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Description: Our future is rooted in our past. To understand what lies ahead for OpenText and Enterprise Information Management (EIM), an appreciation of the last 20 years is required as the industry has grown, changed, and continually re-invented itself. This book chronicles this tremendous evolution, following content in its many forms that some 500 million people, or about one third of Web users across the globe have created, shared, stored, and managed over the past 20 years since the birth of the modern Internet.
As society is continually impacted by the combination of content and technology, the future implies a necessary agreement on standards among enterprise users throughout the world.
|Short URL: https://www.wesrch.com/business/pdfBU1H5H000YUCI|
BIG DATA AND THE HIDDEN WEB:
The Path to Enterprise Information Management
This book is dedicated to
President and Chief Executive Officer
of Open Text Corporation 1998 - 2012
John’s strong leadership and focus on collaboration amongst all the participants,
from users to architects to software developers, systems integrators, and user
support has been a great benefit to the Enterprise Content Management industry.
John introduced many industry firsts in education, first-time integrations, and
above all the integration of content management information into ERP systems
and desktop GUIs. His contribution has positioned the industry for continued
growth into the future into even more integrated enterprise applications using all
aspects of business information.
Behind the Firewall. Big Data and the Hidden Web:
The Path to Enterprise Information Management
First Printing, April 2012
Printed in Canada
Published by: Open Text Corporation
275 Frank Tompa Drive, Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 0L1
All rights reserved. Copyright © 2012 Open Text Corporation. No part of
this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, scanning, or
by any information or retrieval system, without the express written consent
of Open Text Corporation. Open Text Corporation will seriously consider any
request to reproduce or use portions of this book, and would encourage any
party interested in doing so to contact: firstname.lastname@example.org. In
the event such consent is provided, Open Text Corporation will reserve the
right to review and approve the final form and manner in which the portion
of this book is reproduced and used.
Special thanks go to writers and editors: Jodi Szimanski,
Elizabeth Chestney-Hanson, and Doug Varley; editor Ian E. Wilson; librarian
Annie Bélanger; researcher Scott Stevens.
What’s past is prologue.
(William Shakespeare. The Tempest)
Our future is rooted in our past. To understand what lies ahead for
OpenText and Enterprise Information Management (EIM), an appreciation
of the last 20 years is required as the industry has grown, changed,
and continually re-invented itself. This book chronicles this tremendous
evolution, following content in its many forms that some 500 million
people, or about one third of Web users across the globe have created,
shared, stored, and managed over the past 20 years since the birth of the
modern Internet. As society is continually impacted by the combination
of content and technology, the future implies a necessary agreement on
standards among enterprise users throughout the world.
A subsequent book, Managing Content in the Cloud, addresses the
future of information management. It provides a beginner’s guide to
understanding the Cloud and ECM and how to develop and manage
enterprise applications. And that brings us to this book, Behind the
Firewall, which outlines how Big Data and the Hidden Web (behind the
firewall) was built by OpenText and other companies, and how and why
the core technologies were developed. The standards of today were built
on the infrastructures of the past. By understanding this past, we can see
that it provides signposts to many of the solutions to the challenges of
This book is as much about the future as it is about the past. Ten years
ago, we wrote the Enterprise Content Management (ECM) trilogy in which
we defined the ECM market, described technologies, and provided a
proven methodology for implementation. An encyclopedia of ECM, this
set of books consists of over 1,000 pages of information on all major
aspects of ECM. Reading these books will give you the basic knowledge
needed to discuss ECM and its solutions, technologies, and benchmarking practices for successful deployment. This is a key base from
which to understand the future of Enterprise Information Management.
Executive Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer,
Open Text Corporation
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NAVIGATING BEHIND THE FIREWALL
How to Find your Way Through the Book
Everyone Gets Connected
Our Future is Rooted in our Past
Some Call it an Evolution
Innovator Story Bibliography
Laying the Foundation
The Path of the Future
Connecting to the Internet
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
By Mark Barrenechea
How the Hidden Web was built
8 / BEHI ND T HE FI REWA LL
NAVIGATING BEHIND THE FIREWALL
HOW TO FIND YOUR WAY THROUGH THE BOOK
Since the 1970s, there have been extraordinary innovations in the technology industry. The use of mainframe computers in large organizations initiated the trend
of using computers to help organizations work more efficiently. Early commercialization in the computing industry laid the groundwork for later developments in Web
technologies and the resulting proliferation of content in all formats, both within and outside of the enterprise.
The journey described in this book begins with these technologies, many of which were in development before OpenText existed. It winds its way through stories
about how technology impacted the enterprise, how the enterprise affected technology, and how consumers have brought technologies inside the firewall to
influence how they are used inside the enterprise. The journey is marked by eras and the evolution of Enterprise Information Management (EIM) is progressive; the
core technologies developed in each era are dependent on their predecessors.
Web as an
Eras of computing
The era that describes early technology development and the beginnings of EIM is called PRE-WEB. Chapter 1 examines this era and the technologies that were
required in the 1970s and 1980s to automate systems in the enterprise, on-ramp content that only existed in paper format, and store, manage, and make this content
accessible for future use.
N AVIGATIN G BEHI N D THE FIR E WA LL / 9
Web 1.0, introduced in Chapter 2, covers the 1990s and mainstream use of the Internet. It describes the tools that were needed to develop content for the Internet
and to search the overwhelming proliferation of pages and information. Basic workflow technologies emerged over the Web as users wanted to perform repeatable
tasks and this evolved as efficiency tools inside the enterprise were created so the content and people could be brought together within a set of business rules.
With the millennium came Web 2.0 and many of the Web 1.0 technologies converged and matured. Chapter 3 follows how the Web evolved. With it, technology
emerged to manage not only digital assets, but interactivity behind the firewall that allowed knowledge workers to engage with others inside and outside their
organization. This enabled the conversations that led to online management of transactions through a lifecycle that connects people, processes, and content across
Web 3.0 is described in Chapter 4, and this era bears witness to the revolutionary blend of mainframe and Web technologies to produce cloud computing. This, when
combined with mobile devices, not only improves customer experience, but gives both consumers and organizational users the ability to access applications and
content at any time, in any place. During this era, ECM becomes a required solution to help many organizations securely control the burgeoning amounts of content
behind the firewall. Organizations are impacted by the “Consumerization of IT” as users demand that applications have the ability to use their personal mobile
devices within a cloud computing environment and the need to securely manage content outside the firewall becomes apparent.
All of these technologies culminate in the final era, WEB 4.0, described in Chapter 5 of this book—Web Operating System and Enterprise Information Management.
Without cloud technology, mobile applications, or “apps”, and their associated content could not be accessed securely within the enterprise. And the secure
repositories of ECM have paved the way for the future development and management of enterprise applications. Chapter 5 examines the use of the Web as an
operating system, and mobile apps and Enterprise Information Management in detail.
10 / BEHI ND T HE FIREWA LL
The core technologies of the past have led us well into the future. Future technologies are rooted in innovations of the past. Internet technology is advancing at an
accelerated pace, as reflected by the volumes of content produced by emerging Internet technologies. When applied behind the firewall, the effective use of these
technologies—from the desktop and the Internet to mobile devices and the Cloud—helps organizations continue to evolve and innovate.
N AVIGATIN G BEHI N D THE FIR E WA LL / 11
d but a glimmer
t exists behind the
b. It’s a world tha
tion of the
ential to the opera
firewall, yet it’s ess
ay depend on an
enterprises of tod
makes up the “hidd
take for granted
ir businesses. We
to run the
ess enormous am
that we can acc
h others within
and collaborate wit
et. Yet just
and on the Intern
s was possible. In
rs ago, none of thi
over 20 yea
all we’ll examine
Behind the Firew
the last 40 years
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and how the we
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12 / BEHI ND T HE FIREWA LL
OUR FUTURE IS ROOTED IN OUR PAST
A LOOK BACK TAKES US FORWARD
As the consumer Internet evolves into its “fourth generation”, or
Web 4.0, innovations are radically changing how people use technology. The distribution and interaction of very specific applications
or “apps” on personal mobile devices promises to have a huge
impact on the enterprise.
That impact has been called the “Consumerization of IT”. It refers to
how employees will become consumers of technology and describes
a new relationship between enterprise users and the IT department. As
consumer products like smartphones and the tablets drive technology
adoption inside the enterprise, the IT department will evolve into a
distribution platform for a variety of mobile apps.
eb 4.0 is generally referred to as the Web operating system
and this provides a simple way for people to access other people
and content through specific “apps” (e.g., Apple® App Store®).
Using a Web operating system (like Apple iOS or Google Android™),
would not be possible without the foundations provided by Web 1.0, Web
2.0, and Web 3.0. From a corporate or organizational perspective, the
translation of these innovations behind the firewall requires a subtle, but
important, rethinking of how apps are provided to users.
While the social impact of Web 4.0 is substantial and well understood by
most Internet users and society at large, the enterprise has yet to grasp
the profound economic impact of these new capabilities. From 1992 to
2012, the Web has undergone a series of evolutionary steps as shown
in the following diagram:
• eb 1.0 is the original GUI network which provided access to
content (e.g., Google®).
eb 2.0 is the social Web which allowed people to share items
with each other (e.g., Facebook®).
• eb 3.0 is the Semantic Web and takes advantage of
prior knowledge about things to permit more accurate and
accelerated access to people and content (e.g., LinkedIn®
Eras of the Internet
O U R FU TU R E IS ROOTED IN O U R PAST / 13
The essential translation is this: the public Internet assumes that
everyone and everything is open and willing to be “found”. The private
Internet, on the other hand, requires that “finding” be on a selective basis
that is situation-specific. In other words, permission is required to access
certain content behind the firewall. That makes the application of public
Web technologies inside the enterprise, by nature, more complex.
This book tells that story by navigating the reader through the various
evolutionary stages of the Web to deliver a baseline understanding of the
evolution of technologies to Web 4.0 inside the enterprise (also referred
to as Enterprise 4.0). Having an understanding of the difference between
the public and private network requirements is fundamental to applying
the innovations from the consumer market to the business market.
BIG DATA: DIVING BELOW THE SURFACE
An interesting aspect of the “Consumerization of IT” is that the adoption
of new technology by IT departments is typically led by the business and
government communities. This was the case for many decades and was
how organizations adopted mainframe technologies, client/server, minicomputers, and early smartphones and tablets.
As the Internet matured, the consumer market grew and channels
became more efficient, increasing the pace of innovation. The resulting
transfer has been reversed with innovations flowing from the consumer
market to the corporate market. This has substantial implications for
organizations in making long-term decisions about architectures to adopt
and allocating resources in the most competitive way.
The content on the public, or consumer, Internet is only the tip of the
iceberg. The vast majority of the Web is not available to the public. In
fact, only one to two percent of the entire World Wide Web is available
to the public. More content is created every day on the Web by
organizations behind their firewalls. Like an iceberg, the majority of this
Web content exists below the surface (or behind firewalls) stored inside
the archives of large organizations. This information dominates the
world’s electronic content and this means almost all of the knowledge
on the Web is accessible by permission only. This content is sometimes
referred to as Big Data.
14 / BEHI ND T HE FIREWA LL
THE DEEP WEB
ORGANIZING THE WEB BEHIND THE FIREWALL
Before examining the key differences between the consumer Internet
and the Deep Web, it would prove helpful to examine how the Web
is organized behind the firewall. Companies are typically structured
by department around specific lines of business—accounting and
finance, legal, marketing, sales, information technology, research and
development, and so on. Over the years, software applications have
been designed to meet departmental requirements. These solutions are
typically targeted at helping people complete certain tasks, but generally
help the enterprise improve efficiency or save money.
Each of these departmental systems works well in isolation. In an
enterprise context, however, they create silos between departments,
resources, and content. Many of these departmentally-focused
applications were first written on client/server architecture, meaning that
they had to be installed onto client desktop computers and communicate
with a server. The Internet changed all this by introducing a flexible
infrastructure that allowed for applications to be Web-based. Just as the
desktop provided users with seamless access to the applications they
needed on their desktops to do their jobs—the Web promised to move
beyond the interface to encompass the entire enterprise and work across
applications, processes, and systems.
geographical and organizational boundaries. Behind the firewall, the
Web created a common infrastructure for many different applications.
But the enterprise had to make access to these programs, and the data
produced by them, secure.
LOOKING FOR PERMISSION
Amongst many other factors, it is difficult to imagine the global
acceptance of a Web operating system and app stores without the
foundational infrastructure and technologies of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0,
which gave people secure access to content and to each other to
collaborate. This point is relevant for the public Internet as well as for
the private Internet. Behind the firewall, however, the enterprise protects knowledge and people as assets and permission is required to
Many of the most popular apps that can be downloaded in the consumer Internet make two critical assumptions of access:
• Content (e.g., Google)
SILOS: DEPARTMENTS WORKING IN ISOLATION
A Web-based application is a program that is accessed over the Internet
or an intranet and is usually coded in a browser (Internet Explorer® or
Firefox®) supported language. In other words, the application relies on
a Web browser to run. Web-based applications were popular out of the
gate due to the convenience and ease of accessing programs using a
Web browser as the client. IT departments were liberated from complex
and lengthy upgrade procedures as they could update and maintain
applications without installing the programs on any number of client
computers. Developing Web-based applications resulted in lower total
cost of ownership and faster implementation times.
Along with higher returns on technology investments, the Web as a
platform also offered support for cross-platform development. Behind
the firewall, the Web created the infrastructure support required by
organizations to run and integrate a series of applications. Collaborating
across departments is essential for many critical business operations
and the introduction of the Web behind the firewall to run applications
enabled people to collaborate more effectively, breaking down
• People (e.g., Facebook)
Without content and people, an app will not work. These two aspects
give “life” to an app by bringing together like-minded people and
providing contextual content for discussion. This is no trivial point.
This is why Enterprise Apps require “permissioned” access to content
and people. In order to better understand what is possible with
Enterprise Apps, an appreciation of the current state of access within
an organization is required, along with how this has evolved in parallel
between the enterprise private and commercial public Internet.
Behind the firewall, organizations built private versions of Web 1.0
(intranets) and used internal search engines to help locate documents.
This was especially helpful for litigation, to provide evidence of
compliance testing, or for helping employees find answers to customer
questions. These technologies gave knowledge workers access to
content. In the late 1990s, organizations began to introduce social media
tools (social networks), allowing users to share ideas by “blogging”
(short for Web-logging). These sites were gathered into Communities
of Practice sites and wikis, giving users shared access to knowledge,
O U R FU TU R E IS ROOTED IN O U R PAST / 15
people, and resources. A good working example of this is Motorola
global intranet, Compass, which is combined with the company’s social
media portal and offers many features like blogs, wikis, and tagging
alongside document management functionality.
Management (also known as Web Content Management or WCM) which
powers many of the largest Web sites in the world.
FINDING PEOPLE AND CONTENT BEHIND THE FIREWALL
Internet users started “Googling” information in the late 1990s. Several
early search engines existed before that. In 1994, the OpenText Index
(OTI) was an example of an early version of Google technology. As the
original search engine for Yahoo!®, OTI marks the arrival of the early
Web. Tom Jenkins, CEO of OpenText at the time, and Jerry Yang, CEO of
Yahoo!, launched their partnership together in 1995 in the first cyber café
in New York City.
OpenText also provided search services like Google, Netscape®, MSN®,
and MCI. In the early 90s, OTI was one of the most heavily trafficked
Web sites. But OpenText evolved into performing search and other
functions for organizations using their own internal Web sites or intranets
(discussed further in Chapter 2). These original search repositories
evolved into managed content repositories behind the firewall.
Before Facebook launched in 2005,
organizations used early forms of social
network tools to connect their employees.
OpenText built collaborative products known
as Communities of Practice or Social Media
for Corporations that are used today as
secure “Facebooks” behind the firewall.
These applications were to become very
important to apps management, discussed
in Chapter 5.
Jerry Yang OF YAHOO! AND TOM JENKINS OF OPENTEXT
WORKING BEHIND THE WEB SITES
Since the early days of the Web, there has been a need to build the
“Corporate Wall” so that organizations could promote and market
themselves. OpenText produces sophisticated Web Experience
16 / BEHI ND T HE FIREWA LL
“Facebook” for corporations
Managing Web sites can involve e-stores which people are familiar
with as the “electronic shopping cart”. The management of Web sites
with e-commerce functionality requires the careful administration of
transactions using Web technology. This is very important to applications
management, because the administration of application downloads from
an app store also requires a secure transaction.
While consumers were busily shopping online, the rate of content
creation behind the firewall outpaced the content produced by
consumers by almost 100 times. In time, a large “hidden” archive known
as the Deep Web was built behind the firewall. Although content solutions
were developed for the entire global economy, the investment priority
was given to solve problems in the financial, energy, and government
sectors first. These sectors tend to have the highest priority placed
upon them for regulatory compliance and an archive for litigation and
compliance purposes is a key facet in an effective ECM system. These
archives in the Deep Web have significance for new forms of applications
or “apps” that will make use of this content.
MOBILIZING THE ENTERPRISE
In recent years, mobilized applications within the enterprise were
developed to increase the productivity of employees so that they
were “always on”. As a key forerunner to the app store, the ability to
mobilize applications onto various mobile devices such as smartphones
and tablets was essential. This was revolutionized by the first mobile
device and app: the BlackBerry® and mobilized email and Personalized
Information Management (PIM).
Consumers expect rich, mobile, social, and personal experiences.
Behind the firewall, they expect to access the same tools and
technologies they use at home to create these experiences at work.
These expectations will continue to drive new devices, new applications,
and new interactions. All of this will create new types of content to
manage in new and more complex ways.
As consumers bring new technologies and personal devices to work,
enterprise content will mix with personal content to create potential
security breaches. For example, a personal iPhone® holds personal items
such as pictures, email, and music, along with corporate information.
Corporate information has certain security, governance, and privacy
requirements—how can the enterprise enforce these rules for personal
devices that are not owned by the organization? What happens when
that employee leaves the organization—with sensitive information—and
the organization is unable to wipe the device clean? How to ensure
secure content and access to mobile apps inside the enterprise is
discussed in detail in this book.
PREPARING FOR THE ROAD AHEAD
A tremendous wave of IT innovations is coming. In the diagram
below, the wave of IT innovations started with the mainframe and
database, through enterprise software that has reached various levels
of maturity. The last three innovative technologies—social networking,
cloud computing, and mobility—have not been dominated by any
single vendor. As you read the following five chapters, you will gain an
understanding of the development of past core EIM technologies and
how their development was required to prepare for the road ahead.
Mobilized applications within the enterprise
A wave of major IT INNOVATIONS
O U R FU TU R E IS ROOTED IN O U R PAST / 17
Pre-Web / 1970-1990
Laying the Foundation
The introduction of the Personal Computer (PC) significantly changed the way people work
in an office environment, acting as a catalyst for the development of tools like Microsoft
Office® and resulting in tremendous improvements in productivity and efficiency. Before the
PC, documents were managed on a case-by-case basis, leaving behind a paper trail that
was often untraceable. And while the PC was effective, it was somewhat limited; no greater
system existed to connect personal computers together in an easy and effective way, so
people and information remained disconnected.
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AUTOMATING BASIC COMPUTATIONS
In the 1970s, the MAINFRAME emerged as a forerunner Managementwould
become cloud computing. At the time, mainframes were the only
practical way of providing people with access to computing power,
though they required cooling systems and entire buildings to house
them. These early systems were large and expensive—in contrast
to current trends with mobile technology being both affordable and
portable. Only government labs,Search Engine
universities, and major corporations
could afford mainframes.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the computing world was dominated by huge
computers called mainframes. Mainframes were large, powerful data
processing systems that connected people in organizations more
effectively than PCs because everyone worked through a central
processing unit (CPU) and memory storage. Then, in 1970, small
computers known as “minicomputers” ushered in the age of the client/
server architecture. This architecture allowed organizations to connect
different types of computers to the Local Area Network (LAN). New
opportunities emerged for software development for databases, for
example, and business planning software such as Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) systems used to manage Human Resources (HR), Legal,
and Accounting content. This type of software helped organizations
improve efficiencies across many applications, from airline scheduling
to the production of automobiles.
2 0 / CHA P T E R 1
Large organizations used mainframes to automate basic computations
that had previously required many staff members to process. The
bulk data processing applications usually included industry statistics,
financial transaction processing, and ERP. Due to the critical nature
of these applications, mainframes were appreciated for their defining
characteristic: RAS. The term in computing refers to Reliability,
Availability, and Serviceability. To take advantage of these three
characteristics, IT departments had to plan and implement carefully.
Despite the costs associated with extra planning and expensive
hardware, organizations found that clerical productivity increased.
While they improved efficiency, these
mainframes did not provide an interactive
interface for users. The first mainframes
accepted punched cards, paper tape, and/
or magnetic tape in batch mode. This
changed in the 1970s when special terminals
gave users access to the mainframe in a
timesharing mode. These terminals were
called “dumb terminals” or “green screens”.
In the 1980s, as computers became even smaller and more affordable, organizations began to place one at every employee’s desk.
Computers could now “talk” to each other through phone lines. This
resulted in decentralized computing, meaning that while hardware
and software “lived” on PCs at individual workstations or office
locations, the computers still shared files and devices like printers.
Software systems expanded to help organizations digitize, store,
and print their paper documents.
As computers evolved, so did networking technologies. CPU power
grew and connection bandwidth increased. Without these two developments, the early Internet would not have developed as quickly as it did.
ACTING AS A HOST
Popular into the 1980s, green screen terminals showed only the color
green on a black background. Some cash registers still display a green
screen. The monochrome or one-color monitor displayed text and
numbers more clearly and were used with almost all dumb terminals.
A dumb terminal refers to any type of computer terminal that does not
process its own data or run software; this is all done on the mainframe
computer. This included network computers and X terminals. Basically,
the terminal acted as a host, displaying the information while the X-server
ran the application and transmitted data in the background. The multiuser server, for example, ran multiple instances of the one copy of the
word processing program on the X-server.
in mainframe architecture, including the use of green screens or dumb
A key difference between today’s Cloud and yesterday’s mainframe
computing is memory. Because all the computing happened inside the
mainframe and not at the dumb terminal, memory at the terminal level
was not a concern. As computer hardware companies endeavored to
personalize computing, more advances were required to build memory
systems that were compact and inexpensive.
