Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

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Description: Topics discussed include energy demand and world oil production forecast, CO2 emissions increase and reduction scenarios by 2050, a roadmap for GHG reduction in the transportation sector, development of fuel cell vehicles, electric drive motors, and an all new dimension in driving.

 
Author: Takashi Moriya (Fellow) | Visits: 2352 | Page Views: 2371
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Battery & Fuel Cell Subcategory: fuel cell 
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Short URL: http://www.wesrch.com/energy/pdfTR1YL61S1URGF
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Contents:
Energy Demand &
World Oil Production : Forecast
Energy Demand in Each Sector

World Oil Production by Source
100

20000

80

Other Sectors

10000

Transportation

Crude Oil
– additional
EOR
Crude Oil
– fields yet
to be found

Oil Production (mb/d)

Energy Demand (Mtoe)

Non-conventional oil

Non-energy Use

15000

60

Crude Oil
– fields yet to
be developed

40

Industry
5000

20
Crude Oil – Currently producing fields

Power Generation
0

0

1990

2000

2010

Year

2020

2030

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

Year
Source: WEO 2008 Reference Scenario

CO2 Emissions Increase and
2
Reduction Scenarios by 2050
70
Other

50

Transport

40

Industry

30
1/2

CO2 Emission (Gt CO2)

60

Power
generation

20
10
0
2005

Baseline Baseline
2030
2050

Act Map
2050

Blue Map
2050 Source: ETP2008

Road Map for GHG Reduction
in the Transportation Sector
20
18

Hydrogen FCVs

16

Electrification

Emissions (Gt CO2)

14

Biofuels

12
Conventional &
Hybrid Vehicle
Efficiency

10
8
6
12.5Gt

4

Reduction

2

CO2 Emissions

0
2005

Base
Line
2030

Base
Line
2050

ACT
Map
2050

BLUE
Map
2050
Source: ETP2008

Direction for GHG Reduction
100

Fuel Cell Tech.
Weight Reduction
Vehicle Aerodynamics
Road Load Reduction
Auxiliary Load
Reduction

50

EV Tech.
Battery
Tech.

Hybrid Tech.

Motor
Tech.
Regenerating
Tech.

30

Variable
Cylinder Tech.
CVT

Variable
Valve Tech.

Eng Tech.

Diesel
Gasoline

Mult. AT

Variable
Cylinder Tech.

1990

New Combustion
Tech.

2000

2010

2020

Powerplant Characteristic for Environment

Battery EV

0

FCV
H2 Station Expansion

(Good)

Depend on Quick charge
or Battery replacement

Full Function
&
Zero Emission

Plug-In

CO2 Emission

CO2 reduction rate (%)

Road Load Reduction

Hybrid Vehicle

Gasoline Powered Vehicle

0

100

500
Driving Range

1000+
(km)

Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles
1980s

1995

Fundamental
research

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

FCX- V1,V2 V3 V4
FCX Clarity

FCV

(Fuel Cell Vehicle)
Leasing

Motor
Motor
technologies
technologies

EV-PLUS (Electric vehicle)
CIVIC-GX (Natural gas vehicle)

Pressurized tank
Pressurized tank
technologies
technologies
Energy management
Energy management
technologies
technologies

Hybrid vehicle
Hybrid vehicle
INSIGHT

06 CIVIC Hybrid

INSIGHT

FCV Powerplant Components

Coaxial Electric Drive V Flow Fuel Cell Stack Lithium-Ion
Motor and Gearbox (Center tunnel layout)
Battery

High-Pressure
Hydrogen Tank

Honda FC Stack
Weight output density (kW/kg)

Compact, Lightweight, Higher-output Design
V Flow FC Stack

2006

Air H2

1.5

2003

1

Coolant
0.5

1999

0

0.5

1

1.5

Volume output density (kW/L)

2

2.5

Material
Evolution

PEM
Operating
temp.

Structural
Evolution

Fluorine

Aromatic

Aromatic

electrolytic membrane
0 - 80 ℃

electrolytic membrane
-20 - 95 ℃

electrolytic membrane
-30 - 95 ℃

Stack
Bolt-fastened stack
configuration Machined carbon separators
Cell structure

Wave flow
channel

with separate seals

Panel box stack
Stamped metal separators
with unitized seals

1-box stack
V Flow cell structure
Wave flow channel separators

Electric drive motor
A more compact motor compartment for a compact, short-nose design

FCX Clarity

Lightweight/High torque and output

Integrated drive system structure
reduced height

▲240mm

▲162mm
Coaxial layout
reduced length

Continuous discharge/volt/unit weight
[kW/V/kg]

2005 FCX

FCX Clarity

D
D
O
O
O
O
G
G

2005 FCX

EV / HEV / FCV

Maximum torque/unit weight
[Nm/kg]

Front

An All-New Dimension in Driving
Feel Driving performance
A powerful motor for acceleration that feels limitless
Going beyond the excellent off-the-line acceleration of the 2005 FCX,
the FCX Clarity also adds improved acceleration in the mid- and high-speed ranges
120

Motor output characteristics

Acceleration characteristics

FCX Clarity :100kW

500

80

2005
FCX
300

:80kW
60

272Nm

256Nm
200

40

100

20

0
0

2500

5000

7500

Motor Speed [rpm]

10000

FCX Clarity

100

Output [kW]

Torque [Nm]

400

3.0L Class

Passing acceleration

600

Compact hybrid
electric vehicle

2.0~2.4L Class
1.5~1.8L Class

2005
FCX

FCV
2003
FCX

0
12500

Off-the-line acceleration

D
D
O
O
O
O
G
G

FCV Commercialization: Remaining Issues

Challenges, Work in Progress
e.g.
cost,
durability,
range extension,
codes & standards,
market acceptance,
infrastructure deployment

Road to FCV Commercialization
Demonstration stage

Preparation for
commercialization stage

•Cost reduction

Mass production
stage

Cost, durability,
and reliability
equal to gasolinefueled vehicles
Infrastructure

ss
rogre
ical P
nolog
Tech
First FCV
Delivery

•Improved durability and reliability
•Extended practical range

・Vehicle performance
・Low temperature operation

Aiming at Mass-production by progressive efforts

Study on Hydrogen Supply
Study on Hydrogen Supply
Solar Energy

H

Hydrogen

2

Manufacturing hydrogen
Creating electricity
from sunlight

Running a vehicle on
electricity from fuel cells

Electrolysis of water

Electrical
energy

Return to nature

Electricity generation
Water
Electrolyzer Compressor

High-pressure
Tanks

Water

Nozzle
Grid

Summary

• We urgently need to develop the technology to harness new
sources of energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
• Honda believes fuel cell vehicles are the ultimate solution to
the requirements and needs of society in the future. Our
long-standing research and development work on fuel cell
vehicles will continue towards a sustainable future.
• While offering the exceptional environmental performance
only a fuel cell-powered vehicle can, FCX Clarity does not
forget the pleasure of driving. Zero CO2 emissions and an
exciting drive is what FCX Clarity is all about.
• On our way toward a fully sustainable hydrogen-based
society, the building of an appropriate infrastructure and
achieving widespread social acceptance are essential in the
popularization of fuel cell electric vehicles.

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