Perhaps the most common image of a transformer can be seen in the street, on top of some light poles. These box-like tools are - broadly speaking - responsible for an efficient, cheap, and safe distribution of electricity, from the point of supply to the comfort of our homes, no matter how far away they are.
However, there are many types of transformers (based on the same principles), which can be used in large industries or to charge a cell phone.
These are tools that regulate the power or current differences that exist in the supply lines in order that the energy can be used without risk for the user or the equipment that will be connected.
How does it work?
According to an article published on the portal of the Spanish energy education program, Endesa Educa, a transformer is defined as a static alternating current machine that allows to vary some function, either voltage or current, maintaining constant frequency and power.
It is usually composed of a core and at least two coils: a primary one, where the input voltage is applied, and a secondary one, which receives the output voltage.
The basic principle under which it works is the following: converts the energy that reaches the primary coil into magnetism, and then transform it back into electricity, under the desired conditions, towards the secondary coil that gives it output.
Electrical Protection Engineering
Transformers, the text explains, can be classified into two large groups, those of power, which serve to vary the values of voltage, and those of measurement, which vary the values of large voltages so that they can be measured without danger.
Mainly used in the electrical network, the transformers first raise the voltage to reduce the losses in the transport of energy and then reduce it until reaching the appropriate values with which it can work without risk to the user.
We see them in action also in most appliances that work at lower voltages than the one supplied by the electric network.
Finally, there is the differential, a household electrical safety device that uses transformers to compare the intensity that goes in with the output. If the difference is greater than 10 mA, disconnect the circuit, preventing us from being injured. characters are allowed