this chapter, a forward-looking simulation model is developed for power-split hybrid vehicles. This simulation model is applied to construct two virtual vehicles. The first one is the Toyota Prius. Most of the component parameters came from the ADVISOR software (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2005) and the published vehicle specifications (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2007). In year 2004, The THS is redesigned as THS-II, which provides significant vehicle performance improvement. Muta et al. (2004) compared the THS with the THS-II. The enhancement from the first generation to the second generation includes bigger component sizing, higher efficiency, and increased generator operating range. It appears that the power-split gear set remains as a single-mode system--i.e., the basic dynamic equations governing the vehicle remain unchanged. Due to the fact that much more information was available about THS (Duoba et al., 2000, 2001; Ng et al., 2001; Rousseau et al., 2001), compared with THS-II (Kawahashi 2004), a dynamic model based on THS is developed. The second vehicle is a super-sized High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) with a dual-mode power-split Allison Hybrid System. The HMMWV is heavier than a stock version with additional armor and weapon on-board (Filipi et al., 2006). A suite of vehicle models developed in the Automotive Research Center (ARC) at the University of Michigan provided a foundation for this modeling

26

work. Various subsystem models have been integrated in Simulink as a common simulation environment to produce a tool for conventional vehicle simulation dubbed Vehicle Engine SIMulation - VESIM (Assanis et al., 2000). This platform has subsequently been expanded and utilized for investigating a number of research issues related to hybrid truck propulsion (Lin et al., 2001; Wu et al., 2004, Filipi et al., 2004, 2006; Liu et al., 2007). This model is updated with the dual-mode power-split powertrain and served as the platform to apply the combined design optimization and control optimization described in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5.

2.1. Overall Architecture The simulation model is implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment, as shown in Figure 2.1. A virtual driver is designed to follow a prescribed driving cycle, i.e., a speed trajectory specified over time. This modeled driver compares the reference vehicle speed and the actual vehicle speed to make driving/braking decisions. The decision commands are sent to the power management controller, which determines proper actions of power powertrain sub-systems. The rest of the modules represent the mechanical and electrical dynamics of the power-split HEV powertrain, which includes the power flows between the engine, motor/generators, and battery. The sub-system blocks shown in Figure 2.1 are described in the following section.

27

Figure 2.1: The overall architecture of a power-split HEV in Matlab/Simulink.

2.2. Sub-Systems/Components Modeling

2.2.1. Planetary Gear Set The planetary gear, which mechanically connects the power from all three power sources, is the key device in a power-split HEV powertrain. It consists of three rotating axles, or nodes: the sun gear, the carrier gear, and the ring gear (as shown in Figure 2.2). These nodes are linked by a few small pinion gears. As a result of the mechanical connection through gear teeth meshing, the rotational speeds of the ring gear r, sun gear s, and the carrier gear c satisfy the following relationship at all times

s S + r R = c (R + S )

(2.1)

where R, and S are the radii (or number of teeth) of the ring gear and the sun gear, respectively. Because of this speed constraint, a planetary gear only has two degrees of freedom, despite the fact that it has three nodes.

28

Ring Gear

Carrier Gear Pinion Gear Sun Gear

Figure 2.2: Composition of the planetary gear set. Figure 2.3 shows the free body diagram of the planetary gear set. The mass of the pinion gears is assumed to be small and the pinion gears simply serve as an ideal force transfer mechanism. The dynamics of the gear nodes are then obtained as

r I r = F R - Tr

(2.2) (2.3)

c I c = Tc - F R - F S s I s = F S - Ts

(2.4)

where Tr, Ts, and Tc are the torques on the ring gear shaft, the sun gear shaft, and the carrier shaft, respectively, and Ir, Is, and Ic are the corresponding inertia. F represents the internal force between the pinion gears and other gears. If we further ignore the inertia of ring, carrier, and sun gears, from (2.2), (2.3), and (2.4), the torque signals on each node satisfy Ts + Tr + Tc = 0 And the power conservation of the whole gear system leads to Ts s + Tr r + Tc c = 0 Base on Equations (2.1), (2.5), and (2.6), we have (2.6) (2.5)

29

R Tc R+S S Tc Ts = - R+S Tr = -

(2.7)

Equation (2.7) indicates that the torque input to the carrier gear is split by a fixed ratio to the ring gear and the sun gear. This ratio is determined by the design of the planetary gear set.