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION BIT BY BIT
The early memory systems were vulnerable and awkward to use. In
the mid-1940s, cathode ray tubes using electron beams could store
up to thousands of bits, but were extremely sensitive to environmental
disturbances. Later in the decade, inventors, including An Wang who
later founded Wang Laboratories Inc., which will be discussed in greater
detail later in this chapter, started to explore innovations for a non-volatile
memory. Read Only Memory, or ROM, is an example of non-volatile
memory, or one in which the computer retains memory even when it is
Another key player in the development of non-volatile memory, IBM®
employee Robert Dennard, figured out how to store a bit of memory as
a charge on a capacitor in a single transistor cell in the late 1960s. Intel®
used this technology as the foundation for their memory chip that could
hold 1 kB RAM by 1969.1 By the mid-1970s, DRAM or dynamic random
access memory, was the standard for most computers. DRAM is an
example of volatile memory because it requires a power source, but it
was far less expensive than previous technologies.2
A dumb terminal or green screen
The mainframe represents, in essence, the first example of cloud
architecture. The mainframes housed central processing units and
memory and were connected to dumb terminals or green screens.
Because applications ran off the mainframe, not the terminal, the slow
speed of the connection between the two limited the applications. The
Cloud is truly a “back to the future” moment in computing as much of the
architecture and applications software is borrowed from early innovations
1 Bellis, Mary. History of Computer Memory. about.com: inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/Ram.htm
2 Miller, Stephen W. Memory and Storage Technology. AFIPS Press, 1977.
3 Bellis, Mary. History of Computer Memory. About.com Guide. inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/Ram.htm
By the mid-1980s, personal computers were shipped with 128 kB of
memory and a 1 MB memory chip was developed.3 Two years after
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone was incorporated as a private company
in 1985 in Tokyo, it announced the successful development of a new
16 MB DRAM chip. The company had began as a public corporation in
1952. The 16 MB chips could store the amount of information printed on
600 pages, but were not commercially available for a few years.
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 21
Another type of chip became very important for computers in the 1970s:
the chip that houses the microprocessor. The microprocessor is the
engine of the computer. The first chip could only add and subtract four
bits at a time, but before the development of the single chip, engineers
built computers from collections of chips or from transistors.4
Intel developed the first chip in 1971 to power a portable electronic
calculator. Known for its innovations since its inception in 1968 in
California, the first products from Intel were metal oxide semiconductor
static RAM and bipolar RAM. It was the announcement of the 1103
DRAM that changed the industry as it became the standard for
The microprocessor, also known as a CPU, is a complete computation engine housed on a single chip.5 The CPU takes digital data as
input, processes it by following the rules stored in its memory and then
provides the results as output. A calculator provides a good example
of how a microprocessor works.
When two numbers and the plus sign are inputted, the microprocessor
follows rules to add the two numbers together and display the total
as the output. Microprocessors in PCs are used for calculations, text
editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet.
Each command a CPU performs takes a series of steps. A powerful CPU
can process multiple commands in seconds. Originally the calculations,
or computations, that the computer could handle were very simple.
Eventually, computers were designed to handle complex data such as
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) coded
words. ASCII a standard for the digital description of alphabets in a
language using a single byte of memory in which a byte is composed of
8 bits and a bit is a simple one or zero. ASCII contains 128 numbers that
are assigned to corresponding characters.
ASCII codes correspond to text in computers and they allow computers
to store and exchange data with other computers and programs. In
early databases, content such as a person’s name was simplified to an
employee number so that the computer could handle the computation.
By the end of the era, 16-bit and 32-bit became the standard CPU size
for computers. As the standard bit size grew, so did the need for faster
and stronger memory.
As computers became more powerful and access to storage for
content improved, organizations began to understand their value as
productivity tools. But in order for computers to be optimized as office
tools, an important development was required: all computers within an
organization would need to be connected.
CONNECTING COMPUTERS, CONNECTING PEOPLE
In the 1970s, developments in computing paved the way for the coming
Internet. Electronic engineers worked to invent connecting hardware
and cables, increase speed and capacity, decrease hardware size, and
increase overall hardware performance.
CPU process 6
2 2 / CHA P T E R 1
IBM, or International Business Machines Corporation, became the new
name of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company in 1924. It not
only produced electronic computer technologies, but enabled the US
government’s Social Security Act of 1935 as the “biggest accounting
operation of all time.” Through the 1960s, it developed a revolutionary
family of mainframe computers, the System/360™ family, and the 1970s
4 ollack, Andrew. Japanese chip breakthrough. New York Times, Feb 5, 1987.
5 “Microprocessor”. How Stuff Works: www.howstuffworks.com/microprocessor.htm
6 Martin, Chris. CPU block diagram.svg, 1 June 2006. Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:cPU_block_diagram.svg
brought new products including technology used for the magnetic-strip
on credit cards, floppy disks, and an early form of today’s ATM machine.7
Before it started to build the personal computer, IBM researchers
invented the relational database—the technology that would build the
foundation for future applications.
Despite technological advances in the 1970s, voice, data, and
entertainment technologies were yet to be integrated. Analog telephone
carried voice; broadcast radio and television carried entertainment;
and RS-232 or Binary Synchronous Communications (BSC) serial
connections between dumb terminals and mainframes carried data.
Before the Internet era, early cell phones operated on voice only. The
size of small briefcases, these devices had limited battery life and limited
mobility. Despite the awkwardness of the early cell phones, they are the
early forerunners of the mobility trend—suddenly people did not need to
be tied to a desk or a land line to communicate.
As leading companies in the telecommunications industry, Motorola and
Bell Laboratories, Inc. were staunch competitors in the field of cellular
research. Motorola had hired Martin Cooper
in 1954 and he developed the first portable
handheld police radio. Regarded by many as the
father of the cellular phone, Cooper went on to
design the first working cell phone prototype,
the Motorola DynaTAC (DYNamic Adaptive Total
Area Coverage). On April 3, 1973, Motorola held
a public demonstration with a 30-ounce phone
and that inspired Cooper’s vision of personal
wireless communication.8 Five years later, in
1978, Bell Labs conducted its first trial of a
commercial cellular network in Chicago.9
The Motorola DynaTAC
It was Bell telephone systems that first began converting to the Digital
Data Service (DDS) circuits in the mid-1970s. Later, Bell deployed
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and DS1 lines to customer
premises, and AT&T followed suit with its first digital switch.
7 Our history of progress. IBM Archives: Valuable resources on IBM’s history. www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/
8 Timeline. Motorola Solutions, 2012: www.motorolasolutions.com/US-EN/About/Company+Overview/History/Timeline#1970
9 esting the First Public Cell Phone Network AT&T Tech Channel, 1979: techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2011/6/13/AT&TT
As data services stabilized, computer networking technologies were
being developed and tested. Since Chester Carlson’s invention of
xerography in 1938, Xerox® became known for its innovative products
printing, desktop computer workstations that combined computing,
text editing, and graphics creation, and digital publishing systems.
YetCloud/Mobile invention of EthernetManagement in the Management
it was the
Xerox research lab
in Palo Alto that helped to later build the Internet.10 Bob Metcalfe was
the inventor of the technology that was designed to connect the Xerox
personal computers, Altos, together. In 1979, he left Xerox to start his
own company 3Com.11
The Ethernet technology takes a stream of dataManagement
and divides it into smaller
sections called frames. Every frame not only knows its destination with
source and destination data, but also includes error-checking data to
decrease damaged data. Though Ethernet did not become a standard
until 1980, it did become the most common networking technology.
In the 1970s, the need to connect digital machines such as mainframes
and later minicomputers required the development of NETWORKING
STANDARDS which led to the Ethernet, TCP/IP, and a variety of other
standards. The standards provided a method for streams of digital
information to be conveyed from one machine to another without human
interface. This was the forerunner of all of today’s Internet Protocol for
streaming data between machines, as well as systems as largeWorkﬂow
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was published, but the architecture
for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) architecture
was not formalized until 1978. It was to become the most common
communication language, or protocol for the Internet. Transmission
Control Protocol assembles a message or file into smaller packets
transmitted over the Internet. Then a TCP layer reassembles the packets
into the original message. The Internet Protocol makes sure that the
each packet gets to the right destination. To protect these packets as
they travelled over the network, engineers Whitfield Diffie and Martin
10 Our History. Inside Innovation at Xerox: www.xerox.com/innovation/xerox-innovation-history/enus.html
11 Griffin, Scott. “Bob Metcalfe”. Internet Pioneers. 2000:www.ibiblio.org/pioneers/lee.html
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 23
Hellman developed a public-key cryptography scheme in 1976. Without
this development, the Secure Sockets Layer protocol from Netscape®
Communications that protects privacy and transactions over the Internet
would not exist today.
GROWING COMPUTER USAGE
While engineers were working on connecting computers, IBM was about
to introduce something that would become one of the greatest moments
in computing. In 1981, IBM introduced the PC; forever changing the way
people would interact with information. Previously, an IBM computer cost
approximately $9 million and required an air-conditioned space about a
quarter acre in size and 60 people to constantly input instructions.
Suddenly, a much smaller machine with a microprocessor could process
information faster and store more words than a large cookbook for less
than $1,600. With the advent of the PC, businesses and individuals
could now afford to buy computers. As computers became more widely
accessible, productivity levels improved and the amount of digital
By 1981, there were fewer than two million personal computers in use
in the USA. By the end of the decade there were 54 million personal
computers. This growth was due to improvements in performance and
2 4 / CHA P T E R 1
organizations recognizing the PC as a valuable productivity tool. As
organizations came to this realization, they started networking their
computers to make more effective use of their content.
SETTING UP AND PROTECTING NETWORKS
Computer networking did not become a common business technology
practice until the mid-1980s.12 LANs preceded the much larger WANs
(Wide Area Network), which eventually became the computing basis
of the commercialization of the early Internet. In the early 1980s, office
buildings, labs, and even homes were setting up LANs. LANs were
created to meet the increased need for data transfer between PCs.
Within an enterprise, security of content became increasingly important
as information was accessed on a computer. Organizations used
firewalls to protect their networks. A firewall consists of a device, or a set
of them, that allows network transmissions between a LAN and a WAN.
A firewall uses a set of rules to protect networks from unauthorized users
having access to information within an organization.
Connecting a LAN to the WAN behind the firewall
12 hen, Catherine. Computer Network Management: Best Practices. ISOM Dept., Miller College of Business, Ball State University Muncie, IN, 2006:
Ethernet soon became the standard networking technology for LANs.
Token Ring and Token Bus networking technologies competed with
Ethernet initially, but Ethernet adapted more quickly and was able to use
Digital same as telephone systems.Lifecycle
twisted pair cable, theAsset
LANs used the computing architecture known as CLIENT/SERVER. In
the 1980s, client/server architecture resulted from two improvements
in computing: power and size. This led to the creation of mid-sized
computers (or servers) that would be hubs of processing and storage
to be “shared” byWeb Content
many people who had smaller personal computers
or within a LAN. Client/server architecture soon replaced mainframe
architecture in many applications.
architecture was popular for organizations. The client/server
model defined the way that computers operated in network computing
within an organization. The server provided functions or services to the
clients, but the clients had to “ask” the server for these services.
Other types of servers included application servers, database servers,
mail servers, and print servers. A Web browser like Internet Explorer® is
a specific type of client, as are email clients and online chat clients. This
type of architecture allowed people to share services and even software.
Before client/server architecture existed, in order to share software, disks
had to be physically taken from one PC to another.
CREATING THE HUB OF THE NETWORK
At the server level, the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC™) was
an early leader in the hardware race. DEC got its start in 1957 when it
started building small circuit modules for laboratory use. Its founders,
engineers Ken Olson and Harlan Anderson, had worked on early
machines at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). They
shifted their attention to the VAX series in 1976. However, no one
dominant vendor established an industry standard; it was a competitive
hybrid of many types of computers and different software providers.
In 1982, the Novell® Inc. system was a practical choice for operating
systems for servers in business, because it could handle up to 250
users on one server. The software to enable different computers to share
information was developed by three Brigham Young University graduates
that Jack Messman (who went on to become CEO) discovered playing
a computer game in the Novell warehouse. The three graduates had
developed a game called Snipes—the first PC-networked game—
which they created to keep occupied when they were not busy in
All early Web servers used UNIX® technology. The company
long known for connecting America through phone lines,
AT&T Bell Labs, created the UNIX operating system in
1971. UNIX is the language used to run a minicomputer or
server, and is one of the oldest and most popular operating
systems. Universities first used UNIX servers because
they could license the source code at no cost and it was
designed to be hardware independent. UNIX eventually
became the underlying language of the Internet.14
How clients connected to the server
13 Messman, Jack. The History of Novell. The Novell Museum. www.novellmuseum.net/history_of_novell_g.htm
14 Milestones in AT&T History. AT&T. www.corp.att.com/history/milestones.html
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 25
UNIX servers made porting applications easier. To “port an application”
involves moving an application from the operating system it was
developed on to another operating system where it will run. (Open
standard programming like Sun Microsystems’ Java® (now owned by
Oracle®) minimizes or eliminates the work needed to port applications.)15
Once used extensively on corporate servers and in small businesses,
UNIX is still used in scientific and professional circles. It became the
backbone for the Internet because it could be used in star typology
networks. This meant that UNIX could handle multiple stations
connected to a central hub which could then be connected to
could also serve as an operating system for all types of computers
including PCs, engineering workstations, multiuser microcomputers,
minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers.
The open source code allowed developers to introduce a wide range of
new features and versions customized to meet any special need. The
straightforward code allowed developers to build it in blocks, known
as modules, making it easy for developers to learn and use. Hardware
manufacturers quickly modeled operating systems on UNIX including
Solaris, HP-UX, Linux®, IBM AIX®, and even Mac OS X®.16 Microsoft® had
started developing operating systems upon its inception in 1975 by Paul
Allen and Bill Gates. In 1993, it introduced Windows® NT, a more serverfriendly, heavy duty operating system at a much lower cost.
In 1994, a company that grew out of McMaster University in Hamilton,
Beame & Whiteside, was busy developing network management
software with the TCP/IP protocol. The TCP/IP architecture had been
formalized in 1978, and by 1984 TCP/IP was being used as the primary
networking protocol for the early Internet—ARPANET.
Using the TCP/IP protocol, Beame & Whiteside provided PC-to-UNIX
networking products. Hummingbird, a company discussed in later
detail later in this chapter, took the technology developed by Beame &
Whiteside and adapted it to become a network file system (NFS) that
they combined with the technologies from Common Ground Software.
The software became Maestro and Columbus—electronic document
distribution software—and together the two integrated internal and
external computer networks. For more information about how this
technology evolved, visit: opentext.com/btf-connectivity-nfs.
MOVING TO GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES (GUIs)
Star typology network
Designed for a star typology, UNIX was also known for its strong security
and simple design that made it easy to implement. UNIX could handle a
variety of tasks simultaneously—users could check their email and spellcheck a document at the same time. And it could do this for multiple
users, even while the computers ran different operating systems. UNIX
2 6 / CHA P T E R 1
On the client side, several operating systems vied for leadership of
the market—Motif®, Microsoft Windows® for PCs, Apple® Macintosh®,
IBM OS/2, and OS/2 Warp—and the competition forced rapid development. Microsoft started with MS-DOS which shipped in 1981. The Disk
Operating System or DOS interface used by PCs required users to type
in instructions at the DOS prompt.
15 “Port”. SearchNetworking: searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/port
16 Rosen, Ken, Douglas Host, Rachel Klee, James Farber, Dick Rosinski, Unix: The Complete Reference. McGraw-Hill Osborne, 2007, page 3.
EMULATING DUMB TERMINALS WITH PCS
As PCs started showing up on desks in the workplace, LANs took off,
and GUIs like Microsoft Windows became popular, mainframe use
changed dramatically Asset
in terms of terminal access. As peopleTransactional Content
used to GUIs, organizations required fewer employees with specialized
skills and training. PCs were more affordable than dumb terminals
and during this transition period, software was being developed to
emulate the specialized terminals. The explosion of tens of millions of
independent computing devices lead by PCs in the 1980s required the
creation of more sophisticated CONNECTIVITY solutions that permitted
systems such as a PC to talk to a mainframe despite the fact that neither
was designed to do that.
It was the Apple Macintosh, however, that introduced a new user
interface and inspired software developers to make their interfaces easier
to use. The graphical user interface (GUI) allowed people to use a mouse
to point and click. So rather than typing a number of commands to delete
a file, for example, users could simply drag the file to the recycle bin icon.
Xerox actually introduced the idea of a GUI in the early 1970s, but
it was Apple co-founder Steve Jobs who commercialized it. Jobs
and Steve Wozniak started building Apple Computers in Jobs’ family
garage in 1976 and the company was incorporated in 1977. In the early
1980s, Apple developed the GUI that revolutionized personal computer
operating systems. Almost 10 years later, in 1990, Microsoft adopted a
GUI—Windows—and it became one of the most widely used operating
systems in the enterprise.
Windows won the market, not because of its superior technology, but
because of the number of applications written using its system and an
established partnership with a number of hardware manufacturers.
In Toronto in the late 1980s, Fred Sorkin and his partner Barry Litwin of
Hummingbird Communications founded an innovative networking system
Document be around for a long
for graphics. Sorkin knew that X Data Capture would not Capture
time, but he could see that the desktop PC could handle the same work
if he refashioned the original X-Windows system. At the time, because of
interconnectivity issues, different makes and sizes of computers could
Hummingbird released Exceed in 1989 to link PCs to workstations and
larger computers. Using Exceed, users could run a word processor
beside a high-powered X-Window/UNIX application running on
mainframe networks. It integrated all of the systems that had been
separate on desktop PCs. Users could move data or images from one
window to another to share content and applications from different types
of computing platforms. People could even use Exceed to turn a laptop
into a remote X-Window terminal. This improved user productivity by
streamlining business workflow and allowing for better data exchange
between applications, regardless of platform.
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 27
EXPERTS IN NETWORK
“When Hummingbird was founded in 1984, the computing
landscape was very different from what we have today. UNIX
was at that time the predominant server operating system, the
Internet was in its infancy, and interacting with a computer
consisted mostly in being able to enter arcane command lines
on a monochrome screen, a feat which was reserved for a small
elite. During that year, a team of researchers from MIT unveiled a
revolutionary system that would allow UNIX applications to offer
a full-color GUI to their users. X-Window was born.
AN EXCEED INTERFACE
We immediately saw the opportunity at Hummingbird in
reconciling the two worlds of microcomputing (the IBM PCs) and
the professional UNIX servers and became a pioneer in the field
of network connectivity. In 1989, we took the network world
by storm by introducing the fruit of this effort: Exceed, a highperformance solution that allowed IBM PC users to remotely
access their UNIX applications and interact with them as
though they were sitting in front of a UNIX workstation.
Exceed soon became the gold standard for network remote
access and outpaced its competitors in both performance and
How Exceed works
2 8 / CHA P T E R 1
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
and Reduces Total
Cost of Ownership by
Consolidating with Exceed
The world’s number one supplier of microcontrollers, and a premier supplier of advanced
semiconductor solutions, needed a solution that would centralize its geographically
dispersed engineers and servers. With engineers working in virtual teams, it was imperative
that they be able to access the information and expertise they needed, when they needed it.
As well as overcoming the technical barriers imposed on a scattered workforce by
geographical distances, the Company also wanted to strengthen its server infrastructure to
support high network traffic volume and enable a higher number of users to collaborate using
the network. They found a solution in Hummingbird’s connectivity solution, Exceed, which
allowed them to consolidate servers in Tokyo, Hyogo, and Gunma in Japan.
By consolidating all of its servers using Exceed, the organization has reduced traffic volume
and increased efficiency, resulting in a lower overall total cost of ownership of the solution.
Working methods and practices were greatly improved with a centralized server, along with
the speed and quality of design work from its engineers.
By the time PCs based on 386, 486, and Pentium were released,
the X terminal was no longer used and Hummingbird moved into the
PC X-server trade. By the mid-1990s, their customer base included
government, manufacturing, healthcare, retail, and financial customers.
For more information about how this technology evolved, visit:
In the early 1990s in Canada, another emulation software was being
developed. The IBM 3270 series was often used to connect to mainframe computers, often at a remote distance. The series’ purpose was
to minimize the amount of data transmitted and the frequency of
interrupts to the mainframe. Telnet 3270 software, developed by
McGill University in Montreal, and PolarSoft Inc. emulated a 3270
class terminal. It communicated by sending and receiving 3270
data streams using the Telnet protocol. Typically, standard telnet
clients couldn’t act as substitutes for TN2170 clients because of the
different ways they exchanged data, but the emulators allowed for
communication over a TCP/IP network. In 1997, this technology
became part of Hummingbird offerings, and it allowed Hummingbird
to offer its customers TN3270 communications for Windows 3.x,
Windows NT, Windows 95®, and Macs.17
The migration to client/server architecture continued, and mainframes
were used less often as client/server architecture became the norm for
many enterprises. Mainframes would return in later forms as e-business
grew in the 1990s and during the Web 3.0 era for cloud architecture.
DRIVING ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT
Connecting PCs in the organization through a LAN led the way
to improved personal productivity. Microsoft not only developed
operating systems, it also developed software that focused on personal
productivity including email and desktop publishing for the new personal
computers. Software developers realized that they could develop tools
to help manage the many documents knowledge workers produced, as
well as develop workflows to increase efficiencies.
The client/server architecture influenced much of the early developments
of what would become components of Enterprise Content Management
(ECM), such as document management and workflow, discussed later in
this chapter. In fact, virtually every feature used in private cloud networks
originated in this area. ECM can be defined as systems that capture,
store, retrieve, print and disseminate digital content for use by the
enterprise. Digital content includes pictures/images, text, reports, video,
audio, transactional data, catalog, and code.
The development of secure, high-fidelity connections and more
powerful systems at the desk of every employee made it possible to
distribute tasks within an enterprise. With the quantity of documents
that knowledge workers created with PCs on their desks, organizations
recognized the imperative need for the content to be shared and stored
so it could be found again.
Connecting the mainframe to other systems
3 0 / CHA P T E R 1
During this period, some of the most fundamental assumptions about
how the Web was built and would function were made. Organizations
were facing challenges with content as they were increasingly required
to convert paper documents to digital format, and make these objects
or files accessible for later use. In the early years, automotive terms like
“highway”, “on-ramp”, and “off-ramp” were used to refer to the concept
of digitizing information and making it available through print or other
formats. Large organizations recognized that more efficient processes
would reduce costs. This was a driving force of new technology
developments and purchases by the enterprise.
