PET & CT What is next in hybrid imaging?

PET & CT What is next in hybrid imaging?

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Description: The first (?) hybrid system, 1968. Dual headed rotating uncollimated systems. Development towards the PET/CT.

PET/CT, PET & CT simultaneously, same planes. PET/CT, PET & CT simultaneously, same planes. PET/CT = Oncology Fields for SPECT/CT With high end CT: Cardiology one stop shop.

With standard CT: Oncology. In general: localization of laesions. Advantages of PET/MR.

PMT problem, Avalanche photo diode (APD) instead of PMT.

 
Author: A.M.J. Paans (Fellow) | Visits: 2391 | Page Views: 2404
Domain:  Medicine Category: Imaging 
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Contents:
PET & CT What is next in hybrid imaging? Nieuwe ontwikkelingen bij beeldvormende technieken A.M.J. Paans VZI bijeenkomst, 29 mei, 2008
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

The first (?) hybrid system, 1968
Nuclear Chicago Pho Gamma with Positron Attachment Planar imaging, both single photon and coincidence imaging Hardware image reconstruction by projection
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Dual headed rotating uncollimated systems 1974 - ? G. Muehllehner (Searle)

1977 � 1982 A.M.J. Paans (RUG/AZG)

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Development towards the PET/CT 1978 Ortec: ECAT II 1984 BGO Block detector 1986 CTI: multi ring ECAT 931 1991 Partial ring tomograph PRT-1 1991 PET/CT concept was born
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET/CT, PET & CT simultaneously, same planes

D.W. Townsend
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

1994 CTI: Advanced Rotating Tomograph ECAT ART 1995 PET/CT project NIH funded 1998 First PET/CT images 2001 PET/CT commercial available 2007 "Only" PET/CT is bought
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET/CT, the serial connection, why the ART

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One system in software

D.W. Townsend

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

D.W. Townsend
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Biograph T6

Malignant Melanoma PET/CT = Oncology
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Cardiology FDG + 82Rb, 13NH3

D.W. Townsend

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

AVL Amsterdam
Gemini TF Whole body 150 kg

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET and PET/CT situation in the Netherlands 1991: 1 clinical PET system 1997: 3 clinical PET systems At the moment: ~35 Clinical PET & PET/CT ~ 1 PET or PET/CT per 500.000 inhabitants A PET/CT is THE image device to have in a hospital
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

SPECT/CT Around 1995 a prototype SPECT/CT was configured at the UCSF Physics Research Laboratory from a GE 600 XR/T SPECT system with a GE 9800 Quick CT scanner. The first commercial product was the GE Hawkeye SPECT/CT in 1999.
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

SPETCT/CT A first prototype GE- Hawkeye 1999

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

In 2007 SPECT/CT is available as GE Philips Siemens Hawkeye serie Precedence serie/Brightview Symbia T serie

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Fields for SPECT/CT With high end CT: Cardiology one stop shop

With standard CT: Oncology

In general: localization of laesions
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Advantages of PET/MR
Clinic -Better soft tissue contrast -Combination of function, morphology, spectroscopy Research -Fusion of function and morphology -Fusion of two functional modalities -Simultaneous measurements
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET/MRI Already > 10 years in development Problems PET Magnetic field Limited space Gradient fields RF fields Attenuation correction
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MRI Homogeneity Limited space Gradient interaction RF interaction

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PMT problem Light guide from detector to PMT on distance
there will be loss in intensity, so use LSO

Avalanche photo diode (APD) instead of PMT
are they sufficiently fast, reliable and constant APD's are very compact light detectors and can work in high magnetic fields (tested up to 9.4 T)

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

"PET-MRI: 10 Years History"
� Simon Cherry & Paul Marsden
� PET detector ring in a clinical 1.5 T scanner � Readout by light fiber & PMTs
56 mm ring diameter 72 2x2x25 mm LSO x-tals

Courtesy B.J. Pichler
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) vs. Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMT)
PMT

APD

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & * Works in Progress. The information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and is notMolecular commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured.

Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

7T Animal PET/MRI, B.J. Pichler

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Simultaneously acquired PET & MRI

Increased FDG uptake in the harderian glands
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B.J. Pichler, T�bingen
Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET-MR Head Insert

New integrated Detector Block

Prototype PET Head-Insert

RF shield

gantry

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phantom

head coil
* This information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and not The Netherlands Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen,commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured.

PET MRI Phantom Images Simultaneous acquisition High resolution artefact free PET image High resolution artefact free MR image
2.0mm 1.5mm 2.5mm

3.0mm 1.0mm 3.5mm

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MR

PET

MR-PET

* This information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and not commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured.

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

BrainPET in Magnetom Trio

� Overview
� with BrainPET � Removable PET Head Insert � Set up and removal time for the Insert aimed to be 45 min

.

� The ability to run at no compromise w/o the insert � Integrated MRI and PET console for acquisition control

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & * Works in Progress. The information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and is notMolecular commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured.

Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

BrainPET in Magnetom Trio

1 Examination, 3 Datasets

Simultaneously acquired PET (TA 20 min) and T1-weighted 3D FLASH (CP head coil, TA 6 min).

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

* Works in Progress. The information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and is not commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured. Courtesy of Townsend and Nahmias University of Tennessee, USA and Schlemmer, Pichler, Claussen University of Tuebingen, Germany

PET/MRI is achieved by an PET insert in an existing MRI. Due to this construction PET/MRI is limited, at the moment, to brain studies For whole body studies there are two options: - MRI with larger bore (simultaneous acquisitions) - Serial approach as with the PET/CT

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Commercial Approach: Clinical MR/PET Options

MR Scanner

PET Scanner

MR Scanner

PET Scanner MR Scanner PET Scanner

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Developments as far as communicated GE : no comment Philips: no comment / PET/MRI in serial mode Siemens: MRI with 70 cm bore, can it be used ?? Serial PET/MRI

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

For the most recent developments: IEEE � Nuclear Science Symposium Medical Imaging Conference October 28, 2007, Hawaii October 21, 2008, Dresden

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Philips Gemini TF Hoffman phantom

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Glioma proliferation. T1 weighted MR, FLT PET and fused data set. (WI Carpenter, Cambridge, UK)
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

PET/MRI problems PMT does not function in magnetic field
how to get the light output out of the magnetic field

PMT is voluminous, especially in radial direction
takes yo much space in a ring structure

Photo diodes are to slow, avalanche photo diodes (APD) are the detector of choice. After many years they still should more stable and uniform in a reliable production.
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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

BrainPET

� �

FOV in combined mode 19.25 cm axial, 24 cm radial Special table top and trolley part of PET Head Insert option

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Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & * Works in Progress. The information about this product is preliminary. The product is under development and is notMolecular commercially available in the U.S., and its future availability cannot be ensured.

Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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