T, +

Figure 2.3: Force analysis on a planetary gear set. A planetary gear can be used not only as a power-split device as explained above, but also as a power-ratio device if any of the three gear nodes is locked to the ground. If the ring gear node is locked, i.e., the ring gear speed is zero, then equation (2.1) now becomes

s S = c ( R + S )

(2.8)

Since there is no power flow through the ring gear, the power conservation between carrier gear and sun gear leads to

s Tc = c Ts
The planetary gear is nothing but a power gear ratio. 30

(2.9)

The lever diagram representation is applied in this study for the gear linkage analysis. It was first introduced by Benford and Leising (1981) to present the speed constraint and simplify the torque analysis for the planetary gear set. As shown in Figure 2.4, the three gear nodes can be presented with vector length presenting the rotational speeds. Equation (2.1) then guarantees that the three gear nodes form a straight line. Note that positive speed is defined as clockwise when facing the gear sets, and as pointing to the right in the lever diagram.

r , Tr

c , Tc s , Ts

r , Tr

c , Tc

s , Ts
Figure 2.4: Planetary gear set and lever diagram.

2.2.2. Engine The engine model is a look-up table that provides brake torque as a function of instantaneous engine speed and normalized fuel-injection rate. The engine transient response due to fuel injection and spark-timing control is ignored, and the working condition assumes constant average level. A BSFC map is implemented to calculate the fuel consumption. Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6 show the Toyota Hybrid System engine torque look-up table and the BSFC map, respectively.

31

120 100 Engine torque (Nm) 80 60 40 20 0 500 400 300 200 Engine speed (rad/s) 100 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Nomalized engine fuel

Figure 2.5: THS engine look-up table.
Fuel consumption map (g/w/h)
0. 3 .29 0
8 0.2 7 0.2
0.26

100 90

0.25

0.245 0.24
4 0.2

0.2 45
0.245

0. 24 5

80 0.26 70 Te (Nm) 60 50 40 30 20
5 0.2

5 0.2

4 0.2

5 23 0.
4 .2 0.245 0 .25 0
0.26

0. 245 0.25

5 0.2

0.27
0.28

29 0. 3 0. 0..31 0.33 0 32 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.45
0.85

10 1000

6 0. 2 7 0.2 0.28 0.29 0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 5 0.337 0.34 0. 0.36 0. 39 0.38 0.4 0.45 0.65 0.85

0.27

0.26

5 0.2

0.26
0.27 .28 0 0.29 0.331 0. .32 . 33 0 0 0. 357 0. 3 4 0.3 .36 0.39 0 0.38 0.4 0.45

6 0.2 27 8 0. .2 0 0.29 0.3

0. 24 5

0.34 6 0.3 38 0.0.4

0.65

0. 65
0.85

1500

2000

2500 Ne (rpm)

3000

3500

4000

Figure 2.6: THS engine BSFC map.

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2.2.3. Motor/Generator The two permanent magnet AC motor/generators (MG), one at 15 KW (MG1) and the other at 35 KW (MG2) for THS vehicle, are both modeled using the motor equations published in the ADVISOR software. Simple electrical dynamics are used because they are much faster than the mechanical dynamics. The MG is assumed to be controlled to reach its demand torque with a small time delay. This delay is approximated by a first-order lag function. The power supplied to the MG is represented by

PMG = TMGMGMG k

(2.10)

where TMG and MG are the torque and rotational speed, respectively. If the velocity and torque of the MG are of the same signs (i.e., both positive or both negative), the power is positive, which means the motor is consuming energy. Similarly, if the signs of velocity and torque are different (i.e., one positive, the other negative), the MG is generating energy. k is the sign of the power flow direction. When the MG is consuming energy, k=1 and the power flows in from the battery to the MG. When the MG is generating energy, k=1 and the power flows out from the MG to the battery. The efficiency MG accounts for the energy lost from both the MG and other accessories, including the power converter and controller, which are not modeled. The efficiency is a function of motor torque and motor speed shown in Figure 2.7 and Figure 2.8 (ADVISOR 2002).