17 Hummingbird pays $6.3M for TN3270, TN5250. Computer Business Review, Jan 16, 1997.
GETTING ON THE HIGHWAY
One of the first challenges faced with early networks was the “on-ramp”
into the digital world from the analog world. At the time, machinereadable content did not exist and no one really understood how to
take written pages and convert them to a language a computer could
understand. Before the Internet could really succeed, words had to be
digitized and categorized into a machine-readable form. This is referred
to as Input Management or Image Management.
resolution displays for the graphical content making it cost-prohibitive
to many organizations.18 Once the technology was ready, input
management was basically broken down into three categories: data
capture, document capture, and digital mailroom.
In the 1970s, the advent of digital computing required the creation Archiving
of a data capture ability that would allow the analog world to enter
the digital one. Data capture automated data entry by capturing the
information in forms and semi-structured documents like invoices. A
modern evolution of this method became known as bar code scanning
in which data is encapsulated into a bar code which refers to the digital
signature of a product or some item to be catalogued or re-used in the
digital world. Customer Experience Enterprise Content
Fax ON-RAMP process
For the most part everything was captured as an image, and not
individual words or even characters. To capture data, developers needed
to figure out a way to read the content and convert it to ASCII code.
Not every language was as easy to capture as English, French, and
Spanish; symbolic languages like Kanji and Mandarin were more difficult.
Eventually double-byte character sets were developed.
For less structured documents, document capture was required
to assemble digital images into a complete set of related data. A key
requirement was the Content scanning of a piece of paperRecordsthe
corresponding interpretation of the “digital bits” through a technique
known as optical character recognition, or OCR, which then translated
the digital images into ASCII, the protocol standard for languages and
numbers which assigned a specific “byte” (8 bits) address to each letter
and number. The technology, though similar to data capture, was an
essential requirement that permitted monitors and user interfaces to
recreate the digital image or language for a human to interface Workﬂow
At first, the high cost and sheer size of the equipment prevented some
organizations from starting to digitize their documents and processes.
The equipment also required greater network bandwidth and higher-
18 Coffee, Peter. Hurdles loom for image processing. PC Week July 17, 1989 v6 n28 p35.
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 31
Digital Mailroom was the natural evolution of the creation of files
of documents and other digitally generated pieces of information that
would travel electronically in a similar fashion to the “mail cart” that
would travel within an office building in the analog world and through
the postal service between locations. The digital mailroom handled all
types of documents to classify and transfer to the appropriate person,
business application, or archive.
capture, store, retrieve, and share data in an image without requiring
that the content be in text or alphanumeric form.
As Wang recognized that it needed to expand support beyond its
own computer systems, its Microsystems Division introduced a new
system called Freestyle. Targeted at mid-level executives in workgroup
environments, the integrated image-processing system included a
digitizing pad and pen, a digital telephone, a high-resolution monitor,
a scanner, and a fax board. The system allowed users to combine
text, scanned images, digitized voice messages, and handwritten notes
into a single document that could be sent to Wang computers or PCs
When a document could not be reduced to machine-readable code
(digital words), it was preserved as an image object such as a check
or an engineering drawing so that it could be treated as a legal proof
of existence. The combination of images along with digital words
became essential to workflow in the early years of the ECM industry.
A very important and pioneering company in this regard was
Wang Laboratories, Inc.
Wang Laboratories had long been known for its innovations. Founded
in 1951 in Massachusetts, it first developed electronic phototypesetters
and calculators. In 1976, Wang introduced the first dedicated electronic
word processor, the Wang WPS. These multiuser systems contained
their own microprocessors and disk storage was centralized in a master
unit that was shared by other workstations. These systems were a huge
breakthrough because office personnel could easily operate, administer,
and share files without special training.
Wang worked to produce hardware systems to compete with IBM. Most
notable was the Wang VS minicomputer in 1979. Innovation continued
to push the company forward as patents were filed for redaction
technology, electronic image manipulation, and image decompression.
In 1987, Wang introduced the Wang Integrated Image System (WIIS).
WIIS enabled organizations to transform paper documents into digitalimage databases. The system linked Wang VS minicomputers, scanners,
WORM (Write Once, Read Many) and WIIS software. The software could
3 2 / CHA P T E R 1
The imaging flow process
In the early 1990s, IBM invested $25 million into Wang Laboratories Inc.
due to its interest in the imaging technology. The collaboration was seen
as a way to include imaging as part of office technologies. As individual
PCs became more powerful for manipulation of the image files, Wang
designed two new software packages to better integrate PC LANs and
IBM mainframes using the Wang VS minicomputers as the image server.
By 1995, New York’s Eastman Kodak Company, Kodak subsidiary
Imagery Software Inc., and Wang announced that they would market
and develop common imaging architectures. Eastman Software
absorbed Wang Imaging for Windows software. Find out more at:
CAPTURING VIA SCANS
There were other image capture developments at this time. Companies
developed technologies such as scanners, cameras, and fax machines
to scan documents and convert them into digital format. Fax machines
became commonly used in organizations because they converted
paper into a digital form that could be transmitted over a phone line. For
organizations that sent out hundreds of invoices every month, fax servers
automated this process. A fax server emulated multiple fax machines—
one for each user on the network. It consisted of a computer with a fax
program and a modem capable of sending and receiving fax signals and
Internet data, a connection to the Internet, and LAN users.
In the late 1980s, Joe Cracchiolo and Brad Feder co-founded a
consulting business, Cracchiolo & Feder, Inc. Together they created
RightFax in 1992, a network-based fax server software, and by 1996
their company was listed as one of “Inc. 500’s Fastest Growing Private
Companies in America”. For organizations that had multiple incoming
faxes to multiple employees, RightFax helped automate the process with
electronic inboxes. These automated fax capabilities helped improve
productivity and efficiency while reducing costs, mainly because they
replaced stand-alone fax machines.
In 1989, Wang released a software development tool kit for programmers
to develop document image-processing systems for other operating
systems, including Microsoft Windows. Open/Image Windows supported
image file management, file storage, scanned-image input and output,
printer output, and all other functions needed to create an imageprocessing system under Windows.
EARLY DAYS OF IMAGING
“In the early 80s, Document and Image Processing (DIP) systems
were used primarily for storage and retrieval. Systems were
marketed on the premise that it’s easier to retrieve electronic
images from desktops than it is to store and physically retrieve
paper-based files. At this time, the technology was expensive
and not very user-friendly.
Imaging became more accessible to commercial users in 1985,
when FileNet Corp. introduced its minicomputer-based system.
Although the system carried a price tag of $500,000 and up, it
was far less than an integrated system.
In the mid to late 80s, Wang Laboratories, Plexus Corp., and
IBM entered the market. DIP systems, in general, were still
expensive, departmentally focused, and minicomputer-based.
By 1988, DIP systems that could run on LANs, such as
ViewStar and MARS from Microdynamics, became available.
These were still expensive… But we quickly introduced Wang’s
Open/Image Windows to market. It provided some degree of
office automation. But keep in mind that the computers needed
to run the software were fairly expensive—the average imageenabled workstation could cost between $10,000 and $15,000.
By the mid-1990s, an image-enabled PC cost approximately
$3,000. And today, well, all of our computers come that way.”
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 33
RightFax continues to grow as the trusted leader in enterprise fax
with enhancements under the OpenText name: opentext.com/btffaxdocumentdistribution. Many of these enhancements include OCR
engine enhancements via RecoStar technology from CGK, which
is discussed in detail on the following page, and cloud computing
capabilities with the new OpenText hosted fax services offering.
“RightFax was conceived to solve a specific problem: A law firm
had to monitor its fax machine, gather paper faxes as they came
in, and route them to the intended recipients… at all hours of
the day and night. At a time when email was only beginning
to be ubiquitous, at RightFax we had the idea to give each
user his or her own fax mailbox on a centralized system that
would automatically handle the sending, receiving and, most
importantly, routing of faxes. This solution not only eliminated
much of the manual processing (and the paper involved),
but provided a more detailed audit trail for each fax. This
convenience was rapidly adopted by all sorts of businesses
in addition to law firms.
By utilizing state-of-the-art fax board technology, RightFax
could communicate with basic fax machines, so it was easy
to integrate into any fax-intensive business process. Unlike
popular ERP systems of the day, our customers didn’t need to
invest in additional technology. Because of its reliability and
expanding feature set, RightFax quickly became the leading fax
RIGHTFAX SERVER INTERFACE
As the Pre-Web era drew to a close, technologies such as Optical
Character Recognition (OCR) began to achieve accuracy rates greater
than 90 percent and people started trusting their use. OCR research
began as early as the late 1920s. OCR electronically translates the
scanned images of text into machine-encoded text. The technology made
it possible to edit the text, search for it, and store it more accurately.
Eventually this led to technologies like machine translation and text-tospeech. One company in Konstanz, CGK, saw OCR as a path to a checkfree society.
The flagship products of CGK became digital character recognition and
reading and capture systems for hand- and machine-printed content
3 4 / CHA P T E R 1
(OCR/SLS). Development started in 1959, but the first successful model
of the OCR Reader and Sorter was the BSM 2256 built in 1973. Banks
first used this technology to read the OCR lines of checks and transfer
documents for booking and sorting purposes.
the necessary processing power, all of these products were based
on custom-developed, special hardware components. Software
development, however, was done on DEC VAX machines.
This technology eventually evolved into two flagship software products
in the mid-1990s: RecoStar and DOKuStar. RecoStar, and its successor
product RecoStar Professional, were high-performance OCR/ICR
engines for forms and documents. It not only provided the fastest
conversion of bitmap documents like scans or faxes into text, but also
very high quality data extraction from hand- or machine-printed forms.
When the vision of check-free societies emerged, additional business
was sought and found. At the state lottery, Staatliche Sport-Toto-GmbH
in Stuttgart, and shortly after also in Basel, Munich, The Hague, Leipzig,
and Brussels, lottery tickets were read, and by 1980 each BSM 2257
could read and sort up to 110,000 tickets per hour.
A check-free society did not emerge as quickly as envisioned, so
managing data from money transfer orders and checks continued as
a business application. Further development of character recognition
developed into hand-writing character recognition in 1983 with the
introduction of Computer Character Reader CSL, mainly targeted at
extracting data from money orders. Additional challenges had to be
overcome before the next generation of readers for general forms and
even American checks, could be introduced into the market beginning
The AllFont Form Reader was used at German Customs for custom
declarations scanning, and the Courtesy Amount Reader Box aided
UNISYS to read up to 35 currency amounts per second. Various
US banks have used the technology since 1991. Of course, due to
CAPTURING AND INTERPRETING DATA
Reading quality was additionally improved and DOKuStar, and its
successor DOKuStar Professional, became high-performance Intelligent
Document Recognition (IDR) software. It classified documents and
located and extracted data even in semi-structured and unstructured
documents. While structured data can be easily searched for in a
database, unstructured data is more difficult to input and find. This
technology now runs inside OpenText Capture Center, making incoming
mail processing and indexing for archiving automatic.
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 35
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
DEUTSCHE POST AG
One of the largest German enterprises, Deutsche Post moves more than 70 million letters
each day, and as an internal service provider, the Shared Service Center Accounting in
Cologne performs all accounting tasks for Deutsche Post and its 20 subsidiaries. It needed
a solution that would optimize processes and cut down on costs, as well as be fully
embeddable in the already existing SAP Business Workflow™.
Incoming mail is scanned, the invoices are digitized, archived, and transferred before the
DOKuStar recognition software—a part of Invoice CENTER—reads in the required accounting
data. Once the data is captured, the accounting entry is made and automatically compared
and balanced to an existing order in SAP®. Through email, all invoices can be viewed,
verified, and authorized in a Web browser.
The new workflow system for incoming invoices makes it possible to settle them on the
same day, increasing productivity by 25 percent. “We were able to increase our customers’
satisfaction by settling accounts on time and without complications,” explains Dietrich Franz,
project manager for Process Organization Accounting at Deutsche Post AG.
The AP Process for Deutsch Post using Invoice CENTER
OpenText Capture Center continues to capture data from scanned
images and faxes and interprets the content using the OCR/ICR and IDR
technologies developed by CGK. This not only reduces manual keying
and paper handling, but accelerates the business processing, improves
data quality, and saves customers money by automating the process from
the point of entry—the mailroom.
BUILDING A CHECK-FREE
Document review process
MOVING DATA THROUGH THE DIGITAL MAILROOM
With the data and document capture technologies, enterprise employees
in the early 1980s accessed complete customer files containing scanned
images of all letters, reports, documents, graphics, and photographs.
Organizations with paper-intensive businesses like finance, law, and
insurance, realized that an imaging system could reduce their storage
costs. Several companies bought technologies that could index and
search millions of documents, primarily for online services and litigation
support of large legal cases.
“As early as the 70s, we had a vision of a ‘check-free’ society at
CGK. We worked closely with a few German banks to optimize
their check and money order processing in order to get rid of
paper transport between banks.
The end of the 80s brought about important technology leaps
in the development of new hardware and software for character
recognition. Around that time, there were also increases in
processor speeds and associated components, which allowed us
to create increasingly complex reading software. Applications of
our solution could become more and more complex.
We began working on a solution for the USA on behalf of the
US company Unisys, and developed hardware and software
to read the monetary value of US checks. This product, which
was commercialized in 1991, made it possible to read up to 35
checks per second, regardless of whether they were typed or
handwritten amounts. We had highest accuracy on the market.
The same technology also allowed us to read money orders in
Germany and other European countries.”
However, there was another challenge that existed once a document
was converted into digital form: how to move it around in a flow pattern
that resembled the mailroom trolley passing between floors of an office
building. For high throughput activities like check processing, it became
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 37
necessary to implement a flow through a set of rules and this came to
be known first as workflow and then as Business Process Management
(BPM), discussed in Chapter 4. One of the pioneering companies in this
market was ViewStar.
ONE OF THE MOST
“Back when we started VewStar in the late 80s, our primary focus
was on document image processing, which included routing of
documents through simple scanning and indexing workflows.
ViewStar was the first company to provide an imaging and
workflow system that was 100 percent Local Area Network and
software-based. This became the standard and other companies,
most notably FileNet, were forced to move from manufacturing
and selling expensive and proprietary hardware to pure
A few years later, we developed significant extensions in
our proprietary scripting language to automate more robust
document workflow tasks. Finally, by early 1995, we introduced
a powerful new graphical workflow modeler called Process
Architect, which allowed someone other than programmers to
define workflow processes. Though it's been nearly 20 years
since we conceived and developed Process Architect, at the time
it was the most powerful tool of its kind and a definite precursor
to the visual process modelers you see to this day.”
First developed as an imaging processing software, the founders of
ViewStar wanted to provide document management software for PC
LANs. Most products on the market in 1986 required special, proprietary,
and expensive hardware. To forego the hardware, ViewStar used PC
networks to process the images. It would compress and decompress
the images, render them, and then allow the user to manipulate them.
ViewStar even created its own graphical user interface before GUIs
MAKING TECHNOLOGY EASIER TO USE
ViewStar developed its GUI to improve usability. Ease of use for their
customers was important, and the release of ViewStar 3.1 in 1993
reduced the number of steps required to scan documents and linked the
scanning process to an online help system. It sped up the workflow by
allowing documents to be scanned directly into folders and helped the
user through the scanning process.
Transferring image files was expensive and time-consuming. Innovation
continued at ViewStar and its software included distributed networks to
hold images for overnight transfers to lessen disruption in the workplace.
Users still required hardware to scan and store the images. ViewStar
worked with vendors like Fujitsu Systems of America Inc. for scanning
3 8 / CHA P T E R 1
As computer technology continued to evolve with different platforms,
ViewStar evolved with it. By the mid-1990s it became an open, objectoriented, networked-based business process automation software.
ViewStar was one of the first in the industry to deliver a document
management package for Windows NT. It supported other industrystandard hardware and software platforms, including: UNIX operating
environments, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server®, Sybase® databases, Novell
Netware®, and Microsoft Exchange.
Its client/server document workflow software let customers automate
document intensive business processes. ViewStar products were used in
various applications, including consumer and mortgage lending, claims
processing, underwriting, trust management, contract management,
accounts payable, and customer service. A merger in 1995 with Caere
gave ViewStar the capability to incorporate its OCR technology as well as
natural language processing and logical form recognition technology.
Remote Batch Scan
WORKFLOWS IN THE
“The Business Process Management market really started in the
late 1980s. At the time, BPM focused largely on workflows—as
it still does today in many ways. It was an interesting time
from a competitive point of view. There was one big gorilla on
the block— FileNet— and lots of smaller companies. IBM was
on the scene around imaging of documents, but it wasn’t into
workflows, at least not until the late 1990s. Staffware was an
early arrival on the scene in early 1990s. But most competitors
focused on image capture. Xerox was working on manipulation
as well as capture.
So really in the 1980s there were two types of competitors
that would later make up the BPM market as we knew it in the
1990s— image capture and manipulation and routing of work
Batch Scan Workstation
hardware. Sony Corp. of America and Hewlett-Packard Co. offered
ViewStar-compatible optical jukeboxes.
ViewStar Process Agent
A ViewStar Processing Agent PROCESSES batch scans remotely
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 39
In the late 1990s, ViewStar started integrating telephony, email, and more
into its BPM software. BPM was computing technology that automated,
streamlined, and optimized processes by managing the flow of work and
information across an organization, which will be discussed in greater
detail in Chapter 4. The ViewStar technology continues to drive process
management and change management as part of the OpenText Business
Process Management solutions: opentext.com/btf-bpm.
Before content could be outputted, it needed to be found and retrieved.
To create order, development began on the early forms of the EDMS
or Electronic Document Management System. This allowed teams of
individuals on a network to view, markup, and edit documents.
The technology advanced through this era from capturing data as an
image to individual characters. For organizations requiring batch
processing, like invoicing, the automation of these processes saved
them time and money. But offices did not become paperless; in fact, new
developments were needed for output as input technologies developed.
Perhaps the most fundamental piece of any content management
system is the search engine. Imagine how many hours people waste
looking for the information they need to do their job. With the explosion
of data that occurred as more content traveled onto the on-ramp,
finding and reusing information became important. But data can take
on different forms in digital systems, and that makes retrieval much
SEARCHING IN UNSTRUCTURED TERRITORY
EXITING THE HIGHWAY
Once organizations had digitized their content, new storage and
distribution methods were required. Technologies that allowed the
content to be printed or saved continued to improve during this time.
Printers became more sophisticated and higher resolution from the
basic dot matrix printer to the ink jet printer, and finally to the laser
printer. The technologies developed at this time were known as
Output Management technologies.
Output Management technologies included:
Less Than 2
• Web and portals
• Electronic distribution such as email archiving
Content was exploding with the development of the on-ramp
technologies, networks were growing, and more people and
computers were interacting with content. Multiple people edited the
same documents and images—everything from legal and human
resources documents, invoices, building layouts, and circuit board
designs. Various authors created editing and authorship chaos when
teams worked together to accomplish tasks like co-writing a technical
manual or making changes to a building floor plan. And the vast quantity
of documents made it hard to find anything.
4 0 / CHA P T E R 1
Time spent searching for information
There is structured data—like form fields that feed into a database—and
there is unstructured data, such as content in an email or on a Web
page. Both types of data need to be captured, processed, stored, and
retrieved.19 Because structured data is based on numbers organized into
19 ilovec, Nahid. Electronic document Management Growing in Importance. System iNetwork, Mar 1, 2011: www.systeminetwork.com/article/systemsJ
tables, the tables can be quickly manipulated to find data that
refers to those numbers. Words, on the other hand, especially withWeb 3.0
out context, are difficult to organize and search. Of all the enterprise
content created, stored, searched for, and shared every day, the
majority remains unstructured.
With more people sharing common files within LANS and the introduction of word processing systems, spreadsheets, presentation tools,
and email, the amount of unstructured data exploded. Not only did
organizations need to Asset thisSocial Networks but they needed to manage,
information, Content Lifecycle Transactional Content
secure, and access it again for further distribution. Early on, organizations
realized that to find the documents they needed to conduct business,
they needed search tools. The need to find or “search” for these files and
Web contents lead to the invention of “search engines” that would scan
across all of the files in a system and create an index of the contents
so that the pointers would allow the user to quickly find files acrossArchiving
large file system. These client/server SEARCH ENGINES would become the
prototype for Web search engines.
SORTING THROUGH TEXT
With no efficient way to search through all their research findings,
Battelle Memorial Institute needed help in the early 1970s to support its
internal research efforts. Battelle is a private nonprofit applied science
and technology development company headquartered in Columbus,
Ohio. As one of the largest independent research foundations in the
world, its researchers needed a full-text retrieval system. They invented
BASIS so that they could sort through enormous quantities of text at a
Without search engines, finding information on the Internet would be
comparable to searching for a needle in a haystack. A Google search
in 2011 for the term “firewall” produced over 139,000,000 results. Mailroom
Fine-tuning this search for a “book about firewalls” displays many
results depending on context: security, networking, and intranets in
computing; information about a part of the vehicle that separates the
engine from the driver and passengers in automotive manufacturing;
within construction, a firewall is the barrier inside a building designed
to limit the spread of fire, heat, and structural damage. The term would
also produce results including a film, a couple of novels, a musician,
a G.I. Joe character, and an episode of a computer animated show
called Reboot. With the amount of digital content steadily increasing,
organizations and individuals needed a way to sort through content to
find relevant information.
After applying BASIS to support their research in toxicology and
materials science, Battelle decided to commercialize the technology.
BASIS quickly gained a reputation within the world’s most researchintensive organizations after sales in 1973 to the Technical Research
Institute for the Japan Society for the Promotion of Machine Industry
and the US Naval Ship Research and Development Center.
As demand increased, Battelle formed Information Dimensions, Inc. (IDI),
in 1986 as a wholly owned subsidiary. This helped the company expand
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 41
globally and develop commercial relationships, along with governments
and universities, allowing IDI to test BASIS against more demanding
applications. It also allowed for innovation as IDI introduced Techlib to
manage corporate and government library collections. In 1998, OpenText
acquired IDI to expand its search technology.
The founders formed Fulcrum to bring full-text search technology for
unstructured data to minicomputers for small- and mid-size companies.
