Are Video Game Players Better at Laparoscopic Surgical Tasks?

Are Video Game Players Better at Laparoscopic Surgical Tasks?

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Description: Video game sales in the US approached $10 billion and $20 billion worldwide in 2002, 94% of adolescents play video games for an average of 9 hours per week, Factors influencing the long Factors long--term effects of video games term games, Early Studies evaluated psycho motor skills, Hypotheses, Demographics.

 
Author: James C. Rosser Jr. MD, Paul J. Lynch MD, Laury A. Haskamp BS, Asaf Yalif MD, Douglas A. Gentile PhD (Fellow) | Visits: 1593 | Page Views: 3241
Domain:  Medicine Category: Biotech/Pharma Subcategory: Clinical Trials 
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Contents:
Are Video Game Players Better at Laparoscopic Surgical Tasks?
James C. Rosser Jr. MD1, Paul J. Lynch MD1,2 Laury A. Haskamp BS3, Asaf Yalif MD1, Douglas A. Gentile PhD4,5, Liza Giammaria MD, MPH1
1. Beth Israel Medical Center, 2. NYU Medical Center, 3. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4. Iowa State University, 5. National Institute on Media and the Family

Statistics
Video game sales in the US approached $10 billion and $20 billion worldwide in 20021

1. Howard, USA TODAY, 12/23/2002

Statistics
94% of adolescents play video games for an average of 9 hours per week (13 hours for boys)1 Average age of a video gamer is now 29 years old2
1. Gentile DA, Lynch PJ, Linder JR, Walsh DA; Journal of Adolescence, 2003 2. Interactive Digital Software Association; URL www.idsa.com

Negative Effects
of Video Games from Previous Studies

Video gaming has been correlated with:
Decreased Academic Performance1 Decreased Prosocial Behavior2 Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, Behavior2

1. Gentile DA, Lynch PJ, Linder JR, Walsh DA; Journal of Adolescence, 2004 2. Gentile DA, Anderson; Media Violence and Children, 2003

Negative Effects
of Video Games from Previous Studies

Video gaming has been correlated with:
Smoking1 Obesity2 Physiological Arousal (SBP, DBP, HR, Epi, NE, Testosterone)3,4
1. Kasper et. Al., 1999 2. Subrahmanyam K, et. Al.; Future child, 2000 3. Lynch, PJ; Psychosomatic Medicine, 1994 4. Lynch, PJ; Psychosomatic Medicine, 1998

Factors influencing the longterm effects of video games
Amount: amount of time spent playing video
games

Content: e.g. violence, educational, sexual
content, etc. Form: formal features that define video game play, including aspects of video game design Mechanics: game controllers are similar to controls in other domains � i.e. playing driving simulators with a steering wheel should transfer better than playing with a mouse

Positive Effects
of Video Games from Previous Studies Early Studies evaluated psychomotor skills vs. survey review of Video Game activity Video gamers showed:
superior eye-hand coordination1 faster reaction times2 superior spatial visualization skills3 increased capacity for visual attention and spatial distribution4
1. Griffith, Voloschin, Gibb, Bailey; Perceptual and Motor Skills,1983 2. Yuji H; Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1996 3. Dorval, Pepin; Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1986 4. Green, Bavelier; Nature, 2003

Hypotheses
Surgeons with past video game experience will perform better in a standardized laparoscopic skill and suturing program Video games are correlated with better performance in a standardized laparoscopic skill and suturing program

Methods and Materials
33 Surgeons (21 residents and 12 attending physicians) participated in this study at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City from May-August of 2003 The study design centered around The Rosser "Top Gun" laparoscopic skills and suturing program

Demographics
Attending/Resident Years of Experience in Surgery (Attending/Resident) Number of Laparoscopic cases (average: Attending / Resident) Specialty (General surgery / Urology / OB-Gyn) Dominant hand (raw: left / right) * Male/Female 12 / 21 12.9 / 3.1 239 / 46 22 / 2 / 9 3 / 30 15/18

a

Methods and Materials
The goal of the Top Gun course is to establish a fundamental skill set in the laparoscopic arena and teach surgeons to place intracorporeal sutures This program has a large data base of thousands of surgeons from around the world It uses an inanimate electronic proctor that controls for economy of movement errors in addition to time Preparatory drills can establish a skill set which can lead to more effective laparoscopic suturing capabilities

Methods and Materials
This study consisted of three elements � all subjects participated in each one

Element one: Questionnaires
Video game play Surgical specialty Years of Surgery experience Number of Laparoscopic cases Sex Hand Dominance

Element Two: Top Gun
Laparoscopic Skill and Suturing Program Preparatory drills � Terrible triangle � Cobra rope � Slam Dunk Clinical Tasks � Intracorporeal suturing

Drill Goals
The drills emphasized:
� Non-dominant hand dexterity � Two-handed choreography � Targeting � 2-D Depth Perception skills

Element Three:
Video Games
Games were chosen based on perceived correlation with laparoscopic skills and suturing
� � � � � �
Fine motor skills/Reaction time Eye-hand coordination Non-dominant hand dexterity Two-handed choreography Targeting 2-D depth perception compensation

Element Three:
Video game tasks Other Factors: � Novel � Lack of "bonus scores" � Gender neutral

RESULTS

Current Gamers vs. Non-Gamers
Top Gun scores expressed as total time � the lower the score the better Current Video-Gamers scored 40% better overall in the Top Gun suturing course (p 3 hours 0-3 hours Never (n=15) (n=9) (n=9) better at laparoscopic Hours/week playing video games (peak) drills and suturing * Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p
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