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30 20 torque (Nm) 10 0 -10 0.8 -20 -30 -40 -50 0.84 0.86 0.84 0.84 0.8
86 0.
0.82

0.72 0.64

40
2 0.8

0.8 4

0.8 0.8 2

50

0.84

0.84

0.8 4

0.8 2 0.8

0.72 0.64

-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 speed (rad/s)

Figure 2.7: Efficiency map of the MG 1 (15 kW).

0.8 4 0.8

8 0.

0.56 0.64
0.72

0.86 0.84 0.8

0.0.82 8

0. 0.8 8 2
2 0.7

8 0.

0.8 0.82 0.84

4 0.8 2 0.8

0.86

0.56

0.64

0.84 400 500

0.8

200

300

300 0.72 200 0.82 0.8 0.86 100 0.9
9 0.

0.72
0.82

0. 56

0.8 0.72 2 0.8

torque (Nm)

0

0.9

0.9 0.86 0.820.8 0.8 0.82 0.86 0.9

0.9

0.82 8 0. 0.86

-100 0.9 0.86
0.82

0.8 2

0.64

0.72
0.82

0.8 0.86 0.9

0.8

0.8
0.86

86 0.

0.8 0.82 0.86

0.86 0.82

0.9 0.8 0.80.82 0.86 0.9 0.9

0.9
0.8

0.86
0.8 2

-200

0.8 0.72

0.8
0.72

0.82

0.72

-300 -600

-400

-200

0.7 0.64 2

56 0. 0 speed (rad/s)

200

400

600

Figure 2.8: Efficiency map of the MG 2 (35 kW). 34

2.2.4. Power Storage Device (Battery) The power requirements from the two MGs are supplied by the power storage device (battery) as
Pbatt = (TMG1 MG1 MG1k c1k + TMG 2 MG 2 MG 2 k c 2 k )

(2.11)

As mentioned before, k is the sign of the power flow direction as explained in section 2.2.3. When the battery is discharged, k=-1 and the power flows away from the battery. When the battery is charged, k=1 and the power flows to the battery. c represents the efficiency of the power converter. The battery model is an equivalent circuit with an internal resistance R, as shown in Figure 2.9. The open circuit voltage Voc and R are both state-dependent parameters. They are lumped representations of complex chemical process, and are known to be functions of the battery's state of charge (SOC) and temperature. The battery temperature is assumed to be constant (20 �C) and the temperature effect is ignored. The dependency on SOC is modeled as lookup tables (Figure 2.10).

Rbatt Ibatt Voc Pbatt

Figure 2.9: Internal R battery model.

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0.04 internal R (ohm) 0.035 0.03 0.025 340 Voc (V) 320 300 280

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 State of charge

0.8

1

Figure 2.10: THS battery lookup tables (R and Voc against SOC). The SOC represents the electrical status of the battery and depends on the equivalent battery capacity Qmax and the current flowing through Ibatt:

SOC = -

I batt Qmax

(2.12)

where Qmax is a function of temperature, and hence is approximated as a constant in this model. Battery current Ibatt is a function of Voc, R and it relates to the battery power output according to the relationship
2 Pbatt = V oc I batt - I batt R batt

(2.13)

From the quadratic equation (2.13), we have
2 I batt = V oc - 4 ( Pbatt R batt )

(2.14)

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2.2.5. Driver A driver model is designed to follow the driving cycle, which is a speed trajectory specified over time. The driver is modeled as a PI feedback controller, as shown in Figure 2.11. The speed error between the actual vehicle speed and the desired speed is calculated and normalized before it is sent to the PI controller. In order to avoid saturation of the integral part, an anti-windup scheme is applied. Like a human driver, the driver model generates gas pedal command or braking pedal command (normalized between -1 and 1). The pedal command is then sent to the supervisory power management controller.

Figure 2.11: Driver Simulink model.

2.3. The Powertrain Modeling A power-split HEV is different from other hybrid powertrains in terms of how to connect the power sources and the drive axle with the power-split device. Modeling of two specific drive trains, a single-mode and a dual-mode system, for the two virtual vehicles (THS and HMMWV) are introduced in this section. These models will be further simplified with a unified matrix format introduced in the next chapter.