Eventually, Fulcrum developed the technology for Windows. In 1991,
Ful/Text version 5.0W allowed Windows 3.0 users to archive and
retrieve most types of documents. By 1994, Fulcrum worked out a deal
with Microsoft to be the search engine in Windows NT. The success
of this relationship led to the release of Fulcrum Find in 1996, which
extended the Microsoft Exchange text search capabilities so that users
could search several folders simultaneously and search messages and
attachments. The original Fulcrum technology continued to evolve as it
became OpenText Search Server, eDOCS Edition.
In the late 1980s, another company based in St. Gallen, Switzerland, was
also developing technology, called PC Search, to search files for words.
IntUnix developed the electronic information management and retrieval
system based on a powerful full-text indexing and search engine. In
1993, IntUnix started to cooperate with OpenText and use its search
technology. Its early customers included banks, manufacturers, and
government departments, and eventually OpenText acquired IntUnix.
Searching unstructured data was essential to document management in
the enterprise. As the number of user directories grew, there was more to
search and retrieve over a WAN. Many organizations were overwhelmed
with increasing amounts of content produced by PCs, scanners, and
fax machines. The enterprise was struggling to manage documents
for redundancy, while enabling employees to collaborate effectively to
exchange information and ideas.
BUILDING THE FIRST SEARCH ENGINE
EMPOWERING ORGANIZATIONS TO INCREASE EFFICIENCIES
It was one thing to build a search tool that would search a proprietary
database and retrieve the content, but for all the content that was
on a computer, or even in a network, a search engine was needed.
The company that developed the very first search engine was
Fulcrum Technologies Inc. Ken Leese, Peter Eddison, Eric Goodwin,
Peter C. Reid, and David Potter founded Fulcrum in Ottawa, in 1983.
Most of the founders met while working with a consulting company
called Mobius Software that developed and maintained a mainframebased full-text search engine for West Publishing.
Organizations learned that if they could not efficiently manage their
documents, they could risk losing new business, fail to adequately
support existing business, and even fail to comply with stringent
government regulations. DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT systems became
available at this time to empower organizations to succeed by increasing
efficiencies, improving productivity, and reducing expenses. The next big
challenge became controlling access to shared drives as client/server
applications integrated electronic documents and processes.
4 2 / CHA P T E R 1
The sharing of files across large file systems also led to the creation
of document management software that would permit many users to
simultaneously use the same file Data Capture
and maintainDocument Capture control
an organized Digital Mailroom
of the “versions” and how the rules by which these versions would be
merged into one updated document. This became an essential tool for
large groups that were authoring complex documents such as aircraft
interaction of people across distributed networks such as
LANs required the co-ordination of work and this became known as
Workflow. A workflow engine would permit the creation of complex
workflows that would emulate and exceed the actual analog route by
which work was formerly accomplished in organizations.
Documents of all types and origins played an essential role in business
processes and workflows, from routine approval processes to complex
accounting operations, accessed by multiple people Captureintegrated
into multiple processes. Often this integration occurred manually as
employees entered data from the accessed document into an enterprise
application, such as ERP or Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
systems. Software at this time enabled organizations to automate these
business processes. Workflows started replacing paper-based processes
by electronically routing documents from one person to the next.
VENTURING INTO A BRAVE
“As organizations moved from proprietary word processors like
IBM DisplayWriters and Wang Word Processors to PCs and LANs
running Novell and WordPerfect®, there was a significant gap
in functionality, namely no ability to categorize, search, and
find documents stored on the network. This gap was filled by a
few early vendors in the market like Saros, SoftSolutions, and
PC DOCS. PC DOCS was the first vendor to venture into the
brave new world of Microsoft Windows and that is when I joined
the company (November 1992)—it was a situation where I had
the opportunity to install the software when running a small
consulting company to law firms. I liked the product so well I
decided to join the company.
Those early days were chaotic as we were all part of a step
change in the computing landscape as organizations began to
see the benefit of information sharing, which they were just
never able to do via the mainframe, minicomputers, or even
isolated PC environments.”
Originally, workflows were viewed as add-ons to document management
capabilities to map approval processes. By standardizing the interactions
between people and content, workflows not only defined the processes,
but automated and tracked the flow of tasks between individual systems
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 43
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
PROCESSES USING OPENTEXT
The Regional Municipality of York is located just north of the City of Toronto. Comprised
of nine municipalities, it has a population of close to one million with approximately 25,000
businesses located within its borders. The Region has an annual budget of $1.7 billion and
employs 2,600 full-time staff.
York Region wanted to transition to the latest version of the OpenText Document
Management, eDOCS Edition, and required an implementation that would not disrupt service
to their staff. They had a large number of documents and emails on shared network drives.
The multitiered architecture of OpenText Document Management, eDOCS Edition offers the
Region a comprehensive set of standard functionality.
York Region has improved business processes across the organization and has significantly
reduced the amount of time spent on document-related activities, including search and
retrieval, check-in/check-out, versioning, and applying appropriate security controls.
The Regional Municipality of York on GOOGLE® MAPS
MANAGING MULTIPLE USERS AND VERSIONS
PC DOCS, the first document management software for PCs, was
developed by CMS/Data Corp. In 1991, CMS/Data Corp. decided
that it needed to broaden beyond support for WordPerfect into other
applications used in the enterprise. Version 4.0 of PC DOCS allowed
users to call up files in Lotus 1-2-3, as well as Microsoft Word, without
actually exiting PC DOCS. PC DOCS has since evolved into OpenText
Document Management, eDOCS Edition.
As digital documents passed through an organization, multiple authors
would work on the same document simultaneously. Systems became
more complex, controlling versions and adding rules to overwrite edits
and maintain an audit history of any changes made to a document.
This was the birth of the document management industry, which would
mature to become a fundamental building block of an enterprise content
StreamServe as it
“We marketed the StreamServe Suite as an infrastructure
solution—a business communication platform—that could be
used for eBusiness or any other communication channel.
The product suite was designed to manage and automate the
flow of critical business information. StreamServe enabled our
customers to communicate with their customers, suppliers
and partners in a wide range of formats, across many types of
channels, and in a customized manner.
In the mid-2000s, StreamServe had another evolution.
StreamServe Enterprise Document Presentment (EDP) software
enabled the world’s leading companies to communicate
effectively with their customers, partners, and suppliers. The
automated creation and presentment of documents in any
format through any channel helped enterprises convert internal
information systems into dynamic, interactive, and customized
communication channels, and extended the reach of their
PC DOCS INTERFACE
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 45
In 1992, the company took its name from its product and became
PC DOCS Inc. It then upgraded its software to include improved security
and the ability to search while editing and monitor employees' keystrokes
and print commands. Two years later, Open 2.0, a Microsoft Windowsbased document management software enabled users to track and edit
documents from remote sites as workforces expanded globally and
became more mobile.
THE START OF MAGELLAN
“In the late 80s early 90s, optical disk storage became a cheap
alternative to expensive disks. Among the different technologies,
the Write Once, Read Many known as WORM, became popular
with IT data centers as it was a ‘permanent’ record that was
accepted by auditors and the courts. The new storage medium
allowed for all sorts of data from mainframes to personal
computers to be stored inexpensively. Unfortunately, the drivers
and access to these optical mediums only allowed for file write
and read type access. In other words to read it, once written, you
had to copy the file from the optical drive back to an expensive
disk. The concept of ‘Direct’ read at the record level access point
did not exist.
So, we started developing software that would not only store
files and databases on the optical drive, it would index them
there and allow you to read them directly which made the
optical drive behave just like disk storage. As a result, the
storage and CPU savings were enormous.”
BUILDING AN INTELLIGENT OUTPUT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
During the Pre-Web era, many off-ramp technologies needed to convert
digital files back into the analog world. This required more than just
“printing” the document or image, but a much more complicated method
of merging the digital world with the analog world so that machinegenerated text could be placed with other forms of analog information.
A leader in this field was StreamServe.
As part of the document lifecycle, organizations looked for ways
to automate tasks and deliver business-critical information more
productively. Take, for example, a manufacturing company that shipped
its products. After orders were received and placed into the system,
orders fulfilled and packed, the final step in the workflow is the automatic
printout of packing lists for the shipping company, as well as its own
records. An intelligent output management system like StreamServe
not only managed this kind of system, but monitored its progress at
Per Einarsson, Birger Lundgren, Curt Lestrup, Hans Otterling, Lars-Ove
Axelsson, and Magnus Einarsson founded the company in Sweden
in 1994 as DocuServe, and the company released its first version of
its software in 1995 with the same name. Both names changed to
StreamServe in 1997. Its Enterprise Document Presentment (EDP)
software automated how documents were created and then formatted
The solution enabled data-driven routing that could be handled through
numerous communication channels including printers, e-commerce
solutions, fax, email, and eventually the Internet. StreamServe was
awarded Software of the Year in Sweden in 1997. StreamServe formed
alliances with IBM, SAP, and Oracle—similar to those existing at
OpenText when it acquired StreamServe in 2010. This helped solidify its
partnerships while adding compatible document output and customer
communication management software.
4 6 / CHA P T E R 1
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
AUTO DEALER REDUCES
PRINTING COSTS BY 60
PERCENT WITH STREAMSERVE
BMW France required a software solution that was capable of managing large streams of
data from a number of computers and databases—to the tune of 775,000 documents—
across its dealership network. The company also had to be able to quickly generate emails,
PDF files, and printouts of information. After a general review of software on the market,
BMW France selected document processing solutions from StreamServe.
With more than 800 invoices being generated daily (each edited in five copies), the first
phase was to optimize invoice processing. For the next phase, the company applied the
StreamServe solution to improve its documents for page setup, personalization, color,
and legibility—giving dealers and customers pieces of more value and ensuring brand
consistency in marketing brochures.
Operational within a few weeks, the solution allowed the company to quickly set up
new printing processes for invoices. The customizable invoices required only one-sheet
printing and could be distributed by mail. Filing was done automatically and duplicates
were accessible on the intranet and extranet. Using StreamServe solutions, the distributor
was able to improve productivity and reliability by eliminating multiple captures and tasks,
resulting in more effective traceability of their documents and an overall reduction in prints
costs by as much as 60 percent.
“The idea started for Vista Plus in 1989. We offered a print spool
management application for Hewlett Packard’s MPE operating
system. As a feature of this spooling application, we added a
‘print preview’ function to the product. Soon this feature became
so important and useful to customers that we realized it was
valuable enough to become its own product line.
When companies started to worry about their Y2K system
issues, there was a big influx of ERP deployments as a strategy
to address these concerns. The ERP systems at that time did
not have any features or functionality to manage reports and
output—Vista Plus filled this gap nicely.
One of our customers was so excited to move from legacy
hardware that they had a party to de-commission their
mainframe as they moved to a UNIX environment.
There was a photograph taken the moment they turned the
mainframe off and of the ‘Vista Plus’ tree they planted in honor
of the paper they had saved.”
StreamServe output flow
USING MACHINE INTERVENTION
In the early years of computing, Magellan Software and a product called
Vista Plus from Quest Software pioneered machine intervention as a way
to locate, decompress, and display content that had been digitized.
Magellan wrote the first program in the market that allowed viewing on
optical media. The first digitally recorded optical disk was created by
Philips and Sony in 1975. It was a five-inch audio compact disk (CD) in
a read-only format. This meant that once content was written to a disk,
nothing else could be added to the disk and it could only be played. It
took both companies another five years to create a digital storage solution
for computers using this same sized CD called a CD-ROM.
Not until 1987 did Sony demonstrate the erasable and rewritable
5.25-inch optical drive.20 This optical disk drive used laser light or
electromagnetic waves as part of the process to read or write the data
to or from optical disks. These are often called burners or writers. CDs,
DVDs, and Blu-Ray disks are all types of optical disks.
Ron Vangell and Edward Malley founded Magellan in 1993 in Irvine,
California. The company provided content management and e-Business
4 8 / CHA P T E R 1
20 omputer Peripherals - Chapter 12. Optical Disks. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. October 16, 2001. www.lintech.org/compC
solutions. The IBM lab in Tucson, Arizona approached Magellan to write
an interface to manage IBM servers. IBM needed a way to capture,
index, paginate, and move content to optical storage.
Magellan developed software that took one second to locate, decompress, and display content. IBM sold this technology to its mainframe
customers. Magellan then used their own technology with their
document management software to scan, index, and retrieve digitized
materials. It put them light years ahead of their competition.
Three men in a garage in Newport, California started Quest Software
with a line of high availability and middleware products for HP MultiProgramming Executive (MPE). As Quest developed features for MPE,
one of the features became so important that Quest developed it further
into its own product—Vista Plus. The suite consisted of two components:
Vista Plus Professional and Vista Plus Output Manager. Vista Plus
Professional focused on the longer-term storage, retrieval, and online
viewing of output—like a data warehouse for end-user created reports
and electronic documents. Vista Plus Output Manager focused on the
physical print and distribution of output.
As Quest began entering the markets of database management, application change management, and Microsoft management, it was clear
that the Vista Plus Suite, though powerful, did not directly fit their product
portfolio. OpenText acquired the product to add as a key element to their
enterprise content management suite.
Although Output Management is considered to be an older technology,
organizations continue to use it, often in mission-critical environments.
Paperless offices have not become a widespread reality, though products
like Vista Plus did start to reduce the need for paper. Paper becomes less
and less essential as more technologies function to support mobility.
GETTING READY FOR THE WEB
The infrastructures for the Information Highway were developed during
the Pre-Web era. As technology developments of hardware increased
in power and memory size, and they decreased in size from mainframe,
to minicomputer, to PC, they became less cost-prohibitive. And as the
number of computers grew, connectivity technologies developed to
support sharing. The development of protocols readied systems for
online connections in office buildings and beyond, to the Internet.
Web 1.0 would see the connection of the pre-network world of the
desktop. As the world became more connected, organizations realized
that they needed to protect the volumes of content that were being
produced when organizations converted the analog world to the digital
world. The need to manage, search and retrieve all this content—
securely—baffled many organizations at first. Once data and image
capture technologies were developed, along with digital mailroom
technology, search, document management, and workflow technologies were required. This enabled organizations to reuse and
improve their content.
Eventually, document management technologies would expand to handle
compliance and governance issues and workflow would become part
of business process management technology. But the development of
Web Content Management technologies that emerged as the use of
the Internet expanded into the enterprise took us to a new world where
content began to appear in new forms.
LAY IN G THE FO U N DATION / 49
Web 1.0 / 1990-2000
Connecting to the Internet
Slow and awkward describes the early days of the Internet. Just as Microsoft® and Apple®
had transformed PC computing by replacing DOS line prompts with a user-friendly GUI,
Mosaic revolutionized the Internet by creating the first popular GUI for the Web. Netscape®
commercialized this GUI with its Web browser, replacing the text-based Internet with a
graphics-based World Wide Web. Suddenly the Internet had a whole new, user-friendly look
and feel. The Information Highway was here and ready to connect millions of people with
information in new and visually compelling ways.
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and how the web
with deep risk and
online applications, more users, and new file formats, technologies like
for Web Content Management (WCM) and portals were introduced. As its
infrastructure strengthened to accommodate a growing Web and more
people connected across the globe, the Web transitioned to the next era
NETWORKING AMONGST RESEARCHERS
THE EARLY WEB
As the Internet evolved and became a familiar tool for many,
mainframe and client/server computing moved online to connect
content management technologies with enterprise content. Document
management, records management, archiving, and other technologies
followed suit. As a result, content was no longer confined to reside in
Netscape, and then Microsoft, created easy-to-use software that could
connect any computer to the Internet, allowing people to exchange
information with each other, or even millions of other people. This
capability was unprecedented and caused a surge in use that was
followed by a tsunami of content. Often described as “info-glut”, the
volumes of information created gave rise to search technologies to help
people achieve a more direct and faster way to find what they were
looking for on the Web.
In the early years of the Web, the OpenText Index (OTI) was one of the
most used Web sites on the Internet. It was like a Google® before Google
existed, using Web crawlers to scour the Web for information. OpenText
developed partnerships with the pioneers of the Web: Netscape,
Yahoo!®, and Microsoft. These partnerships enabled
these companies to develop sophisticated technologies that would
provide new ways for people to interact with each other and the
content they created.
The early Web borrowed from the client/server architecture. Systems
moved online and became “Web-based”. As the Web grew to support
5 2 / CHA P T E R 2
From its inception, no Experience orEnterprise Content
country company controlled the INTERNET.
Universities and telecommunications were the early adopters of the
Internet. Development of the Internet began at Massachusetts Institute
of Technology (MIT) with Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider. In the 1960s,
he oversaw the development of a worldwide network of computers with
the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
MIT professor, Lawrence Roberts, joined DARPA toContent
help develop the first packet switching network.
With the project renamed, Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network (ARPANET), the group connected four computers in 1969. That
same year, on October 29th, the first Internet message was sent from
computer scienceConnectivity LeonardEngine
Kleinrock’s laboratory at University
of California, Los Angeles and a new public standard for networks
emerged. HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and HTTP (HyperText
Transfer Protocol) would be used throughout the world to communicate
between computers and people.
As discussed in the Pre-Web chapter, TCP/IP Document Capture Control
(Transmission Digital Mailroom
Protocol and Internet Protocol) was developed in the 1970s, and this led
to large organizations getting their various offices connected via Local
Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs). Rick Adams
founded the first commercial Internet service provider, UUNET—now an
internal brand of Verizon Business—in 1987 in northern Virginia.
About five years before Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web, two
University of Waterloo Computer Science professors took on a project
that was also challenged by the limits of the computing technology
available at the time. For example, a standard desktop computer housed
a 10 MB hard drive with 128 kB of RAM and cost approximately $400 for
a Commodore® or almost $1,000 for an IBM® PC.
A computer network
Along with universities, research facilities were some of the first users
of the Internet. In 1989, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear
Research) was the largest Internet node in Europe. At CERN, another MIT
professor, Tim Berners-Lee, along with a young student there, Robert
Caillau, implemented the first successful communication between a
HTTP client and server over the Internet in 1990. Once Berners-Lee built
his prototype system to make it easier to share and update information
among researchers, he used those ideas to create the World Wide Web.
He then built the first Web browser, and continues today as the Director
of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that oversees the Web’s
The collection of Oxford English Dictionaries
In 1984, the Oxford University Press wanted to create a second edition of
the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Along with this endeavor, they also
wanted to produce a complementary electronic version that could be
revised and extended quickly and easily. It had taken 71 years to produce
the first 13 volumes and supplement, and 14 additional years to update
the original supplement with a new four-volume supplement.
OVERCOMING COMPUTING CHALLENGES
Through funding and grants, universities and research centers could
afford the powerful computers of the time. The hardware of the Early
Web, however, limited its users and restricted the sophistication of
applications. Slow connection and processing speeds, along with a
limited memory size, impacted overall performance. Video files like those
watched on YouTube® would have been impossible to download and
watch in the days of the Early Web.
TRANSFORMING DICTIONARY TO DATABASE
Fundamental to any dictionary and one of the goals of the new Oxford
English Dictionary project (OED2) was the ability for researchers, editors,
publishers, and students to find any word or string of words in the OED.
The two University of Waterloo Computer Science professors, Frank
Tompa and Gaston Gonnet, answered the request for proposal from
Oxford University Press to develop special software for editors and the
public to use. They won the contract and work began.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 53
The first challenge was to get all the current text content, 60 million
words and 600 MB, into a system. To handle the computing, the
University of Waterloo purchased a DEC™ VAX/11780 with 1 GB of
memory costing between $500,000 and $600,000 at the time.
In time, the dictionary was converted to a large database that could be
indexed with the search technology PAT. Being a dictionary, the text was
already structured, making it easy to index. The system extracted the
document characters in an index to make searching faster. It also used
string search technology so users could complete a search no matter
what size the query—one word or more.
With these new technologies, the Oxford University Press could produce
and update the dictionary more quickly and frequently. After seven years,
the group completed the project successfully and the innovation would
change the publishing industry and computer software, helping make
them ready for the coming Information Age.
The Waterloo team designed TTK, PAT, and LECTOR to support open
systems architecture. This way, users could incorporate solutions into
other programs developed in-house or from other vendors. This would
become important as the technology expanded into other and more
TAKING SEARCH TECHNOLOGY TO MARKET
The University of Waterloo professors made a strategic decision to
market their innovative software beyond the OED2 project. Other
academic institutions that found these technologies incredibly useful
included Stanford, Columbia, Princeton, Dartmouth College, Kyoto,
Australian National University, University of Pennsylvania, and the Swiss
Federal Technical Institute. Based on the success of these applications,
Open Text Systems was incorporated on July 12, 1989.
In the newly founded University of Waterloo Centre for the New Oxford
English Dictionary and at Oxford, computer systems were built to preprocess text and edit it in electronic form. The University of Waterloo
team developed a tagging and coding software which would later
become the OpenText Transduction Toolkit, or TTK, and used the new
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) encoding scheme to
mark up the text. The Waterloo team also developed PAT, a high speed
search tool for the large list of words and definitions, and LECTOR to
display the content.
The University of Waterloo has a unique
intellectual property policy that allows
researchers to retain ownership of Intellectual
Property (IP) rights over any of the intellectual
property in software they create while at the
university. Open Text Systems had the nonexclusive license to use, modify, and sell the
original software they developed.
Frank Tompa, Founder of OpenText, 1992
5 4 / CHA P T E R 2
Business customers were looking for effective ways to control the
increasing amounts of data that they needed to store, maintain, and
later, retrieve. As the amount of content in organizations increased,
they realized that it was too costly to simply store the information for
OpenText released OpenText 4 in 1994. It used many of the first SGML
tags made available in a standard search engine product. At the time,
the market held more established competitors in search—Information
Dimensions, BRS/Dataware, Fulcrum, and Verity. Despite this fact,
OpenText prevailed, growing and attracting customers from around the
world that included Union Bank of Switzerland, Mutual Life Assurance
Company of Canada, Grolier Publishing, Peugeot Incorporated, and the
Government of Japan.
People and companies started to invest in the Internet, and customers
were recognizing the potential of search technology. Less than a full year
after releasing OpenText 4, the company released the next product—
OpenText 5. With the three elements of TextSearch, TextQuery, and
TextView, OpenText improved the speed and customers could index,
search, and view a number of different document formats. And because
more users were familiar with the easy-to-use Microsoft Windows®
format, OpenText improved the GUI.
It was the University of Virginia’s Alderman Library that took PAT to an
Internet application. The Library used the software to access a number
of texts including the King James Version of the Bible through online
access by WAIS (Wide Area Information Server), and later, the Web.
