Nanotechnology in Medical Research: Where, When and Why?

Nanotechnology in Medical Research: Where, When and Why?

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Description: The massive potential for medical microchips, robotic techniques could revolutionize heart surgery. Nanosurgery: A generic term including molecular repair and cell surgery. Nanodentistry: The maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, biotechnology including tissue engineering and dental nanorobotics.

Bio-nanomaterial science: Materials which are in direct contact with biological fluids or living tissue, with minimal adverse reaction or rejection by the body.

 
Author: Marc Baumann (Fellow) | Visits: 2557 | Page Views: 2927
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Contents:
Nanotechnology in medical research: where, when and why? h h d h ?
Marc Baumann Protein Chemistry/Proteomics Unit and the Neuroscience Program Biomedicum Helsinki E-Mail: E M il marc.baumann@helsinki.fi b @h l i ki fi
(http://research.med.helsinki.fi/corefacilities/proteinchem)

MAJOR BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES IN NANOSCALE

What are the major biological macromolecules in NANOSCALE?

MAJOR BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES IN NANOSCALE

What are the major biological macromolecules in NANOSCALE?

Philosophical question with no answer!! Every biomolecule is in nanoscale and all they are equally important...

Nanomedicine, Nanomedicine what is all about?

Nanomedicine, Nanomedicine what is all about?

Our dream!

1999
(J. Lertola)

Medical microchips' massive potential

2mm

Robotic techniques could revolutionize heart surgery q g y

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine may be defined as the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Nanotechnology Thorough, inexpensive control of the structure of matter based on molecule-by-molecule control of products and byproducts; the products and processes of molecular manufacturing, including molec lar machiner incl ding molecular machinery.

Nanomedicine cont...
Nanosurgery A generic t N i term including molecular repair and cell surgery. i l di l l i d ll Nanodentistry The maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, nanomaterials biotechnology including tissue engineering and dental nanorobotics. nanorobotics Bio-nanomaterial science Materials which are in direct contact with biological fluids or living tissue, with minimal adverse reaction or rejection by the body. Nanomachine An artificial molecular machine of the sort made by molecular manufacturing. g (Nano-: A prefix meaning one billionth (1/1,000,000,000).)

For what do you think medicine could use nanotechnology?

What do you think medicine could use nanotechnology for?
Biomaterials Bone Teeth Cells Cartilage Immune system I t Viral and bacterial attack Drug delivery Diagnostics

Bionanomaterials
1) orthopedic prostheses such as total knee and hip joint replacements, spinal implants, bone fixators, and tendon and ligament prostheses; 2) cardiovascular implants such as artificial heart valves, vascular grafts and stents, pacemakers, and implantable defibrillators; 3) neural implants (e.g., cochlear implants) and cerebrospinal fluid drainage systems (e.g., hydrocephalus shunts); 4) plastic and reconstructive implants such as breast augmentation or reconstruction, maxillofacial reconstruction, artificial larynx, penile implants, and injectable collagen for soft tissue augmentation; 5) dental implants to replace teeth/root systems and bony tissue in the oral cavity; 6) ophthalmic systems including contact and intraocular lenses; hth l i t i l di t t di t l l 7) catheters and bladder stimulators; 8) drug-dispensing implants such as insulin pumps; 9) general surgical systems such as sutures, staples, adhesives, and blood substitutes.