37

2.3.1. Model of a Single-Mode Powertrain (Toyota Hybrid System) The THS adopts a single-mode system as introduced in section 1.2.3. Figure 2.12 shows the free body diagram of the THS powertrain, with the rotational degrees of freedom shown in (conceptually) translational motions. The planetary gear system is represented by one lever diagram, which shows the internal torques between the gears defined before.

T,+ FR Te Ie Tc F R +F S Tc FS
carrier

TMG2 Tr
ring

Tr

Tf
K M

IMG2

Ts
sun

Ts

TMG1 I MG1

Figure 2.12: Free body diagram of the THS powertrain. Outside of the planetary gear, the three power sources each exerts a torque to their respective gears to affect the vehicle's motion. Positive engine torque and motor torque (to the right) result in vehicle acceleration. For the MG1 rotational dynamics at the sun gear node, the governing equation is

MG1 I MG1 = Ts + TMG1

(2.15)

where TMG1, MG1, and IMG1 are the MG torque, speed, and inertia, respectively. From Equations (2.4) and (2.15), we have

MG1 ( I MG1 + I s ) = F S + TMG1

(2.16)

Similarly, at the carrier gear node, the engine speed is governed by the equation

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e I e = Te - Tc

(2.17)

where Te, e, and Ie are the engine torque, speed, and inertia, respectively. From Equations (2.3) and (2.17), we have

e ( I e + I c ) = Te - F R - F S

(2.18)

The equation for the ring gear includes the dynamics of the vehicle because the final wheel shaft is connected to the ring gear node. Since the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is the dominating factor for fuel consumption, dynamics in other degrees of freedom are ignored. Furthermore, to simplify the equation we assume there is neither tire slip nor efficiency loss in the driveline. However, these assumptions might result in slightly higher fuel economy predictions. The governing equation for the ring gear shaft then becomes
2 Rtire 1 r ( 2 m + I MG 2 ) = (Tr + TMG 2 ) - K K

r 2 3 T f + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 ACd ( K ) Rtire

(2.19)

where 0.5ACd presents the aerodynamic drag resistance, fr is the rolling resistance coefficient, IMG2 is the inertia of the motor, K is the final drive ratio, m is the vehicle mass, Rtire is the tire radius, Tf is the brake torque applied by the friction brake system, and TMG2 is the motor torque. From Equations (2.2) and (2.19), we have
r (
2 Rtire 1 r 2 3 (2.20) m + I MG 2 + I r ) = (TMG 2 + F R ) - 2 T f + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 AC d ( K ) Rtire K K

Equations (2.16), (2.18), and (2.20) represent the governing equations of the rotational motions of the MG1, engine, and MG2 (proportional to the vehicle), respectively. These equations can be combined with Equation (2.1) in a matrix form as

39

Ie + Ic 0 0 R+S TMG 2 - 1 K

0 R m + I MG 2 + I r K 0 R Te
2 tire 2

0 0 I MG1 + I s S

R + S e - R r = MG1 -S F 0

r 2 3 T fb + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 ACd ( K ) Rtire TMG1 0

(2.21)

Equation (2.21) relates the torques and forces with the angular accelerations of the three power sources. Differential equations can then be obtained by inverting the matrix. Although there are four equations, one of them shows the speed relations and one tracks the internal force F which can be eliminated. Therefore, there are only two state variables for the mechanical path. On the electrical path, the dynamics can be represented by the SOC of the battery. Based on Equations (2.11), (2.12), and (2.14), we have
Voc - Voc 2 - 4(TMG1MG1MG1kc1k + TMG 2MG 2MG 2kc 2k ) Rbatt 2Rbatt Qmax

SOC = -

(2.22)

which, together with Equation (2.21), provides a three-state model of the THS powertrain.