This first Internet application not only gave OpenText leadership in the
academic market; its search and retrieval software would lead to a
search engine that could index the Web in seconds.
Knowing that the search technology could be brought to market, the
two professors, Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet, along with the man
who would become the co-inventor of XML, Tim Bray, went to work.
Supported by eight investors, four full-time employees, and a 33 MHz
mainframe, the team released the software trio of TTK, PAT, and LECTOR
in March 1990.
“It was pretty tough sledding in the early days—we had to
reorganize and reshuffle more than once, which is why the
current company, Open Text Corporation, officially dates from
1991. We paid the rent, but certainly weren’t getting rich. The
main problem was that our stuff was built for the Internet, but
the Internet wasn’t really there yet.
In 1993, I started hearing about this ‘Web’ stuff, and I liked it
a lot. In November 1994, I was at a conference and one of the
early Web guys made a speech talking about how he thought
there was going to be a lot of call for search technology on the
Web. I thought: ‘I wonder if our search engine would work for
that?’ Then the pieces started falling into place in my mind:
crawler, parser, hacked Web server. It could all be done and
it wouldn’t be that complicated. I got so excited that I was
physically shaking on and off for the next three days. At the
time, I saw it strictly as a good marketing ploy.”
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 55
CREATING THE INTERNET GUI
When Tim Berners-Lee created the first GUI for the Internet—the
Web browser—four million people were using the Internet.1,2 The Web
browser was essentially a software application that could retrieve and
present resources on the Web. Browser technology required many new
innovations, including new software to access information (HTTP) and
the new graphical knowledge (HTML) that gave each Web page a distinct
style. Because Web technology development standards were “open” and
access was free, innovation and global usage flourished and the Internet
became wildly popular.
of the first email tools (which will be discussed later in this chapter) and
In 1993, with 10 million Internet users, Mark Andreessen led the team
at NCSA to develop Mosaic, and then Cello (the first Windows Web
browser discontinued in 19943), Lynx 2.0 (a text-based browser), Arena
(which started as W3C’s test platform4), and Mosaic 1.0. These were the
new Web browsers on the market. A year later the number of Internet
users doubled. Andreessen started his own company Netscape and
introduced Netscape Navigator™. Other new browsers included IBM
WebExplorer, MacWeb, IBrowser, Agora, and Minuet.
Finally in 1995, Microsoft developed its first browser and bundled it
with Microsoft Windows operating system. By 2002, Microsoft Internet
Explorer® would dominate the market with a 95 percent market share.5
As the number of Internet users increased and Web browsers made the
content easier to view, content exploded.
Web sites multiplied rapidly. The first Web sites were static digitized
versions of newspapers and corporate brochures. A Web site was
comprised of a group of Web pages that were stored on a server in
HTML format that was sent to the client Web browser. This type of Web
site could support text, some images, and simple forms which typically
enabled users to sign up for something. The content was pre-defined
and not tailored to specific users. Content creation and maintenance was
a manual process for managers of Web sites, or Webmasters.
Many people did not know how to navigate through the vast, constantly
changing amount of content available on the Web. Across the street
from OpenText in Waterloo, Mortice Kern Systems (MKS) had a product
division working on a product called Internet Anywhere that used some
5 6 / CHA P T E R 2
Internet Anywhere product box
In 1994, Windows-based Internet Anywhere was introduced at COMDEX,
a computer expo held in Las Vegas. The software helped Internet users
navigate around the Web, access and compose email, and receive news
from UseNet Groups by pointing and clicking. People were getting used
to the desktop GUI that allowed them to point and click on their PCs, so
to have a tool that could do the same for the Internet was well accepted.
Internet Anywhere was also easier to set up than other Internet front
ends at the time. All it required was the software and a modem. Users
could also set up their own email addresses and create their own
1 History and Growth of the Internet. Internet World Stats. June 21, 2011: www.internetworldstats.com/emarketing.htm
2 Internet Users. The World Bank Group. 15 December, 2010: data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER/countries/1W?display=graph
3 ipskas, Vygantas. Cello – First Windows Web Browser. FavBrowser.com, 2010: www.favbrowser.com/cello-first-windows-web-browser/
4 Huges, Phil. Linux and Web Browsers. Linux Journal, May 1, 1997: www.linuxjournal.com/article/2219
5 aker, Loren. Mozilla Firefox Internet Browser Market Share Gains to 7.4%. Search Engine Journal, Nov. 24 2004:
domains. From both the implementation and the user perspective,
Internet Anywhere was fast to install and easy to use.
CONNECTING THE ENTERPRISE
Later that year, MKS took Internet Anywhere a step further to enable
enterprise-wide connections. The Novell Netware® version gave
enterprises a way to allow employees to send news and mail to other
users on their LAN, or even globally. As well as being easy to use and
install, the software also secured enterprise information on an internal
server which managed all permissions and ensured content security.
The technology earned the company the Emerging Technologies Award
by the Canadian Advanced Technology Association.6 But it was the
1995 version of Internet Anywhere that really expanded its functionality.
This new version supported UNIX-to-UNIX protocol, as well as the ever
more popular TCP/IP. By using the protocol of the Web, users could
access information services like the World Wide Web. Its increased telnet
functions meant that remote users and offices could access database
files and increase their productivity.
At the end of 1995, Internet Anywhere no longer fit into the long-term
strategic plans at MKS. The team that joined OpenText through the
acquisition of the technology brought vast Internet knowledge and
experience to help OpenText expand its focus beyond a search engine
SEARCHING THE INTERNET
Information was being added to the Internet at a pace that no one could
keep up with. Seemingly overnight, it had become the world’s largest
repository of information. Like a library, it was bulging with information
that people were eager to find and consume. To make information easier
to find, a few companies like Verity and DEC (now part of HP) developed
what became known as a search engine and created Web sites that
enabled people to search the Internet. Search became the first widely
used application on the Internet.
FIRST CONNECTING TO
“In early 1995, at the height of Internet hype, I was part of a
team of 11 desktop software designers that found itself in
a race to build a suite of easy-to-use software applications
that would help connect the novice computer user to the
We worked for a software company in Waterloo called Mortice
Kern Systems, or MKS. I can remember nervously sitting in
a circle of chairs at one end of the office when Tom Jenkins
walked in to speak with us about OpenText, the company
of about 40 people that had just acquired both our product,
Internet Anywhere, and our team, located just across the street.
Tom spoke about the OpenText Index, a massive search resource
on the Internet, and a vision for combining the ability to connect
to the Internet with the ability to find information easily. We
had no idea it would lead to one million queries a day in a
partnership with Yahoo!”
Tim Bray realized that the search engine technology that OpenText had
developed could work for the Internet. He singlehandedly wrote the
Internet version of the search engine. In 1995, OpenText announced that
6 Delrina, Unitel, MKS top list of CATA winners. Computing Canada, June 8, 1994.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 57
OpenText Index (OTI), a technology that indexed and searched the Web
was free to anyone on the Internet with a Web viewer. The technology
included an Internet agent that could repeatedly visit, read, and index
every word in every document on the Web.
MAXIMIZING SEARCHES TO MAXIMIZE EFFICIENCY
Despite the fact that Yahoo! was getting so many unique visitors, it was
still basically a directory that listed Web sites on the Internet. OpenText
and Yahoo! developed a partnership such that OTI allowed Yahoo! to
search every word on every Web page.
In 1995, the Internet was a popular, engaging topic in the media in
North America and Australia, spreading to Europe in 1996. 1995
brought commercial agreements to OpenText that would initiate the
trend of working with some of the most influential companies of the
time, like Oracle®.
Oracle started as a consulting company in 1977 called Software
Development Laboratories (SDL) by co-founders Larry Ellison, Bob
Miner, and Ed Oates. They commercialized the relational database
model—this innovation would change the face of business computing.
Other developments by Oracle include: storage equipment, servers,
operating systems, virtualization software, middleware, and a host
OTI AS SEEN USING NETSCAPE NAVIGATOR
By the fall of 1994, Yahoo! was attracting almost one hundred thousand
unique visitors. Like much of the early Internet technology, Yahoo!
originated as an idea shared between two university students—David
Filo and Jerry Yang, Ph.D. candidates in Electrical Engineering at
Stanford University. With all the available information on the Internet, the
two were trying to keep track of their personal interests. Their lists of
favorite links grew too fast and needed some organization so they began
to categorize them, and then subcategorize them.
5 8 / CHA P T E R 2
Licensing of the OpenText indexing and retrieval technology was the
first non-Oracle information search technology offered by Oracle and it
gave Oracle customers a variety of information, indexing, and retrieval
technology options. Three months after the Oracle agreement, IBM also
licensed OpenText Index. But the relationship that really boosted the
OpenText brand was its partnership with Yahoo! It reached its peak at
one million queries a day, and OpenText generated revenue by splitting
the advertising sales revenue with Yahoo!
INTERACTING WITH WEB CONTENT
The creation of the Web browser enabled more than the simple browsing
of attractive Web pages. As the limitations to connection times, processing speed, and memory size lessened, users began to add video
and audio files to the Web. Browser technology allowed for the addition
of this interactive and dynamic content.
Dynamic Web sites could generate content on the fly by piecing
together blocks of code, procedures, or routines. By using templates,
reading cookies, recognizing previous history, or following repeated or
favored clicks, customized content was created. Because dynamic sites
operated more effectively, they were easier to maintain, update, and
Eventually these new ways of finding and consuming information on the
Web found their way into the enterprise, causing the development of
technologies that would allow individuals to interact with their enterprise
content in ways similar to browsing the Web—with one key difference.
Content was private and because businesses had to secure their
information, the technology had to work behind the firewall, a boundary
that prevents users without permission from crossing from one area to
another in the network.
GOING BEHIND THE FIREWALL
Mike Farrell, Executive Vice President, OpenText
from 1992-2006, realized that the technology and
standards that OpenText used for the Internet
could also apply to business applications. He
realized that people would want to do something
more with the files they found in their searches.
Farrell wanted to build a complete system to find
and re-use electronic documents.
With document collections doubling monthly in both academic and
commercial institutions by the mid-1990s, managing content became
critical. Business management programs like Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) programs led to more automated transactions within
organizations. Oracle led the industry in database development to help
companies efficiently manage numeral-based data. Another company,
SAP®, was also pursuing database development.
expand. Dynamic Web sites became popular as they required building
a template and a supporting database, as opposed to static Web site
creation that was based on building hundreds, or even thousands, of
individual static HTML Web pages.
400 QUERIES PER GALLON
“Everything ran smoothly for a couple of months, with the load
from the Yahoo! service increasing steadily. At the peak of our
service for Yahoo!, we were doing over one million queries per
day, which at the time was an unheard of number.
Then it happened. On December 12th, 1995, a huge storm blew
in from the Pacific packing 100+ mph winds and torrential
rain. The storm swept over the entire San Francisco Bay area,
knocking down telephone poles in its path leaving over one
million Bay area residents without power. Worse still, due to
the widespread damage, it looked like some places would be
without power for days, possibly weeks.
What were we to do? Just as OpenText was getting ready to go
public, having the OpenText Index off the air for a few days, let
alone a few hours, was unthinkable.
We moved into action quickly. Our local staff and one of our
new IT managers (it was his first week on the job!) went to a
rental agency and got a 4,000 watt gas-powered generator. They
got the machine set up and by 10:00 p.m. that evening we had a
single server back on the air.”
SAP was started in southwest Germany in 1972 by five former IBM
employees with the vision of building standard application software for
real-time data processing. By 1973, SAP completed its first accounting
system, which eventually became known as SAP R/1. The product
line expanded to include a range of products including production
management modules, human resources, e-commerce, and portals.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 59
The system behind the firewall known as intranets, and the ability to do
something with files found with the search engine was called integrated
document management. Because intranets were private networks
inside organizations, they provided secure access to corporate
information. They enabled organizations to become more integrated,
efficient, and productive in the most basic business process—people
OpenText was one of the first companies to understand the potential that
intranets offered to large corporate and government environments—to
help make jobs easier to do and employees more productive.
ORGANIZING THE MESS
OpenText released Latitude in 1995. OpenText understood that the
amount of information available in the enterprise, from electronic
documents to CD-ROMs, LANs, WANs, and the Internet, was enormous.
This inspired the marketing team to create the campaign slogan “Life
is messy…deal with it.” Latitude enabled enterprise users to find and
retrieve documents they needed amidst a jumble of enterprise content
using the OpenText 5 search engine. It even ran on multiple platforms
and supported SGML and HTML.
The pioneering technology developed by
OpenText was acknowledged when Latitude
received the Award of Excellence at Seybold
Seminars in Boston in March 1995. This
encouraged a partnership with Netscape
who held 70 percent of the browser market
at the time. Early in 1996, Netscape bundled
the Navigator Web browser and Commerce
Server™ with the Latitude Intranet System
It was clear to OpenText by the end of 1995 that intranets were the
emerging computer platform. Large organizations had invested in
placing a PC on every desk and connecting all employees, even those
in different locations through networks. The management team saw
the intranet as more than a publishing platform for large enterprises to
post their internal policies and procedures, human resources forms, and
sales collateral. They knew that intranets could actually improve the way
people communicate, manage processes, and collaborate.
VIEWING INTRANETS AS A BUSINESS TOOL
Technology changes of the Information Age and the globalization of
the economy affected the business environment. Within organizations,
intranets gave users more access to information and to other people,
even outside their office, but this also created challenges. So much
information made it difficult to find what was needed, and the worldwide
distribution of resources made managing people more difficult. Finally,
access controls were complicated by the amount of data that existed
and the tools or technologies that were being used to access
Latitude User Manual
In the corporate world, few companies were in this line of work because
the software for corporate intranets required more sophisticated and
secure technologies. OpenText took advantage of this to increase its
technical expertise and expand its products to fit user needs.
6 0 / CHA P T E R 2
Corporate content trapped in departmental silos
At the time, many companies regarded intranets as experimental
applications. OpenText wanted to apply intranets as business tools
that would address content challenges and help employees collaborate
using only a browser, a phone jack, and a password, regardless of their
location. OpenText realized that all electronic content needed to be
managed as long as it was required by the organization.
logic ran on the server. Odesta now had a fully customized, platformindependent document management and workflow system.
The early technologies of content management were driven by
the imperative to improve efficiency and save money. There were
departmental requirements such as purchase order processing,
invoicing, claims processing, project management, sales readiness, and
product lifecycle management. Each department’s specialized content
management system worked effectively, but in isolation. Information
silos between departments caused duplication, wasted resources, and
difficulties sharing and collaborating.
INTEGRATING TO COLLABORATE
OpenText wanted to round out its core functionality so that users
could manage documents, establish collaborative workgroups, and
manage and track the progress of their work—called workflow—using
intranets. OpenText found the technology that would perfectly match
its search engine and messaging capabilities in the Livelink product
from Odesta with its document management, project collaboration,
and workflow technologies.
In the early 1980s at Northwestern University in Illinois, a group started
to create a document management system. The group became Odesta
and the document management system was Mac- or VAX-based.
While approaching its 10th anniversary in November of 1992—with 120
employees, growing debt, and venture capitalists ready to pull out—
Daniel Cheifetz, along with other executives and one quarter of the staff,
created Odesta Systems Corporation. They purchased the VMS-based
Odesta Document Management System (ODMS).
Immediately, the team began to upgrade the document management
and workflow automation program, including options for a UNIX server
and Windows. The company was competing against the Lotus Notes®
packages of the Lotus Development Corporation. Phil Beckman, Director
of Software Development at Odesta Systems continued to work on the
next generation of software: Livelink. Based on client/server architecture,
the client presented the user interface, while the application and business
Client/server software that predated Livelink
TAKING DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT TO A NEW LEVEL
In March 1995, Odesta took Livelink to the Documation Conference in
Long Beach, California, for its first live demo. The team was sure they
had most of the bugs worked out. Livelink was a big hit—the crowd
surrounded the booth, five people deep, all waiting for a one-on-one
demo. The success of the launch gained the attention of many, including
customers like Canon. Together, the developers from Odesta and
OpenText realized that this technology could move to the Web.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 61
“In early 1995, Daniel [Cheifetz] called all of us into his office
to announce that the new release would be called ‘Livelink’.
Daniel also gave us draft copies of the new product brochure.
The brochure included rather ethereal narratives illustrated by
artsy photographs that Daniel had commissioned from a local
creative company. I vividly remember looking up ‘sea change’
and discovering that this would indeed describe the events that
followed over the rest of the year.
Once OpenText combined its technologies with those of Odesta, they
released Livelink Latitude at the end of 1995. It was the first Web-enabled
system for searching, developing, and distributing documents. According
to Tom Jenkins, then President and Chief Executive Officer, “Livelink is the
first collaboration workgroup system that reflects the way people really
work. It enables everyone—no matter where they are—to communicate,
access information, build documents, and distribute the results. It is what
OpenText calls client/surfer software.”
Not only did the release include powerful search and document
distribution capabilities, it also featured a “universal viewer” called
Latitude Portal. Users could access word processing, CAD, and
multimedia documents and objects, no matter what their native
format. To see how this product has evolved, visit: opentext.com/btfdocumentmanagement.
We had a wildly successful launch. Almost immediately
after the launch the Internet became important for corporate use.
The question quickly became how could you realize this [Livelink]
in a Web browser? The architecture made it easy. There was a
short turnaround for Odesta to launch a Web-based architecture
for Netscape browsers. By moving to a Web client, Livelink was
the first Web-based document management system.
It became our objective to deliver application software that would
provide the benefits of the Internet to corporate environments.”
The new logo to help people understand the new product
DEVELOPING THE INTRANET
At this time, the Internet was still a new concept for many. The
commercial marketplace did not understand what an “intranet” was;
they thought it was a typo. This made explaining the new product,
Livelink 7, to prospective customers difficult. The marketing team
developed a new logo and advertisement to explain the concept of
the new Web-based product.
6 2 / CHA P T E R 2
The new advertisement was aimed to compete directly with Lotus Notes.
In 1995, IBM had acquired Lotus Notes. The software was an integrated
desktop client option for accessing business email, calendars, and
applications from the IBM Lotus Domino® Server. It could be used as a
document management system with discussion forums and provided
each intranet project with its own home page, a library, a discussion area,
the ability to route workflows, and search tools.
BUILDING NETWORK KNOWLEDGE
As the amount of content grew, early applications of the Internet and
intranet needed to become more sophisticated—internally to support
compliance with regulatory laws and externally to support corporate
Web sites. In order to scale their technologies and expand, organizations
that were working with Web technologies required solid networking
knowledge and experience.
Kirk Roberts and his team at NIRV Center founded one of the first
Internet Service Providers (ISP) in the world in Toronto in 1987. At
NIRV, they knew how to scale a network and maintain a hosted
service. The network considerations and features of its work would
impact future designs of OpenText search engines and document
When he became part of the OpenText team, Kirk Roberts led innovations in hosted services efforts that included Livelink OnLine (LOLI)
and b2bScene offerings. This work made Livelink accessible to smalland mid-sized companies. The team developed a way to access
software via the OpenText Web site on a pay-as-you-go basis.
Open Text Corporation was the third Internet company to list on the
NASDAQ. In January 1996, OpenText completed an Initial Public
Offering (IPO). A second public offering was made in 1998 on the
Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE). In 1999, there was a wave of IPOs
with companies being created around various Internet concepts—the
dot.coms. The bubble burst one year later and slowed the economy
for many companies in the industry. It was at this time that OpenText
decided to concentrate their focus on the intranet behind the firewall.
In 1997, Dan Latendre, Vice President of Product Marketing, said, “I see
the Internet as a showcase, a marketing vehicle. It’s a good place to
introduce yourself, but the intranet is where the good business is done,
using real technology close to the firewall. Businesses are tired of getting
wedded to client/server applications. But when you get into intranets, or
even extranets, as many companies are doing, everyone knows how to
use a browser and it just makes things easier.”
DEVELOPING THE GAME CHANGER
In 1997, Zona Research predicted that spending on intranets would reach
US $2.1 billion. The International Data Corporation (IDC) reported $3.0
billion by 2000. It was a growing business, and as more sophisticated
applications like Business Process Management (discussed in Chapter
4) became applied to intranets, the cost of implementation was expected
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 63
to rise. Organizations spent the money because they saw value in
extending their reach to remote users, partners, suppliers, and even
customers as companies became global.
During this time period, intranets were connecting business computers,
but organizations needed collaboration tools. The OpenText product
strategy focused on providing scalable, standards-based collaborative
solutions, and this differentiated OpenText from its competitors.
Microsoft and Lotus collaboration was message-based. Between two
users this worked fine because emails could be sent with attachments,
but this did not work effectively for a group. Take for example, sending
a document to a group of users simultaneously—problems arise when
modifications are made to the document and emailed back to the
author. The author then has to consolidate all of the modifications in
As the enterprise grew and started organizing its internal content
with intranets capable of managing risk, cutting costs, and increasing
efficiencies, the popularity of the Internet was still growing as a common
public platform.Enterprise Information realized that the Internet was not only
needed for front office functions, but it too had to work more efficiently.
As more people began to create and maintain Web sites, it created a
need for Web Content Management so that there was a simple way to
manage all the information that was being “posted” by servers to
INCREASING WEBMASTER PRODUCTIVITY
Ease of use became an important part of employee productivity in many
areas of the enterprise. Early Webmasters needed easy-to-use tools to
Social deal with on their Web sites. These
manage all the content they had to Networks
tools became known as WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT (WCM).
Early WCM systems allowed editors to develop content in an easy-toPre-Web
use browser-based interface. The WCM content repository stored that
content to publish to the Internet, intranet, or extranet. Using templates,
organizations could make sure that even though content was easily
changed, the design and layout remained consistent and professional.
Email collaboration between individuals vs. document
collaboration among groups
Livelink was built on a repository-based collaboration model, or
groupware. This meant that everyone shared equally in updating a
document. It also included a library or vault for storage, and the search
tools made it easier to locate and access knowledge. Working together
6 4 / CHA P T E R 2
Vignette, out of Austin, Texas, was one of the early innovators in the
Web Content Management space. Founders Neil Webber and Ross
Garber wanted to Networking
make Web publishing easier and more personalized.
Their first product development effort focused on large-scale content
management workflow processes. Vignette announced StoryBuilder,
but it never shipped. They struggled to make the technology work, so
Garber cold-called C|NET executive Jonathan Rosenberg. The San
Francisco-based new media company had a similar technology: Prism.
