Medical Bionics: Engineering Interfaces to the Human Body

Medical Bionics: Engineering Interfaces to the Human Body

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Description: Implantable heart pacemakers and defibrillators and Neural prostheses market are examined. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic neurological pain is the largest neurostimulator market in the US. Cochlear implant (Bionic Ear), Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement disorders, Parkinsonís Disease & Essential tremor, Functional Electrical Stimulation for gait & standing in paraplegia are also covered.

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Author: Professor Rob Shepherd (Fellow) | Visits: 3661 | Page Views: 4071
Domain:  Medicine Category: Implants 
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Short URL: http://www.wesrch.com/medical/pdfME1T5L000IWAH
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Contents:
Medical Bionics: Engineering interfaces to the human body
Professor Rob Shepherd Director, Bionic Ear Institute Professor of Medical Bionics, The University of Melbourne

Implantable heart I l t bl h t pacemakers k & defibrillators
� US $13 billion pa industry � 15% growth pa

Neural prostheses N l th
� US $1.8 billion pa industry � 10-15% growth pa
2005 US Sales of neural prostheses

Trimark Publications, 2004 Panescu, 2008

Commercial devices

Spinal cord stimulation for chronic neurological pain
� Largest neurostimulator market in the US g (150,000 implants from 1982-2002) � FDA approved Spinal cord stimulation devices: � Medtronics � Boston Scientific � St Jude Medical � 53% of SCS sales in the US � Mechanism of action not known (masking?) � Device cost ~US$12 000-25 000 ~US$12,000-25,000

Commercial devices

Cochlear implant ( Bionic Ear )
The University of Melbourne Multi channel Multi-channel Cochlear Implant 1978 Telectronics Australia Pacemaker 1975

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Melbourne

Commercial devices

Bionic Ear

Commercial devices

Three major Cochlear Implant companies
� Most sophisticated neural prosthesis on the market ~170,000 i l t 170 000 implants � FDA approved Cochlear Implants: pp p � Cochlear (70%) � MedEl (14%) � Advanced Bionics (13%) � Device cost ~US$25,000 � Same implant for adults & children (from 6 months to > 90 years old)

Commercial devices

Deep Brain Stimulation Movement disorders � Parkinson's Disease & Essential tremor

Emory University

Medtronic Inc.

Commercial devices

Deep Brain Stimulation
� Medtronics Inc. manufactures the only FDA approved DBS system � FDA approval for Essential tremor in 1997; PD in 2002 � Does not cure PD � assists in the control of any movement disorder � Physiological mechanism unknown � Device cost ~ US$12,000-30,000 US$12,000 30,000 � 11,000 devices implanted in US in 2008 with a growth rate of >20%

Commercial devices

Functional Electrical Stimulation for gait & standing in paraplegia
Distributed muscle & peripheral nerve stimulation

Courtesy Hunter Peckham, FES Lab, Case Western Reserve

Current research

FES for gait & standing in paraplegia

Courtesy Hunter Peckham, FES Lab, Case Western Reserve

Current research

Brain / Machine Interface for computer control p
Percutaneous connector Leadwire 10 x 10 Silicon Electrode array

Motor cortex

Image courtesy of John Donohuge, Brown University/Cyberkinetics

Current research

Brain Machine Interface for prosthetic limb control

Courtesy of University of Pittsburgh's Motor Lab

Current research

Medical Bionics Research at the BEI

� Bionic Eye � Hi-Fi Bionic Ears � Intelligent CNS Implants � Drug delivery via nanomedicine

Research at the BEI

Hi-Fi Bionic Ear Neural protection & regeneration

Shepherd et al. (2008)

Research at the BEI

Hi-Fi Bionic Ear Neural protection & regeneration

Deaf

Shepherd et al. (2008)

Research at the BEI

Hi-Fi Bionic Ear Neural protection & regeneration

NT Deaf + Neurotrophins

Shepherd et al. (2008)

Research at the BEI

Improved music and pitch perception

ACE

Original

Star

Courtesy of David Grayden

Research at the BEI

Epileptic Seizure Detection

Performance specification: > 90% sensitivity < 1 false detection per hour < 5s latency

Research at the BEI

Epileptic Seizure Detection
No therapeutic stimulation

Successful therapeutic stimulation

Image courtesy of Tony Burkitt & Mark Cook

Research at the BEI

Key Collaborations
Research Clinical

Commercial

Research at the BEI

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