2.3.2. Model of a Dual-Mode Power-Split Powertrain (Allison Hybrid System) In the modeling perspective, the difference of a dual-mode power-split system involves additional planetary gears and clutches compared to a single-mode system. The linkages between planetary gear sets provide different kinematic relationship between the

40

gear nodes. The gear shifting with clutches change these linkages into different modes. As an example, a dual-mode system with two planetary gears and two clutches (Holmes et al., 2003) are modeled in this section. Two different sets of dynamic equations are derived to represent the model in the two modes. Gear shifting between the two modes is modeled as switching between the two models. Figure 2.13 shows the free body diagram of this dual-mode powertrain system mechanical path. The planetary gear (PG) sets are represented by two levers in the middle of the diagram. R1, S1 and R2, S2 represent the ring gear and sun gear radii of the PG1 and PG2, respectively. F1 and F2 represent the internal forces between the pinion gears and the sun gears or ring gears. There are two clutches (CL) in the system, shifting between the two modes is achieved by switching the engagement of the two clutches. The dynamic models of these two modes are derived separately in the following.

T,+ IMG2 Ie TMG1 I MG1 F1 S 1 PG1 CL2 F2 R2 PG2 CL1 Ground TMG2 Te F1 R 1 F1 R1+F1 S1 F2 S 2

F2 R2+F2 S2

Tf
K M

Figure 2.13: Free body diagram of the dual-mode powertrain. In the input-split mode, CL1 is engaged and CL2 is released. The ring gear of PG2 is thus grounded. The speed constraint on PG2 then becomes

c 2 ( R2 + S 2 ) = r 2 R2

(2.23)

41

where c2 and r2 are the rotational speeds of the carrier gear and the ring gear of PG2. PG1 satisfies the speed constraint

c1 ( R1 + S1 ) = r1 R1 + s1 S1

(2.24)

where c1, r1, and s1 are the rotational speeds of the carrier gear, ring gear, and sun gear of PG1. By applying the Euler's Law for the ring gear node of PG1, carrier gear node of PG1, sun gear node of PG1, and carrier gear of PG2, respectively, we have

MG 2 ( I MG 2 + I r1 + I s 2 ) = TMG 2 + F1 R1 + F2 S2 e ( I e + I c1 ) = Te - F1 ( R1 + S1 ) MG1 ( I MG1 + I s1 ) = TMG1 + F1 R1
2 Rtire 1 out ( 2 m + Ic2 ) = -(F2 R2 + F2S2 ) - Tfb - mgfr Rtire - 0.5 ACd ( out )2 Rtire3 K K K

(2.25)

(2.26)

(2.27)

(2.28)

Here, similar to (2.19), Equation (2.28) includes only the longitudinal dynamics. Combine (2.23)-(2.28) into a matrix form, we have

42

I e + I c1 0 0 0 R1 + S1 0 - 1 K

0 R m + Ic 2 K 0 0 0 R2 + S 2 Te
2 tire 2

0 0 I MG1 + I s1 0 - S1 0

0 0 0 I MG 2 + I r1 + I s 2 - R1 - S2

R1 + S1 0 - S1 - R1 0 0

e R2 + S2 out 0 MG1 = - S2 MG 2 F 0 1 F 0 2 0

(2.29)

T fb + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 ACd ( c 2 ) 2 Rtire3 K TMG1 TMG 2 0 0

where the first four rows are from Equations (2.25) to (2.28) and the last two rows represent the speed constraints of the two planetary gears. The dynamics of the engine e, electric machines MG1 and MG2, and output carrier gear speed out (which is proportional to the vehicle speed wh by a factor of final drive ratio K) can be governed by
I + I e e c1 out 0 MG1 = 0 MG 2 0 F 1 R1 + S1 F2 0 - 1 K 0
2 Rtire m + Ic2 K2 0 0 0 R2 + S 2

0 0 I MG1 + I s1 0 - S1 0

0 0 0 I MG 2 + I r1 + I s 2 - R1 - S2

R1 + S1 0 - S1 - R1 0 0

R2 + S2 0 - S2 0 0 0

-1

(2.30)

T fb + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 ACd ( c 2 ) 2 Rtire3 K TMG1 TMG 2 0 0 Te

43

In the compound-split mode, the clutch CL2 is locked and CL1 is released. The ring gear of PG2 rotates at the same speed as the sun gear of PG1. Follow a similar procedure the governing equations can be derived and the matrix equation is
I + I e e c1 out 0 MG1 = 0 MG 2 0 F 1 R1 + S1 F2 0 - 1 K 0
2 Rtire m + Ic 2 K2 0 0 0 R2 + S 2