Prism allowed even technophobes to publish Web pages. C|NET had
not commercialized their product, so they handed it over to Vignette to
merge with the Vignette technology.
(VC) investors. Vignette raised another $27.8 million through VC firms
like Charles River and Adobe Ventures from 1996-1998. C|NET then
connected Vignette with online publishers the Chicago Tribune and
Garber continued to look forward and wanted to expand beyond the
online publishing market. He repositioned Vignette as a customization
and production tool for dynamic Web sites of all kinds, refocusing its
marketing efforts on the lucrative corporate market. It aimed to be the
answer for content developers publishing Web sites without needing to
Vignette shipped the new product, StoryServer, in January 1997.
StoryServer is widely considered to be the first Web Content
Management tool. Later that year, Vignette merged the StoryBuilder
technology into the StoryServer product, and shipped in September 1997.
A document publishing model inspired StoryServer technology. It allowed
users to move templates through various workflow stages. But the
caching system was the defining attribute of StoryServer. This allowed
access to pre-generated pages, and that meant viewers would see Web
pages as fast as the underlying hardware and Web server software could
send them to the network. StoryServer developed a degree of scalability
that most products could not match.
MAKING WEB SITES EASIER TO MANAGE
The C|NET connection helped Vignette attract business and capital.
C|NET invested $500,000 in the solution, and in return took a 33
percent stake in Vignette, providing an introduction to venture capital
Vignette using its own technology to build its site
The Application Programming Interface (IDE) that Vignette used along
with the Application Programming Interface (API) also made Web
development easier. The Vignette IDE and API offered an alternative to
the conventional CGI/vi/Perl Web development. Big media customers
like Fox News, Disney, and National Geographic, with a need for
decentralized content development and publishing, became early
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 65
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT
FOR THE LARGEST PROVIDER OF
PREMIUM PAINTS AND STAINS
FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN
Using Web Content Management, BEHR has evolved its online presence from a static HTML
site to a cinematic experience designed for homeowners and do-it-yourselfers alike. Visitors
to the site have a vast array of tools to help them pick, compare, and test-drive colors.
Features include a virtual Color Center that replicates BEHR color centers found in The
Home Depot stores, an Inspiration Gallery with wide-format, magazine-quality images to
spark ideas and an online Workbook where users can save and track their home projects
and color choices.
Web Content Management provides advanced rich media management capabilities and
a high-performance foundation for BEHR.com, enabling deep interactivity and an easier,
immersive Web site experience. Behind the scenes, WCM enables BEHR to minimize IT
involvement in Web site updates, putting the ownership of BEHR.com directly into the hands
of the eBusiness and marketing professionals who drive its online initiatives.
BEHR interactive Web site
customers. Organizations liked that the software let people change their
Web site without IT support. Vignette went public in February 1999, and
was listed as one of the 10 most successful “dot.com” IPOs of the year.
By the end of the decade, Vignette started moving into the mobile
delivery of content and internationalizing its business. It provided
multilingual sites based on user preferences, which led to Vignette
becoming the engine behind China.com. Throughout the next decade,
Vignette made several acquisitions to round out its technologies and
introduced more multimedia support. The technology powers Web sites
around the world as the Web Content Management component of the
OpenText ECM Suite.
Enterprises wanted to sell products and services to customers, as well
as automate business workflows. This pushed growth in the WCM
industry. And often, organizations were managing more than one Web
site on the Internet or intranets. New technologies created during the
Web 1.0 era helped organizations bring them together into a single point
of access, or a portal.
When Yahoo! debuted, it was a page of Jerry Yang’s and David Filo’s
favorite Web links on the World Wide Web. This was one of the original
Web portals. A portal presents information from many different sources
in an organized way. Web portals can also present news, stock prices,
entertainment, and other personalized information, including email. Like
MSN® or iGoogle, portals have become even more sophisticated with the
capabilities to show multimedia applications including social networking
tools discussed in more detail in Chapter 3, like Twitter®, video postings,
Once again, intranets borrowed from Internet technology. Portals
allowed a secure, single sign-on into several systems of the organization including workflow management, collaboration technologies,
and content publication. Portals helped organizations simplify their
intranets and gave them a common look and feel, while still allowing
for personalization and user customization.
A simplified Web Content Management lifecycle
While Vignette was getting its start in North America, InfoOffice was
pioneering Web Content Management systems in Germany. In the mid1990s, the InfoOffice team wanted non-technical users to change Web
sites quickly and easily, and even create Internet and intranet sites. As
the software developed into a solid management system, they changed
its name to RedDot. Customers identified with the red dot used in the
software to help users navigate and the name stuck. Other players in
the WCM space included Interwoven (now HP), Microsoft, Obtree (which
IXOS acquired), and Broadvision. For more information about WCM
technologies, visit opentext.com/btf-wcm.
Even with WCM in place, people still wanted ways to simplify Web
publishing. In San Francisco, Ed Anuff of Wired.com and Oliver Muoto,
an executive at Touchwave, wanted to make it easy to administer and
build Web sites. What was more compelling, however, was their desire
to introduce dynamic content like news feeds into Web pages.
Anuff and Muoto founded Epicentric, Inc. in 1998. The first product
to market, Epicentric Foundation Server, launched in 1999. As one
of the company’s flagship products, it supported multiple portals for
different groups of employees and/or partners within the enterprise.
A sophisticated permissions feature allowed administrators to specify
roles, groups, and access rights for every type of content.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 67
PUBLISHING IN A PORTAL
“Epicentric was a portal company. We were the engine behind
Motorola Web sites. It was a very dynamic group—the pace of
innovation was fast! We were founded in late 1998, went to
market in mid-1999 with version v2.0 of our portal product…
We had skipped right over v1.0. Shortly after releasing v2.0,
we released v3.0. We were the first to move away from using
API to configure portals—creating an admin interface was
groundbreaking at the time! In early 2001, we integrated Web
Content Management inside the portal, using an abstraction
layer. This was another amazing innovation. We even provided
workflow for Web publishing within the portal.
Another strategic business we had at the time, which turned
out to be way too early to market, was the use of syndicated
services to feed data to applets sitting in the portals. We would
take data from their parties, break it up, and feed it directly to
the customer base. We were doing news, weather, and other
feeds. No one else in the market was doing that at the time.”
6 8 / CHA P T E R 2
Systems under the portal umbrella
USING THE PORTAL TO ACCESS MULTIPLE SITES
Epicentric grew as a company developing software and services for
corporations and media businesses to create personalized portal Web
sites. It let users provide integrated Web services such as applications,
content, and commerce to customers and employees across intranets,
extranets, and the Internet. Using Epicentric technology, Global 2000
companies implemented multiple sites for several different audiences in
a cost-effective and efficient way. Their new dynamic sites were attracting
a greater number of visits than their static Web pages ever had.
The Epicentric portal stayed competitive by including its own content
management system (CMS), which included a workflow component.
Epicentric integrated the system in a way that allowed customers to use
their existing CMS, such as Documentum or Interwoven®.
In 2002, Epicentric won several awards, including:
• 2002 Best Portal Solution in eAI Journal’s Annual Awards7
• 2002 PC Magazine Editor’s Choice8
• 2002 eWeek Excellence Awards9
The technology is now part of the OpenText Portal, and you can learn
more at: opentext.com/btf-portal.
Portal of enterprise content for employees and partners
Epicentric provided Internet business solutions for customers such as
General Electric, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., Lockheed Martin, US Postal
Service, Hartford Life, Autodesk, Altra Energy Technologies, Inc., Verizon,
Vodafone, Motorola, and ChemConnect. Some of these clients, including
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., Outlook Ventures, New Vista Capital, and
Motorola, believed so strongly in the product that they invested funds in
7 AI Journal Awards Epicentric Best Portal Solution for Bank One Extranet Deployment; Epicentric Recognized for
Excellence and Innovation in Enterprise Portal Technology. allBusiness, May 20, 2002.
8 picentric Foundation Server is PC Magazine Editors’ Choice for Portal Software. Judges Award Epicentric Top Honors
for Technical Excellence and Completeness of Vision. allBusiness, July 23, 2002.
EPICENTRIC FOUNDATION SERVER
While Anuff and Muoto were releasing the Epicentric Foundation Server,
OpenText was looking to add new value to its offerings by aggregating
9 picentric Foundation Server Wins Year’s Best ‘Portals & Knowledge Management’ Product in eWEEK eXcellence
Awards. allBusiness, Feb. 25, 2002.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 69
content from one or more Livelink instances. myLivelink was one of the
early portals. It was developed to combine content from Livelink with
information from other Web resources like stock quotes, weather reports,
and business news, into a single, personalized Web interface. The
OpenText automated agent technology presorted the information into
industry categories. Released in late 1999/early 2000, it worked first with
Livelink 8.1.1, and was later renamed Livelink UNITE.
When companies were looking to keep productivity high, more technology companies made more sophisticated portals, content, and
document management applications, advanced search technology,
and other tools to pull all the information together for the enterprise.
With4.0 advancement in Internet technologies, one Web page could
be transformed into a portal, combining content from several other
sources on the Internet and securely, from behind the firewall.
COLLABORATING THROUGH EMAILS AND CHATS
During the WebCustomer Experience Enterprise Content
1.0 era, collaboration had become very important.
took collaboration to new levels, it started with email.
The primary method of communicating between two people was through
the use of EMAIL AND CHAT. Email began almost with the start of the
Internet, although its popularity became significant once a critical mass
of people had email addresses. Email then evolved from the UNIX-based
systems of the early Internet into the first PC-based systems such as
Chameleon and FirstClass, as well as Lotus Notes.
Microsoft Exchange became popular in the mid-1990s. Eventually Lotus
Notes and Exchange became the Internet standard for PC-based email.
However, in the early 2000s, email became one of the first popular cloud
services with the offering of Yahoo! mail, Google mail, and Hotmail®.
Soon more than one billion people had an email address.
Chat also became a popular means by which people had “immediate”
conversations with each other, as did texting on cell phones. In 1992,
7 0 / CHA P T E R 2
the first text message was sent to a phone, not from another phone, but
a keyboard. It was not until 1993 when Brennan Hayden sent the first
commercial text message in Los Angeles, that SMS (Short Message
Service) was used. Within the enterprise the ability to collaborate in real
time through chat- and text-type tools meant the conversation happened
more Operating than email, and it was easier to involve more than one
person at a time. Management
As Cloud/Mobile became more complex and Content searchProcess
Enterprise dense, Business engines became
more popular. An essential requirement for a search engine to function
properly was the ability to find the Web sites in the first place so that
it could build an index of the entire Web at that time. This led to the
creation of WEB CRAWLERS. These were robot programs that scoured the
Web by following links and separating private and public Web addresses.
The Web crawler technology of Social Networks
Network Solutions Group became the
Another company, Campbell Services, brought enterprise-level
calendaring into Livelink Intranet. The ability of Livelink Intranet to help
users work better Connectivity improved EngineOpenText market position. The
enterprise needed intranets and OpenText was Management what users
wanted. OpenText started moving its efforts away from the Internet,
which included spinning off the OpenText Index into About.com in 1997
with OpenText as one of the largest shareholders when it went public
in 1999. A year later, in 2000, OpenText completely exited this market.
There was more than enough to keep OpenText busyCapture theDigital Mailroom
needs of managing content in the enterprise.
started with the accounting scandal at Enron, and climaxed in 2001 with
9/11. Suddenly safety, testing, and protection from laundering became
increasingly important for organizations.
Candy vs. Aspirin model
Livelink ARCHITECTURE in 1998
As intranet repositories continued to grow and enterprises added more
content to the Web, they became worried about more than just managing
all this content; they became concerned about managing risk. Large
organizations realized that they needed control over corporate records
and information holdings to comply with audits, and regulatory and
litigation issues. It became a struggle for companies to balance the need
for candy—the interaction, collaboration, and fun that helps people to
build relationships between people, and aspirin—what is needed to ease
the pain if something happens and keep things under control.
In response to scandals like Enron, the USA passed the Sarbanes-Oxley
Act (SOX) in 2002. This legislation, also known as ‘Public Company
Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act’ or ‘Corporate and
Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act’, set new, mandatory
standards for all US public company boards, management, and
public accounting firms. These standards pertained to critical financial
information such as corporate responsibility for financial reports,
enhanced financial disclosures, and corporate and criminal fraud
accountability. While these standards only applied to the USA—the
number of regulatory requirements across the globe continued to grow.
In the case of governments, citizens expected accountability. In legal
proceedings, disclosure requirements highlighted the risks both of
retaining too few and too many records.
Major, well-publicized events at the end of the decade brought the need
for systematic controls over the information required to do business close
to home for the enterprise. Clearly, organizations needed to manage
their critical business documents in a highly secure infrastructure. It
With the increase in the volume of digital objects, there was a need to
keep track of versions, as well as just the sheer volume of digital objects
being created, used, and stored for future use. Often these objects were
valuable enough to keep, but many times once these objects had
GAINING CONTROL AND MANAGING RISK
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 71
served their purpose they could be thrown away. The need for long- Content
term organizing led to the creation of RECORDS MANAGEMENT and
THE HISTORY OF RM AT OPENTEXT
“Our first products were based on physical file management,
sold largely to the Canadian Federal Government. Just prior to
the acquisition, our products were enhanced to support the
simultaneous management of electronic, physical, and imagebased records.
These packages ran in a Microsoft Windows environment. Our
software components integrated with popular Windows-based
products such as word processing, spreadsheets, fax, full-text
retrieval, and email. The design philosophy was to provide an
open architecture within iRIMS and its adjoining modules, so as
to fit into almost any LAN and DBMS configuration setting.
As a result of the research we did, iRIMS received US
Department of Defense (DoD) 5015.2 certification and Federal
Government of Canada RDIMS certification for Electronic
Records Management. The DoD certification is an internationally
recognized standard mandatory for all Electronic Document
Management solution providers to the Department of Defense
and other US Government Departments. Prior to becoming part
of OpenText, this standard was becoming mandatory for other
opportunities in the global market place since it was the only
certification of its kind available in our field of research and
development. Since then, other certifications and standards
have emerged; the Public Records Office for the UK Government
has a similar certification to 5015.2, ISO has published its own
standard for electronic records management, and the US FDA’s
21 CFR part 11 applies to the pharmaceutical industry.”
7 2 / CHA P T E R 2
Unmanaged content puts an organization at risk. Critical documents
can be lost or deleted. Records management software helps by
attaching rules to electronic documents that meet the operational
needs, accountability requirements, and community expectations.
These rules tell the system when it is safe to delete the documents,
or move them to a data archive.
More than 100,000 rules andCapture Document worldwide…
regulations Capture Digital Mailroom
FDA 21 CRF Part 11
GDPdU & GoBS
NF Z 42-013
Federal Rules of
Public Record Ofﬁce
& The National Archives
Global regulatory pressures
PSSoftware started as a consulting service for records management in
1986 in Ottawa, but began to focus on the development and integration
of records management for both electronic and paper records. One of
their primary customers was the Government of Canada.
MANAGING RECORDS FOR COMPLIANCE
Development partnerships between companies started to become
common in the mid-1990s. OpenText had formed partnerships with
companies like WorldWide Technology Inc., and PSSoftware, to
assist and promote individual software vendors to create products
that enhanced or expanded core products for specific customer
requirements. PSSoftware had other partnerships as well with PC DOCS,
FileNet, Documentum, Centura, Oracle, Microsoft, IBM®, and Novell.
As more software companies supported different types of electronic
documents files, PSSoftware enhanced their products to manage not
only electronic and paper records, but image-based records as well.
It also integrated with word processing documents, spreadsheets,
The development of the Recorded Information Management System
(RIMS) provided an open architecture. This made it easier to fit into
almost any LAN or database management system (DBMS) setting. It
also ran in Microsoft Windows since users were most familiar with
PSSoftware successfully applied for certifications from the US
Department of Defense, Government of Canada, the UK Government,
ISO, and the pharmaceutical industry. This records management
technology complemented Livelink. The work that PSSoftware had done
to become standards-compliant moved OpenText Records Management
ahead of competition like FileNet and TrueArc (acquired by Documentum
in 2002), when the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) law was enacted in the
USA in 2002. To learn more about this product, visit opentext.com/btfecmsuite.
Product literature for Records Management software
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 73
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
PROCESSES AND PRODUCTIVITY
For the major insurance company AGVA in Switzerland, the assessment of buildings and
claims settlement lies at the core of the company’s activities. To streamline the complex
processes involved, and to link content to process, the insurance company implemented
an integrated system made up of ECM and ERP.
Process and document management are entirely managed by a Business Process
Management solution, which, together with an archiving solution, forms the ECM infrastructure at the company. All insurance products are managed using an ERP system
and an inventory management system. Customer files are managed using the archiving
solution, which is integrated with the ERP system for easy access to relevant information.
This integrated solution gives field staff direct access to up-to-date information about
insurance coverage, claim benefits and premiums. Business processes have been optimized,
becoming more efficient and easier to manage. As a result, productivity has increased,
resulting in cost savings, and customer service has improved, resulting in improved
Claims management at AGVA
COMBINING DOCUMENT AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT
As the demand for records management grew, OpenText management
realized that this was an extension that would complement the Livelink
product. Livelink Records Management was released in 2000 as the
first comprehensive, completely Web-based document and records
management solution for the enterprise.
With the new Records Management extension to Livelink, OpenText
helped customers more effectively manage their audit, regulatory, and
litigation risk by controlling all their corporate records and information
holdings, including paper, email, audio/video clips, images, word
processing documents, and more. In the process, the enterprise could
increase the value of its corporate information with highly descriptive
metadata, or structured information attached to data to make it easier
to retrieve, use, or manage. Livelink Records Management helped
organizations better manage their critical business documents in a
highly secure infrastructure.
Another company working on records management software at the time
was Tower Technology in Australia. Their product Tower Seraph was a
comprehensive records management system that was US DoD 5015.2
certified. Besides government and university customers, health systems
recognized that they could use records management software to manage
patient records carefully and securely. Records management software
also helped pharmaceutical companies comply with rules and regulations surrounding healthcare research. With constant changes to
legislation, pharmaceutical companies needed to ensure compliance
throughout the lifecycle of the documentation. In 2003, Vignette acquired
With daily pressure to comply with regulation and constant changes to
legislation, managing records and any document throughout its lifecycle
became crucial. OpenText knew that if it offered customers document
management with the addition of records management, customers would
find value in the combined offering.
Regulatory compliance became increasingly important to organizations
as they expanded globally and produced more electronic documents.
However, this required one more piece of technology—archiving.
“IXOS had software for managing jukeboxes for WORMs (Write
Once, Read Many), the only optical media available for archiving
then. These optical disks were the size of a baking tray (12
by 14 inches) and had a capacity of 1.3 GB. Also, scanning
documents was quite a challenge then, as scanners came as
heavy beasts that needed to be attached to a workstation with
dedicated interface cards from Kofax, which came for the price
of a medium-sized server today.
Development life was quite challenging at that time: we
needed to come up with our own drivers for controlling optical
jukeboxes via SCSI. Moving media from slot to drive, spinning
up drives, positioning drive heads, reading data, optimizing
drive handling—all of that had to be done by IXOS software.
During this time, we became experts on dealing with optical
devices. This clearly distinguished IXOS from many competitors
who did not have any in-house expertise on this topic.
There were no software libraries available that dealt with
compression/decompression of scanned images at that time.
Our first algorithms took more than 30 seconds to decompress a
single TIFF page. After some twisting and turning, we were down
to a few seconds. And you have to keep in mind that CPUs in
1988 were running on 10 MHz (MHz not GHz as we have today).”
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 75
year old documents to support the case. Legal issues for governments
may involve records that are decades or even centuries old.
Clinical Trials application of Records Management
What happened to documents once organizations decided they were
no longer required for current administrative purposes? The great bulk
of modern recordsManagement should be deleted asManagement they have
fulfilled their immediate purpose. Some others need to be kept for a few
years for audit. But many organizations realized that they had documents
of continuing value for legal and other reasons required for long-term
continuity and reference. A records management system could help
automate this process, however, if an organization needed to maintain
a document, it had to ARCHIVE it.
BUILDING AND ACCESSING ARCHIVES
Change to Vital Record
Evaluate RM Rule Set
For all of the information that organizations shared on the Internet or
on their intranets, archiving was about more than simply preserving
the content and storing it securely in a central repository. It was also
important to provide access to those files whenDocument
they were needed again.
For example, a company involved in a law suit might need to find 107Pre-Web P T E R 2
6 / CHA
Records management and archiving
A major innovator in electronic archiving was IXOS. Just months
after it was founded in 1988, IXOS signed a master agreement with
Siemens, a company founded in Berlin in 1847 that revolutionized
telecommunications by improving the pointer telegraph by electrically
synchronizing the transmitter and receiver. From telecommunications,
Siemens expanded its business through innovations in electric
transportation, incandescent lamps, radios, and supermicroscopes
before they started focusing on data processing in 1954. It was this
line of business that partnered Siemens and IXOS.
quickly grew. Its technology automated transactions that occurred within
organizations to improve productivity.
The first order for IXOS was to develop an imaging and archiving
system for the German Federal Employment Office. This order led to
the development of a solution that involved scanning paper records
and creating ASCII documents used to process payments for
Germany’s unemployed. The system organized documents in simple
folders and retrieved them by request based on a reference number
for each document.
The first version of the product, OFR-X, went live in 1989 on a UNIX
platform. IXOS installed OFR-X in 12 locations and on more than 1,000
desktops across Germany—all connected through a document pipeline.
At that time, IXOS had the first commercially available GUI for an
archiving product. The successors of this project are still running and
managing more than 4 TB of data to this day.
Following the trend of development partnerships, in 1990, IXOS
cemented another partnership with Siemens. Siemens wanted to
develop a new archiving system called ARCIS. IXOS completed much of
the development work with the exception of the archive WORM (Write
Once, Read Many) server, which came from Siemens. One of the major
differences between ARCIS and OFR-X was the ability to configure
everything in the interface, using the database to permanently store
A screenshot of IXOS technology
DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR THE FUTURE
As SAP expanded around the world, the strength of its relationship
with SAP kept IXOS in the race. Part of its success was based on IXOS
updating their technology for use with Microsoft operating systems.
In 1994, IXOS opened its first office in the USA, in California. When
Microsoft released Windows® NT 3.5 in 1996, IXOS released the first
server version of its product for Windows. The product name changed
to IXOS-ARCHIVE. The company also implemented a new scanning
methodology. Over time, IXOS standardized an open scanning system to
the Microsoft platform.