Stent and Catheter Developments
� Biodegradeable, Drug-Eluting Stents ( g , g g (DES) ) � BioMEMS sensor stents and catheters

Stentenna � transmits blood flow and pressure data
Courtesy U. of Michigan

BioMEMS Catheter Technology

Bioactive materials
1) Chemically inert materials (e.g. Titanium, tantalum, polyethylene, alumina) >> Are not inert but get a fiborous tissue capsule around them 2) Bioresorbable materials (e.g. tricalcium p p ) ( g phosphate, polylacti-polyclycolic acid ,p y p y y copolymers) >> Used as drug delivery applications, biodegradable implants (sutures, stents, screws etc.) Here we will see the nanofibres come up!! (Star Inc. Electrospun nanofibers; eSpin Tech. Nanofibers of organic and bi l i l polymers)(150nm fibers). S i T h N fib f i d biological l )(150 fib ) 3) Bioactive materials (e.g. Glass, ceramics, glass-ceramics, plasma-sprayed Hydroxyapatide, Hydroxyapatide oxidized silicon, sodium, calcium, phosphorus etc.) silicon sodium calcium etc )

Bioactive materials cont...
The goals is to alter the surface material by changing the atomic structure and chemistry e.g. Ceramic is not very bioactive but when treated with Ion beam surface modification it become bioactive. Cells align themselves to nano-scale features on a titanium surface, and the size and g , shape of features can control the behavior of different cells. For instance, fibroblasts (responsible for new collagen fiber deposition during wound healing) migrate along the nano-sized grooves, while macrophages (white blood cells responsible for digesting foreign matter) can become trapped within these features. Biomaterial scientists can exploit such topographical controls to provide new ways t guide regeneration and healing. to id ti d h li

Orthopedic biomaterials
Artificial joints consist of a plastic cup made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, placed in the joint socket, and a metal (titanium or cobalt chromium alloy) or ceramic (aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide) ball affixed to a metal stem. Billion of tiny polymer particles are shed into the surrounding synovial fluid and tissues during the life time of the AJ (8-12 Years).

>> Inflammatory cells lack receptors for ultrahigh density polyethylene or fragments ultrahigh-density thereof, yet are able to recognize these utterly foreign objects as such and attack them.

Left: intervertebral disc, 12 months after treatment with autologous disc chondrocytes Right: untreated intervertebral disc g Regenerated discs mimic native disc morphology; autologous treatment promotes tissue regeneration.

Fibroblast cell on a nanostructured surface

Note: that in many nanomedical applications, tissue integration with the p pp y y , implant is desirable!! For other applications such as hemodynamic systems, a nonadhesive inert nanodevice surface is desirable!!

Nanotechnology in medical research: where, when and why? h h d h ?
The European way:
European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine
Nanotechnology for Health
Vision Paper and Basis for a Strategic Research Agenda for NanoMedicine September 2005

Nanomedicine NanotechnologyforHealth

November 2006

EUROPEAN COMISSION

European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine
Nanotechnology for Health
Vision Paper and Basis for a Strategic Research Agenda for NanoMedicine September 2005

European Technology Platform on NanoMedicine
Nanotechnology for Health
Vision Paper and Basis for a Strategic Research Agenda for NanoMedicine September 2005

Nanomedical developments range from nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics imaging diagnostics, and therapy to integrated medical nanosystems, which may perform complex repair actions at the cellular level inside the body in the future.

EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION

The field of `Nanomedicine' is the science and technology of di t h l f diagnosing, t ti i treating and d preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health using molecular tools and health, molecular knowledge of the human body. It was perceived as embracing five main sub-disciplines that in many ways are overlapping and underpinned by the following common technical issues. Analytical Tools � Nanoimaging � Nanomaterials and Nanodevices � N l Therapeutics and Drug Delivery Systems Novel Th ti dD D li S t � Clinical, Regulatory and Toxicological Issues

Nanomedicine NanotechnologyforHealth

November 2006

EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION

EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION

DNA chips hi protein-chips glyco-chips cell chips cell-chips

lab l b on chip hi pill on chip nanofluidics

nanotubes t b nanowires nanoparticles nanostructured surfaces

electrochemical detection l t h i l d t ti optical detection mechanical detection electrical detection - by scanning probes - by mass spectrometry - by electronmicroscopy

biosensors for single and multiple analytes

nanodevices and nanoelectronics

What do we have
� Fast � Simple � Portable � Storage � Painless Minimise consultation time (
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