0 0 I MG1 + I s1 + I r 2 0 - S1 - R2

0 0 0 I MG 2 + I r1 + I s 2 - R1 - S2

R1 + S1 0 - S1 - R1 0 0

R2 + S2 - R2 - S2 0 0 0

-1

(2.31)

T fb + mgf r Rtire + 0.5 ACd ( c 2 ) 2 Rtire3 K TMG1 TMG 2 0 0 Te

Equation (2.30) and (2.31) present the powertrain system dynamics of the two operating modes. These two operating modes can be switched between one to another by a controlled synchronizing clutch shifting (Holmes et al., 2003). The synchronizing or "stepless" clutch shifting operation is possible by controlling the speeds of the electric machines. This mode shifting process is demonstrated in Figure 2.14. The planetary gear connections are displayed on the left hand side and the speeds of the other components are highlighted on the right hand side. At low speeds (Case a-c in Figure 2.14), the powertrain is in one operating mode, CL1 is locked to the ground. The speed of MG2 is thus proportional to the output vehicle speed. By controlling the speed of MG1, the engine speed remains close to the optimal point (assume constant in this demonstration). As the vehicle speed goes up and reaches a threshold, the sun gear of PG1 along with MG1 slows down to zero speed (Case c-d in Figure 2.14). At this point, CL2 can be 44

engaged and CL1 can be released simultaneously. This leads to the second operating speed mode. Since the mechanical linkage of the gear sets are changed, the new speed constraints allow MG1 to operate at the same speed range but with the vehicle speed at a higher level (Case d-f in Figure 2.14). The engine speed is controlled to maintain a constant speed through out this process despite the fact the vehicle speed increases from zero to a much higher speed.

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a Speeds of Other Nodes Speeds of Other Nodes Speeds of Other Nodes

b

c

d

e

f

Vehicle Speed

Current Speed Vehicle Engine MG 1 MG 2

Figure 2.14: The synchronized mode shifting of the dual-mode power-split powertrain (The engine speed is assumed constant). 46

Based on this mode-shifting process, if we ignore the dynamics during gear shifts, up-shift and down-shift are treated as nothing but switching between the two models. As shown in Figure 2.15, when the controller commands to switch modes, simulation outputs are switched from one model block to the other. Although the mechanical path of this dual-mode powertrain is very different from the single-mode system, the battery dynamics stay the same. As a result, Equation (2.22) still applies to this dual-mode powertrain system. This fact simplifies the design searches introduced in the later chapters.

Figure 2.15: Simulink model for a dual-mode power-split powertrain.

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2.4. Validation of the Powertrain Dynamic Model The experimental results found in the literature are used to validate the vehicle systems constructed in this chapter. To achieve this validation, the same control logic from the real vehicle needs to be considered and implemented in the simulation. Hermance (1999) presented the basic idea of the rule-based control logic of the THS system. The next paragraphs describe a rule-based control strategy following these references to approximate the control law used in the THS. As shown in Figure 2.16, the driving forces can be provided by MG2 and/or the engine. When the power demand is low, the vehicle speed is low, and battery SOC is sufficiently high, MG2 works alone to drive the vehicle. When the power demand is high, or the battery SOC is too low, the engine will start to supply the power. MG1 cooperates with MG2 to help start the engine. Within the engine operating range, the engine power is split through the planetary gear system. Part of the power goes to the vehicle driving axle through the ring gear. The rest drives the MG1 to charge the battery and/or directly supply power to MG2. As the power demand keeps increasing, the engine might be forced to operate outside of its efficient range. In those cases, MG2 can provide assistant power so that the engine efficiency remains high (assuming adequate battery SOC).

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Pemax Driving Force Battery -> Motor Pev Generator -> Motor Direct Drive from Engine Vehicle Speed

Battery -> Motor

Figure 2.16: Power distribution of the Toyota Hybrid System (Hermance, 1999). When the vehicle decelerates, the regenerative control system commands the MG2 to operate as a generator to recharge the battery. The friction brake is used whenever the requested braking power exceeds the capability of the MG2 or the battery. The engine and other components in the THS are set to free-rolling. Table 2.1 summarizes the ideas discussed above.

Table 2.1: Rule-based THS powertrain control strategy. Conditions Pd
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x