Most systems supported only UNIX, but IXOS recognized the value in
developing software to support Microsoft Windows systems in 1992, a
move many competitors thought foolish. The strong leadership of this
German company continued as it participated in the rapid expansion
of SAP information. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, SAP was a
leading innovator of ERP programs in the 1990s and the SAP ecosystem
In 1998, IXOS and Microsoft opened IXOS NTC, the Microsoft NT
Competence Center, which offered a service for hardware vendors to
certify their hardware for SAP R/3 and put a SAP-endorsed certification
label on server hardware for Microsoft Windows. These strategic steps
brought Microsoft and IXOS closer together and IXOS gained recognition
in the Microsoft community.
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 77
Today, archiving technology from IXOS has been combined with Livelink
from Odesta, records management from PSSoftware, and OpenText
original search technology to form the OpenText Enterprise Library. By
combining all of these technologies into a single foundation, Enterprise
Library helps organizations find content more easily while managing
their content more cost effectively within compliance guidelines.
For more information about this technology, visit: opentext.com/btfenterpriselibrary.
For Enterprise Content Management, Web 1.0 provided a Web-based
interface for content management technologies behind the firewall.
Applications became available enterprise-wide rather than requiring
installation on individual desktop PCs. The era introduced early ECM
technologies that required stronger search engines and led to the
development of Web crawlers. Software was also introduced to manage
the complete lifecycle of electronic documents from creation to archive
or eventual deletion, decreasing risk and increasing compliance.
The archives for a company became the Deep Web inside organizations.
Archiving was especially critical in the financial, energy, and government
sectors where high priority is placed on regulatory compliance. Archiving
became more important as use of the Internet in the enterprise increased
and content kept expanding. Organizations needed to consider new
forms of applications to make use of all this content.
The technologies of Web 1.0 allowed for the development of more
sophisticated technologies that could handle the growing amount of
content in new forms that emerged in the 2000s and the new social
networks, while running the enterprise.
MOVING TO MULTICHANNEL CONTENT
As the Internet became widely and publicly used in the early 1990s,
Web 1.0 was born. Generally the GUI browsers displayed HTML versions
of company brochures. As the era progressed, connection speeds
and bandwidth increased, and the cost of Web site development and
hosting dropped. People were able to interact with online applications
and each other to create new content through the use of Web Content
Management and email technologies. Fewer browser restrictions meant
that applications could grow and raise productivity even further for the
7 8 / CHA P T E R 2
CON N ECTIN G TO THE IN TE R N E T / 79
Web 2.0 / 2000-2010
Everyone Gets Connected
In 1995, only 16 million people accessed the Internet. By 2005, that number increased to
more than one billion people. More powerful technology, faster connection times, and lower
costs brought even more users to the Internet from all across the globe. Another half billion
people signed on as regular users in the next three years.1 As the popularity of the Internet
skyrocketed, social networking brought new forms of content and risk to the enterprise.
And new forms of content required new technologies to manage them.
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Content Management (ECM).
THE CURRENT WEB
The term “Web 2.0” was introduced at a conference in 2004 hosted by
O’Reilly® and CMP Media. Tim O’Reilly described Web 2.0 as a trend
that moves away from the traditional client/server-based applications
to technologies that use the Web as a platform for collaboration. In
O’Reilly’s vision, the Web became a network to facilitate emergent
applications based on an infrastructure of participation. What followed
was the development of applications like Facebook® and Twitter® and an
ensuing explosion of user-generated content. The focus had changed
from technology to the people using the technology.2
On the public Internet, applications such as Facebook brought people
together into social networks, and YouTube® allowed users to easily post
and share videos. Blogging, based on the term “Web-logging,” became
a popular tool that anyone could use because it was easy to use and
blogging applications were highly accessible. Blogs became a new form
of online journalism. People shared their opinions and observations in
blog posts and some gained a huge number of followers, becoming
thought leaders almost overnight. Blog comments could be posted, with
passionate discussions that followed in real time as people increasingly
interacted online. The Web grew to accommodate a growing community
of diversified users.
But the public Internet was not the first place that these applications
first appeared. They had already appeared on the private Web. By 2000,
organizations had created virtual private networks (VPNs) giving them
8 2 / CHA P T E R 3
TRANSFORMING THE WEB INTO DYNAMIC SITES
The Web continued to grow and it affected the enterprise in the
marketplace and behind the firewall. New interactive technologies
and communication models transformed the Web from static pages to
links to dynamic sites that could automatically assemble information
based on user habit, preferences, or interests. Web 2.0 applications
facilitated interaction, instant information sharing, and collaboration
over the Internet.
1 Internet World Stats: www.internetworldstats.com
2 O’Reilly, Tim. Various Things I’ve Written. O’Reilly About: tim.oreilly.com
The enterprise struggled to balance risk mitigation with individual
creativity and productivity gains from Web 2.0 technologies (remember
the candy/aspirin analogy). Organizations had to think about clearly
defining and communicating social media policies so that their
compliance process itself did not become a source of risk. Behind the
firewall, these risks were mitigated by a fully integrated and secure ECM
platform that supported full content storage, archiving, lifecycle, and
records management functionality.
The Web 2.0 technologies focused on collaboration and rich media
assets added newConnectivity content behind the firewall. Organizations
used Communities of Practice (social networks for organizations), Digital
Asset Management (to support videos and images for Web sites), and
wikis (just like the public Wikipedia®). These technologies when used in
the private Web were referred to as “Enterprise 2.0.”
(SAP, Siebel, PeopleSoft, Exchange, Notes...)
Business Process Service
Repository Bridge Service
(content, users, search)
CONNECTING ECM 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES
ECM 2.0 was the secure management of all content types, from
social networks, blogs, wikis, and other types of Web 2.0 technologies
across multiple repositories, applications, devices, and platforms.
ECM 2.0 helped manage and optimize the flow of content throughout
an organization. Technologies like social media became important
for the enterprise during the Web 2.0 era. The growth of social media
drove user participation. Web 2.0 technologies focused on productivity,
communication, and collaboration. Lifecycle technologies had to follow
suit and evolve to support the full lifecycle of content, in all its new
formats. Security, storage, management, archiving, and dissemination
were required for these new content types.
The enterprise focus on improving efficiencies sharpened, and
transaction technologies also evolved to manage data in the context
of systems and processes. Software was developed to connect
people and information to business rules and processes. Software
companies adapted the applications originally developed for client/
server infrastructure to work with Web technology.
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 83
BUILDING EXPERIENCES ON THE WEB
As the Web further evolved from static pages of Web content into
interactive discussions based on social networks using blogs, wikis, and
other tools that encouraged two-way communication, WCM evolved into
Web Experience Management or WEM.
“Web 2.0 challenged and transformed the traditional Web
publishing principles into a true multichannel digital experience
strategy where social and rich media became inseparable
elements of an organization’s online evolution. Vignette led the
shift toward a video-centric Web and brought community and
social media capabilities to the enterprise.
The Vignette architecture and modern platform helped
customers scale to meet the needs of their future, and make
the online customer experience more personal, engaging,
immersive, and dynamic.
As 2010 approached, the WCM industry was at the cusp
of another major transition, evolving into a much broader
Customer Experience Management market where Mobile and
Social Commerce, Semantic Web, and Cross-Channel Experience
gave organizations a competitive edge.”
Large organizations required their Web sites to easily scale for hundreds
of sites, hundreds of content contributors, millions of site visitors, and
billions of page views, and this pushed the demand for WEM. The
management system allowed for a global experience to manage the
whole content lifecycle from creation and publishing through to delivery.
With the ability to integrate the dynamic enterprise Web content into
large-scale applications, it also made content reuse easier.
WEM has the ability to leverage ECM content within a WEM publishing
process and combine it with social features on Web sites to optimize the
user experience and maximize content reuse. It also supports content
personalization by integrating the best of portal and WCM capabilities into
PIECING CONTENT TOGETHER
A defining feature of Web 2.0 technology is its ability to pull information
and personalize it within shifting contexts. Mashups are one example
of this, combining several different data sources into new and unique
applications, services, or dashboards to present content in new ways.
Mashups enable the creative and increasingly complex presentation of
many forms of content.
A mashup is a Web page or application that brings together or “mashes
up” different information or functions from different sources, similar to
the remix of a song. Data from different places is assembled into one
easy-to-use interface. Mashups aggregate data and combine it with
other information in a visual way to make it more useful for personal or
8 4 / CHA P T E R 3
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
COHN & WOLFE
THE SOCIAL WORKPLACE
PROMOTES THE FREE FLOW OF
IDEAS AND BUILDS
A TEAM ENVIRONMENT
When global media communications services company WPP public relations agencies GCI
Group and Cohn & Wolfe merged, they were faced with the task of creating a unified global
agency and working environment that would enable it and its people to succeed. Cohn &
Wolfe understood it was crucial to build a system to share expertise and interact with ideas.
Cohn & Wolfe developed a new kind of portal that is not so much an intranet as an internal
social network—a site with the familiar look and feel of social media sites such as Facebook.
The site embraced the overarching idea of social media: let anyone create content and let
anyone engage and respond to that content to generate a snowball effect of conversation
and idea development. The goal: let self-directed talent thrive.
The agency’s Web 2.0 tools (including blogs, wikis, forums, profiles, communities, social
bookmarks, tagging, and subscriptions) not only delivered on their original purpose of unity
and collaboration, but also fueled business productivity. Cohn & Wolfe was able to develop
a platform that connects everyone and at the same time provided a valuable source of ideas
and expertise to sustain the agency’s focus on thought leadership. The platform generated its
own momentum; growing and improving as more people used it.
The Cohn & Wolfe “Den”—their “internal Facebook”
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MANAGEMENT
Just as social media found its way into the enterprise, mashups infiltrated
the business environment. Besides giving users visually rich content,
organizations realized that mashups gave them the agility to combine
content and services in new ways without requiring help from the IT
department. Take, for example, the ability for Accounts Payable clerks
to access relevant information to resolve payment process exceptions
through a familiar Microsoft Outlook®-style interface. The interface could
pull the content from a number of different sources through a mashup.
Using mashups to streamline the Accounts Payable process
With businesses using Web 2.0 tools to make collaboration easier, a
2008 Forrester Report predicted that the corporate mashup market
would reach $700 million by 2013.3 What made Web 2.0 portals different?
They were fast and easy to implement because mashups used open
Application Program Interfaces (APIs). This encouraged non-technical
users to produce customized Internet applications and add other Web
2.0 tools like blogs, wikis, and forums to the mix.
GOING MOBILE WITH MASHUPS
Mashups could also connect people to important data sources within an
enterprise. Because all information and data was safe behind the firewall,
organizations did not need to be concerned about security. Inside the
enterprise, Digital Experience Management, integrated content, control,
and experience into a social portal, leveraging content from shared
repositories in highly differentiated ways. OpenText provides Digital
Experience Management through OpenText Widget Services (discussed
in Chapter 4).
8 6 / CHA P T E R 3
Even if external applications provided additional content for a mashup,
search results were centralized and permission-based. More importantly,
this content could be extended to mobile users, so they could access the
information they needed from any place at any time.
In early 2001, Epicentric began offering mobile users wireless access to
Web Services, allowing customers, partners, and employees to access
personalized commercial services, business applications, and content
from any location with a handheld device. In 2001, Epicentric also
added the ability for business users to assemble, customize, deliver, and
manage dynamic Web Services and business applications by integrating
a Web Services tools company, Application Park—one of the pioneers of
This technology became Vignette Portal and it allowed the enterprise
to deliver a consistent look and feel using highly personalized Web and
mobile sites that combined content like video, blogs, real-time feeds, and
applications. Later rebranded as OpenText Portal, it gave organizations
the opportunity to engage with employees, partners, customers, and
3 BM to release enterprise mashup tool; IBM has delivered mashup prototypes before but this will be the company’s first generally available, supported
product. InfoWorld.com. June 6, 2008.
prospects at every touch point to support complex relationships over
time. Easy access to information and services improved productivity,
fueled innovation, and improved customer satisfaction.
Bertrand de Coatpont
Digital Experience Management
Many mashups, including the OpenText Portal, allowed for portlets.
Software developers created these software components to plug into an
existing portal. A portal can contain several portlets, and some examples
of portlet applications include email, weather reports, discussion forums,
or news. The ability to mash together the different types of content was
useful, but there were other tools required to add more collaborative
working models. To find out more about the OpenText Portal, visit:
“In September 2003, Vignette acquired Intraspect, at that time a
leader in Collaboration and Knowledge Management software,
with a number of marquee customers around the world and
some very unique concepts such as contextual collaboration—
that is the possibility to share information in various contexts
and collaborate on this information locally independently from
the other contexts.
Also in 2003, Microsoft Sharepoint® was starting to get
some significant traction for basic collaborative document
management and sharing: the need for us to differentiate
further with ‘Vignette Collaboration’, formerly ‘Intraspect
Knowledge Server’, was becoming pressing. At the same time,
Wikipedia, Wordpress®, and a few other players started to
popularize other forms of collaboration at a larger scale—with
a strong emphasis on the ease of use and deployment.
That’s when we started to morph Vignette Collaboration
into Vignette Social Communities, now OpenText Social
Communities, a platform adopting these popular Internet
models combined with unique capabilities to contextually apply
social tools, applications and mashups to all sorts of content,
from Web sites to Enterprise Applications.”
Digital objects used in Web sites and portals required an additional
layer of media management behind the firewall to protect the enterprise
from risk. As technology advanced and smartphones became smarter,
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 87
video, audio, telephone communications, and images were on the Web
and found their way into the enterprise. All these files are made up of
PROTECTING AND MANAGING DIGITAL MEDIA
As the decade progressed, digital cameras became smaller, less
expensive, and widely available in cell phones (discussed in Chapter 4).
All of this new media, large in file size, required more bandwidth on a
global level. The popularity of applications like Flickr® for photographs
and YouTube for video grew and the term rich media was replaced by
Digital media is most simply defined as any information that is created
and shared virtually, rather than physically. As new technologies joined
with traditional methods of distribution, the term digital media has grown
to encompass Web sites, video games, email, desktop publishing, MP3
players, podcasts, personal video recorded files, recordable CDs and
DVDs, high-definition TV, GPS systems, and 3D modeling. Even the highresolution digital displays on gas pumps, elevators, and billboards have
made global distribution of media files part of people’s everyday lives.
As more digital media was produced, shared, and consumed,
organizations saw new opportunities to share their messages in more
innovative ways—and faster than ever before. The rapid expansion of
digital media use meant that organizations needed to be able to protect
the intellectual and creative rights for all these new assets, as well as
have the tools to create, store, and manage images, graphics, video,
PROTECTING VALUABLE MEDIA
Each of the following illustrates the importance of digital media files
as business assets that must be managed and protected:
• n advertising agency has created a vast library of content,
including photography, graphic files, animations, PDFs, and
videos that must be stored, moved, and protected.
• design center in a manufacturing company needs to store,
protect, and securely collaborate using vector graphic files,
Microsoft PowerPoint® files, and PDFs.
• large consumer packaged goods company wants to re-use
and collaborate on content for advertising campaigns like
photographs, graphic files, audio for radio ads, and video for
Web 2.0 &
To meet their media management needs, organizations started
looking for technology Information
Enterprise that would help them efficiently produce,
manage, and distribute their digital media assets. A new industry grew
out of this content-centric computing called DIGITAL ASSET MANAGEMENT
(DAM). As the use of digital media expanded across the enterprise,
DAM soon became applicable in many departments, including production, marketing, training, human resources, creative services, and
editorial content. Management
Media Management as a hub
8 8 / CHA P T E R 3
DAM organizes all digital media content and then combines it with the
ability to re-express the content into new forms or products. To protect
their investment in the creation of vast amounts of digital media, companies
needed to be able to store, access, and manage this content throughout its
content lifecycle with speed and agility, making organizations more efficient
and protecting intellectual capital in the process.
How did organizations transform their digital content into competitive
advantage? Many organizations found that a DAM system helped them
manage all aspects of the lifecycle of their creative assets—from creation
and ingestion through to packaging, transforming, and distributing
Digital content lifecycle
As time went on, organizations referred to DAMs as Media Management
solutions. An effective Media Management solution required more than
mass storage; it needed a database that could scale to support the growing
volume and complexity of assets and be able to manage them intelligently.
Since digital media comes in a wide range of file formats, the system had to
Digital media became essential as organizations began to rely on higher
quality collaboration and content shared through video. Manufacturers
of products ranging from kitchen appliances to toys discovered that they
could build communities of users based solely on the use of quality digital
media content. This increased the need to manage the valuable intellectual
property invested in this content.
AN APPLICATION TO DO
“At the $1B Educational Publishing Division of The Thomson
Corporation, we were searching for a next-generation editorial
content management system that could manage diverse
editorial content to enable publishing through to the thenearly Internet. We looked at the first-generation multimedia
management systems, but they were typically specific to either
images or video, and didn’t handle text. We investigated SGML
publishing systems but they didn’t handle media well. So in
1996, we decided to build a software application that would do
it all well. We wrote a business plan to create a new software
division—Thomson Editorial Asset Management Solutions,
We built the first generations of the software over the next
few years, running an expansive beta program with a diverse
set of Thomson operating companies. Our vision was original
and pure—a system that managed all content types natively
and equally, designed such that the atomic central element
was neither a document nor a page, but instead an asset. In
1999, a small group of us executed a management buyout of
the division with support from a large New York private equity
firm. And so in June of that year, Artesia Technologies was
born and along with it a pioneer in the emerging Digital Asset
Management software category.”
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 89
be flexible enough to support current and future file formats. There were
systems available that could handle over 150 formats, including popular
image file types, document formats, and standard streaming audio/
A media management solution required a secure central repository. In
many industries, intellectual property rights added additional security
requirements to DAM systems. To properly protect and leverage
corporate assets, organizations used additional information stored as
metadata to ensure Digital Rights Management. Increases in bandwidth
resulted in the growth of video services and file sharing, causing
organizations to develop and deploy digital rights management solutions
to control the distribution of digital media.
Media management helped organizations distribute digital media
across Web, print, wireless, broadcast, and cable outlets. For a
commercial provider of entertainment programming, automated
scheduling and distribution via media management saved time and
ensured that business rules were followed. Within an organization,
a media management system also offered a self-service model for
authorized field personnel to direct, field, and channel finished brand
and promotional assets.
ORGANIZING CONTENT WITH METADATA
Metadata is structured information attached to a digital asset that makes
it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. Metadata
has helped organizations manage their brand, intellectual property,
and digital rights. By applying metadata to digital assets, organizations
were able to make quick decisions and simplify their processes based
on information being immediately available and coupled with the asset.
Image elements, for example, could be located for later reuse. Legal
rights for use could also be bundled with images, advertisements,
videos, and more. For a marketing organization, or a marketing
department for example, DAM systems with metadata ensured branding
consistency and reduce the risk of legal action.
Metadata was also used to assign taxonomies to the digital files during
upload to the system. Taxonomies are categories that are used to
organize the digital assets. The importance of metadata and taxonomies
becomes more important as semantic technology develops in the
Web 4.0 era.
As part of a DAM system, taxonomies and metadata gave producers,
editors, designers, and Web developers the ability to quickly find preapproved digital assets, including logos, photos, storyboards, film,
video, and animation in a central repository. The time savings meant that
more time can be spent on the creative production of assets, rather than
managing or looking for them. Media management promoted content
reuse increasing the savings of dollars and human effort to prepare new
content for distribution across the many different channels.
9 0 / CHA P T E R 3
Metadata and digital asset management
STORING DIGITAL ASSETS AND SAVING BRANDS
Companies like Electronic Arts™ and Timberland® have spent millions
of dollars developing, promoting, and ensuring the integrity of their
brand. With so many media types and distribution channels, and more
being developed, the challenges and opportunities increased. Media
management was one way that departments like marketing, advertising,
public relations, and creative services could access and collaborate
around a central database of approved digital brand assets.
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
Intellectual Capital and
Increases Efficiency by
Digitally Managing Assets
HBO is America’s most successful premium television network, offering rich digital media
content, blockbuster movies, innovative original programming, provocative documentaries,
concert events, and championship boxing. HBO sought a solution that would allow them to
easily access and share digital content both within HBO and the larger Time Warner family.
The requirements for the overall system functionality and user experience entailed the system
handling large volumes of content, as well as addressing disparate databases, workflows,
and use cases for each of the organizations.
HBO’s Media Management implementation encompassed all of HBO’s digital photographs
supporting such areas as marketing, promotions advertising and sales. These assets can
range from location shots from HBO Films to a gallery of quality professional photos of
Part of their overall strategy was to ensure careful management of metadata. Assets are
tagged with corresponding metadata, such as contractual information, as early as possible
to ensure that metadata travels with the asset throughout its lifecycle. This metatagging
process is enforced with an embedded workflow component. The HBO digital asset
management system is accessed by all of the Regional Offices and currently holds more
than 325,000 assets.
Media Asset Management solution for HBO
In 1999, Artesia Technologies Inc. was founded in Rockville,
Maryland, out of a product division of The Thomson Corporation. The
company’s technology was a scalable enterprise-class digital asset
management solution. It stored rich media content and managed the
creative workflows around the editing, collaboration, and distribution
of media files.
Chris Veator, CEO of Artesia Technologies, said that they often used
the expression “COPE: Create Once, Publish Everywhere”. The
technology resonated with many and in 2000, Artesia was named one
of ComputerWorld’s “Top 100 Emerging Companies to Watch”. In 2001,
Artesia received an award from New Media called “The Awesome
A number of organizations were interested in Artesia DAM for
advertising and marketing activities, but the demand also grew for
production environments in entertainment media, publishing, and the
US government. One of the principles of DAM was that an asset was
only an asset if an organization could find it and use it. As a Web-based
system, Artesia customers could access, update, and manage approved
files from anywhere in the world. Artesia DAM made it easy to find assets
because the metadata included the rights associated with images, along
with details about place of origin, photo caption text, thumbnail images,
and size and resolution.
In 2004, OpenText acquired Artesia and formed the Artesia Digital Media
Group, which became the foundation of the OpenText Digital Media
Group. In a press announcement, President and Chief Executive Officer
of OpenText, John Shackleton made the following statement: “ECM
is about bringing order to the management of unstructured content to
improve efficiency and manage compliance. These demands are now
driving digital media content into the ECM fold, so that video, audio,
photos and graphics can be managed alongside more traditional
content—documents, records, and email.”5 To find out how this technology has evolved, see: opentext.com/btf-digitalassetmanagement.
Other than images, video is one of the biggest media types to come
onto the scene in the Web 2.0 era. Where equipment costs were once
prohibitive to buying high-end video equipment, handheld and affordable
solutions appeared, creating a proliferation of video content on the Web.
DOING MORE WITH VIDEO
The popularity of online video has soared as exemplified by YouTube
consumption rates. The amount of bandwidth used by one billion video
streams each day is said to consume as much bandwidth as the entire
Internet did in the year 2000. Video is so popular that it is one of the key
drivers for the demand for high bandwidth services.
Metadata input while uploading assets
9 2 / CHA P T E R 3
As the enterprise adopted video services, bandwidth management
became critical to support the distribution of video content. Many
organizations started developing and using videos in corporate
communications, education and training, HR administration, sales
enablement, and other departments. As organizations expanded
across the globe, video became an ideal medium for educating and
communicating across the entire enterprise, both internally and
externally, across different locations. The growing number of videos
within the enterprise resulted in the need to store and manage these
assets in a scalable and secure fashion.
4 Martin, Nicole. DAM right! Artesia Technologies Focuses on Digital Asset Management. EContent, September 2001, p 61.
5 Open Text Launches Digital Media Group Artesia Subsidiary is Core of New Specialty Business Serving Media, Entertainment Industry, Growing Digital
Content Needs of Large Non-Media Companies.” Press release, October 19, 2005.
Videos, like other digital media in the enterprise, were required to follow
the organization’s rules for Content Lifecycle Management, discussed
later in this chapter. Organizations would have to save, store, archive,
and delete videos with security and publishing control in mind to lessen
risk and adhere to compliance requirements. Organizations embracing
a YouTube-like environment inside the enterprise needed a robust
infrastructure to support the demand for company-wide video creation,
distribution, and viewing.
Video WILL DOMINATE INTERNET TRAFFIC
INTEGRATING AND SHARING VIDEOS
But how did the average Internet consumer’s use of video differ from a
corporate user? When a consumer downloaded a video online, it was
accessed and viewed on demand with little concern for control and
security. Organizations needed video content to integrate into the existing
business and IT environments. Distributed over private networks, it had to
securely connect to an organization’s technology infrastructure and scale
to support a wide internal audience.
VIDEO AS AN EXTENSION
OF THE ECM SUITE
“Vidavee started up in the consumer market sphere. Shortly after,
Google® acquired YouTube for $1.6B—this flooded the market
with competition. To differentiate, we abandoned the consumer
and editing portal approach and instead focused on building
a ‘Web audio/video engine’ based on Web Services APIs that
customers and partners could use to layer custom UIs on top of
the technology. Today, our focus is extending the OpenText ECM
Suite with our video technologies.
Surviving those early years meant that we were able to move
from venture capital funding to a steady revenue stream—all
while earning some firsts in the market! We developed many
innovations focused on the management and editing of
compressed video content. We were the first to support clip
sharing, as well as progressive download seeking. We even
developed some technology around media mining that allow
conversion for face recognition and speech-to-text.
Now, we are seeing a transition from document-based
communications to video, including: sales pitches, building
brands, corporate communications, training, and more.”
Not only was it more popular for organizations to push video externally to
their audiences, they also started to use tools like podcasts to “talk” to
their customers and employees. Enterprises required software tools that
could help them manage this new content in all its formats—video and
podcast—along with traditional documents and records.
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 93
In 2005 MicroNets, Inc. was founded in New York City, but operated
under the name Vidavee. Vidavee produced Web media operating
systems to integrate media services into existing products. A video
sharing platform, it also provided user-generated Web, mobile, and
In 2007, Vidavee created some buzz when it launched Vidavee Grafitti.
It allowed users to take any YouTube video and add speech bubbles,
effects, animations, and other add-ons. An interface that even amateur
video editors were familiar with made editing easy, including a timeline
to show when the add-ons would appear. Users could then post their
finished clip to share on Facebook.
It was the tagging capabilities and heat maps technology that really
separated Vidavee from its competitors. Vidavee enabled users to
identify sections of interest from a video that they could share, increasing
the views and attracting new users. The heat maps helped organizations
analyze how viewers interacted with the videos. Organizations could
take that information and strategize about how to improve impressions
and drive revenue by focusing on the most popular sections of a video
stream, and dynamically inserting advertising or other digital media.
In 2008, Vignette Corporation acquired Vidavee and formed Vignette
Video. Using the Vidavee technology for video tags and heat maps,
Vignette Video was a hosted video management solution that featured
a customizable Flash®-based media player that allowed users to tag
and share any segment of a video. Vignette became one of the first
vendors to provide enhanced capabilities to ingest, manage, transcode,
and deliver video and other Web content through a single workflow and
Vignette was able to offer their customers additional features and
support to create and manage their user-generated content. With the
acquisition, Vignette could deliver the unprecedented ability to use the
same publishing platform for text, images, advanced video, and other
rich media.6 For more information, visit: opentext.com/btf-videoservices.
Technology trends driving the creation of digital content across an
increasing number of channels have impacted media management.
Television broadcasters looked to produce content on demand, and
book publishers needed to do more than publish a printed book—
audio books and eBooks were introduced and these, in turn, were
supplemented with rich media content online. These trends drove media
management systems to integrate with social networks.
9 4 / CHA P T E R 3
Video Library Management—streaming corporate content
HAVING MANY-TO-MANY CONVERSATIONS
In the 2000s, Social Networks became popular as the Web evolved to
the point where almost everyone belonged to a social network. With its
reliance on shared content, social media created the demand for Web
sites to connect people to each other and content in a more dynamic
way than simply Customer Experience Enterprise Content
with a search Management
6 “Vignette to Acquire Video Publishing Capability.” Press Release, April 20, 2008.
The Web 2.0 technology phenomenon was mirrored behind the firewall.
Social networks, like blogs and wikis, were brought into the enterprise to
be used as productivity tools. Users within an organization set up profiles,
combining personal and professional information through photographs,
relevant links, blog sites, and more. As a result of the network effect
produced by social media, employees began to connect with others
based on skills, expertise, or interests, and companies benefited from
improved productivity, reduced project cycles, and increases in innovation
and idea generation.
USING A DASHBOARD TO COLLABORATE
OpenText Social Workplace, or OTSW, is a social dashboard that brings
together groups of users across geographies and hierarchies to work
together as a team. Because information security in the enterprise is
vital, OpenText ensured the security of OTSW to conform to information
governance rules. As a proof of concept,
OpenText announced in May 2011 that they were
working with the Commonwealth Secretariat
to develop a portal designed to connect the
people, organizations, and governments across
the Commonwealth. Spanning six continents,
members of the Commonwealth community could
connect via the Internet to share information,
network, and collaborate online.
Discussions that flowed from one-to-many, via email, for example, were
replaced by many-to-many communications through social networks and
“tweets”. Users were not only consuming content; they were producing it
as well. This content was called User-Generated Content (UGC), and it
ranged from rating an article, to leaving comments on a product Web site,
and posting personal information on Facebook. Based on UGC, peerto-peer influence grew in importance as people began to rely more on
“home-grown” content from their friends and family to instruct, guide, and
inform rather than the traditional corporate Web pages, advertisements, or
communications. Marketing was being impacted by this content that was
authentic, honest, and sincere.
“Before OTSW provided the platform for the world’s first cloudbased government collaboration program for 20 countries,
social media had never influenced global policy in such a way.
OTSW enabled government leaders and senior government
officials to develop policy in a collaborative and iterative
method. By not relying on email and documents, it not only
provided a significant increase in the level of security in
organizational collaboration and sharing, it served as the
backbone for the world’s first multilateral cloud offering.
OTSW provided organizations with the capacity to instill digital
collaboration and purpose within an organization. By freeing
them of the email shackles and unlocking mobile and social
collaboration, they could actually deliver services and
programs. Lastly, it permitted organizations to take part in the
global social media landscape by providing the fine balance
between security and innovation. Enabling organizations
to innovate using social media, while increasing enterprise
security, is a must.”
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 95
Web 2.0 technologies like social media presented a myriad of security
risks for the enterprise, which is why many organizations do not permit
the use of social media behind the firewall. Most social software like
Facebook, Google, and LinkedIn® maintain data ownership, but OTSW
allows clients to retain their IP and data ownership rights. When OTSW
was deployed for the G20 Summit in Canada in 2010, it was the only
social networking site that met the stringent Government of Canada
security standards. G20 delegates were guaranteed secure ownership
or digital rights over the data they created, stored, and shared on the
mobile social network. To discover more about this technology, visit:
GETTING SOCIAL IN THE WORKPLACE
A Social Workplace functions as a Facebook for the enterprise. Inside an
organization, when users share information quickly and easily, in ad hoc
ways, the resulting quality content achieved greater productivity, sparked
new ideas, and even increased innovation. Within a social workplace,
employees who shared their knowledge were quickly regarded as
experts and the collective information from these experts became a
powerful asset for any organization.
Just like Facebook, within a social workplace, employees could
develop a personal profile, build a contacts list, update their status,
and write on a colleague’s “wall”. By adopting consumer features in an
enterprise technology, organizations were able to overcome hierarchical
and administrative barriers to increase an employee’s willingness to
share their ideas and information. Sharing and team work were
fundamental to a company’s ability to innovate. Organizations that
have encouraged the social workplace have experienced the organic
growth of communities around projects and topics of interest. This is
the new knowledge workplace.
The social workplace used tools that many employees were familiar with,
including forums, wikis, and blogs. Social collaboration, when combined
with other enterprise content management technologies bridged
geographical, organizational, and generational gaps, thereby releasing
content for exchange in many formats across many channels.
9 6 / CHA P T E R 3
Consumerization of the enterprise—Facebook for organizations
In 2009, the McKinsey & Company consultancy firm conducted surveys
to find the benefits of a social workplace. According to the surveys,
participants had better access to knowledge and expertise, experienced
higher levels of satisfaction, and innovated at higher rates using social
media tools. In fact, based on the McKinsey surveys, innovation rates
rose by as much as 20 percent and knowledge workers experienced a
35 percent increase in access to expertise from using social media tools.
The key to Web 2.0 was collaboration. Promoting a social workplace
promotes collaboration. But how did organizations manage all that
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
CANADA’S PREMIER DIGITAL
MEDIA EVENT USED SOCIAL
MEDIA TO ENAGE
Canada 3.0 is organized by the Canadian Digital Media Network (CDMN), the University of
Waterloo Stratford Campus, and the Stratford Institute. Launched in 2009, the event provides
a once-a-year opportunity for Canadians in digital media to come together to discuss the
key issues and make the plans required to propel Canada to a leadership position in global
The event is largely focused around building critical connections and networks. The
Canada 3.0 Community and mobile app provide platforms for continuing dialogue, based
on a central repository for collecting and sharing the information, discussion, and outcomes
of all event-based collaborations. The online community, complete with embedded media,
blogs, forums, member profiles, and a Twitter feed on the home page, promotes dialogue
around the event all year long. This all contributes toward the continuing development
The marketplace community is a good example of cross-media integration. The site is driven
largely by user-generated content and uses social media to integrate online and offline
presentations at the event. During its inaugural event, Canada 3.0 gathered feedback and
input from attendees in order to accurately determine the goals, mission, and objectives of
CDMN. Using social media content, the CDMN generated interest in the show, highlighted
key events and collected invaluable feedback around key stakeholders, target audience,
areas of focus, and more.
Canada 3.0 Community facilitated critical
dialogue and networking
had to establish new best practices and address old habits around
The social WORKPLACE
Many organizations brought together expertise and resources across
global operations, and even partnerships, to keep on top of a fluctuating
marketplace. Web 2.0 introduced technologies that facilitated the
evolution of knowledge management into Communities of Practice.
Basically, knowledge management was about people, relationships,
communities, and defining new and better ways to work. Communities
of Practice combined this premise with new Web 2.0 technologies to
present a single interface specifically targeted towards a group of users
with similar goals and interests. This idea did not just involve employees;
customers and partners were brought into the fold as well.
Communities of Practice built relationships internally and externally,
improving productivity, and fostering innovation. In these online
communities, experts became passionate about their area of expertise,
topic or study, discovering the synergies that flowed from exchanging
knowledge with colleagues who were equally committed. Communities
of Practice captured all content so that the users could develop new
policies and build on each other’s insights with teams located in the
same office or on another continent. In the process, organizations have
9 8 / CHA P T E R 3
Communities of Practice capture collective knowledge
OpenText Online Communities (built on Communities of Practice)
fostered sharing between staff and OpenText customers. As early
as 2004, OpenText provided Communities of Practice to customers,
including those in the government sector. The community gave
government departments and agencies an open forum to share ideas
and best practices for how to effectively apply ECM solutions. This
type of use allowed OpenText to develop closer relationships with its
government customers.7 To find out how this technology has evolved,
With Web 2.0 technologies, the connections between users were
most important; the technology that acted as an enabler is secondary.
Communities were based on trusted relationships, so users needed to
establish a sense of identity through their profiles, messaging, rating, and
sharing tools. This sharing of expertise and the capture of that content
gave organizations a competitive edge in a global economy.
7 Open Text Launches Online Community for Government Customers Forum Provides Discussions, Information on ECM Applications in Government.
Livelink-based E-Community Reinforces Bonds with Customers.” Press Release, April 15, 2004.
INCREASING CONNECTIVITY AND ACCESSIBILITY
Social media demonstrated the expertise of an organization to the
entire workforce. It allowed mobile professionals to be as effective and
information-aware as they were in the office, while bringing immediate
benefits from connecting in context—on location, at a job site, or with a
customer. In Chapter 4, we will see how mobility impacted social media
further by helping organizations to drive bottom-line profit by making their
employees more productive, efficient, and knowledgeable.
Mobile access to online communities and social media functionality
allowed people to collaborate with colleagues. They could still share
critical information, solve pressing issues, and continue to innovate and
feel a sense of community even from remote locations, away from the
office. Organizations began to see the connections that drove people to
share information, make decisions, collaborate, and innovate.
The digital economy created a shift in the way people worked together.
Increased connectivity and accessibility meant mobile workers could
still contribute collaboratively. ECM technologies enabled this by linking
physical devices with virtual and mobile environments so that everyone
could access and exchange information. A virtual meeting room, for
example, allowed virtual members to enter the meeting, invite others to
join, watch a streaming video, or collaboratively edit a document in
TALKING TO A GOOD
“In four years as Program Manager of OpenText Online
Communities, which uses Communities of Practice, I’ve
seen staff and customers engage from all over the world,
sharing knowledge and improving communications through
collaboration. I’ve built relationships with customers that I
otherwise wouldn’t have met. Collaborating in a forum is easy,
informal, and conducive to building relationships; in time,
you feel more like you’re dealing with friends than business
associates. In a survey that I gave to some of our Communities’
members, a customer remarked that when they dealt with me in
the community, it was like ‘talking to a good neighbor.’”
Connecting mobile professionals
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 99
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
A RAIL COMPANY RAPIDLY
SHARING BEST PRACTICES
THROUGH A COMMUNITY
The French rail group found a way to manage documents and help staff collaborate to better
serve one billion customers every year. SNCF has successfully restructured its electronic
content management system and is now energizing its professional communities via a
Internal challenges faced by SNCF included: amalgamating and using all available
information, capitalizing on and sharing best practices, setting up spaces dedicated to
professional communities and consistent presentation of information on the intranet. Since
the 2005 launch, communities structured around the professions within the infrastructure
division have evolved, enabling genuine cooperation through sharing best practices and
using IT tools developed on a local level. In fact the community was so successful that
deployment has expanded to include three out of four divisions at SNCF.
The online professional communities are simple to use and highly innovative; they constitute
a rapid and pragmatic exchange system that guarantees confidentiality based on profiles.
Anyone can post useful information about SNCF activities here, and it can then be accessed
and used by everyone. Today, sharing best practices is a reality, and the response to
information has improved significantly.
SNCF’s Community of Practice
COLLABORATING ON THE GO
With collaboration tools accessible via the Web, organizations ensured
that their workforce kept in touch, no matter where they were located.
Collaboration tools that could be used anywhere started cropping up in
the 1990s. Three researchers from Bell Northern Research, the research
and development arm of Nortel Networks, decided to start their own
consulting business as hardware/software architects and developers
called SoftArc Inc. They did not want to consult; they wanted to build
robust architectural frameworks. They got their chance late in 1989,
when the Scarborough Board of Education in Ontario needed an email
and collaboration system for teachers.
In 1990 they delivered EduNet, the Educational Networking System. It
shipped to a single site with a single platform across a single type of
network, but the architectural framework was the base for a product
that evolved into a multiplatform, multiprotocol, multiserver powerhouse.
By end of 1991, EduNet, renamed FirstClass, sold 100 systems. A year
later, FirstClass 2.0 shipped with Internet mail connectivity, multiserver
gateways, directory syncing, and even a Japanese version. And, they
received and rejected their first buyout offer—from Apple®.
Users loved their products. At the first user conference in San Jose, all
their raving fans wore t-shirts that said “I use FirstClass and I love it.”
By early 1996, the founders realized that they needed to “Internetify”
FirstClass if they wanted to stay in business, and by 1997 they released
the FirstClass Intranet Server. Now they had built a multiprotocol system.
The same year, they developed FirstClass Unified Communication. It
allowed users to go to any computer with a Web browser and access
email, voicemail, and fax messages—one place for all messages.
As a small company, the founders were not sure if they could compete
and talked about selling—including to OpenText. Instead, in 1999,
the company merged with a small Vancouver company, MC Squared
Learning Systems, and changed their name to Centrinity. The product
matured and Unified Communications became available through the
phone, or personal digital assistant like a Palm or BlackBerry®. Users
could access their FirstClass files and folders on any computer with a
standard Web browser.
Eventually, collaborative workspaces and private instant messaging
chats were added. The “conferences” or collaborative workspaces
allowed teams to work together, no matter where users were as long
as they had access to a computer with a Web browser. Users stored
information in these conference spaces and had discussions—they
could even call in and have FirstClass read their messages to them.
And in September 2002, the Centrinity Board of Directors accepted an
acquisition offer from OpenText. Their collaboration through messaging
technology complemented the repository-based collaboration capabilities of Livelink (which evolved into the OpenText ECM Suite). The
technology created innovative new collaborative knowledge management solutions for OpenText.
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 101
When organizations provided secure, managed access to enterprise
systems, they helped employees access the resources they needed to
do their jobs effectively. It allowed professionals on-the-go to create,
manage, find and publish content in a compliant and secure fashion.
No one had to wait to make an informed decision.
SEARCHING THROUGH CONTENT GATHERED BY COLLABORATION
With so many collaborative tools added to the Web 2.0 mix, the
enterprise was burdened with more content in a wide variety of
formats to manage securely. In 1999, Grad Conn, science fiction writer
Cory Doctorow, and John Henson founded OpenCola to create a
“collaboration object lookup architecture” software in Toronto. Based on
client/server architecture, the “clerver” application as OpenCola called
it, allowed users to collaboratively search, acquire, manage, and share
information from several data sources. This included the Internet, peers
on their network, and existing proprietary databases. And users could do
this from a single interface.
This search functionality expanded beyond the search engine capabilities
of the time because it performed contextual searching. The process
required that the engine search the entire contextual subject matter of a
document to find relevance, and expanded previous searches with more
relevant results. Searches would continuously increase results as needed
throughout the network to find the content the user was seeking.
OpenCola released all of its software and specifications as open source.
OpenCola concentrated on peer-to-peer swarming techniques that
accelerated the distribution of high-volume content. This was generally
a way to reduce the load on source servers to continuously access the
information and then stream the content within an organization. In 2002,
OpenCola shifted from peer-to-peer switching to Web search, but they
still used peer-to-peer ideas. In 2003, OpenText acquired OpenCola.
MANAGING THE FLOW OF CONTENT
As the Web continued to evolve during this time, the concept of a living
document or digital object emerged. This led to the creation of CONTENT
LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT, which managed the full lifecycle of content
objects (documents, images, video, etc.) through the creation phase to
the active use phase, and finally the archival/deletion phase.
Based on the OpenText Enterprise Library, Content Lifecycle
Management combined document management, records management,
workflow, archiving, and imaging into one fully integrated solution. From
creation of content, through to itsEmail/Chat archival or deletion, this Archiving
solution effectively managed the flow of content to create new business
opportunities, reduce cost and risk, and achieve regulatory compliance.
It was important to protect the content and the organization, but there
was other content in the organization that needed to be managed
through a different flow—the flow of transactions.
TRANSACTIONAL CONTENT MANAGEMENT permitted the unification of the
accounting applications of the original era of computing from mainframe
and client/server (known as ERP) with the new era of content by
integrating the presentation and interaction ofDocument Capture and words.
both numbers Digital Mailroom
Business processes are usually initiated by a trigger, which can include
a received correspondence, fax, email, online submission, or message
from another application. This involved technologies that were covered
in Chapter 1, includingExperience Enterprise Content automatic document
Customer scanning and imaging,
recognition, optical character recognition, and faxManagement
In every organization, numerous business processes were occurring each
day—from filling out a purchase request to assigning documents for
review and approval. Contenteffectiveness of each, and the overall efficiency
of an organization depended on automating business processes.
Before a process could be orchestrated, it needed to be designed,
modeled, and deployed. As a process was completed, a required activity
1 0 2 / CHA P T E R 3
was triggered, which could include passing off information to another
application, printing a document stream, sending a message via fax,
email, or posting information on a self-service portal.
The software industry developed numerous applications that dealt
with transactional data in an attempt to efficiently handle the electronic
commerce content. From basic spreadsheets to powerful enterprise
applications such as ERP, CRM, and supply chain management,
these applications primarily dealt with numerical data and incorporated
them into core business operations. “In Web 3.0, organizations began
to maximize content value by making unstructured documents
accessible within the context of business processes through
Transactional Content Management.
MOVING AWAY FROM WIRES
As we moved into the Web 3.0 era, mobile device use grew exponentially.
Mobile devices started to move to touch screens as people moved away
from the mouse and keyboard—giving the user a richer and more intuitive
experience. The iPhone® has already moved far in this direction. As touch
screens became more common, user interface development started
to create more compelling, immersive end-user experiences as users
could do everything with touch, including immersive three-dimensional
interfaces. Users started to navigate through screens in a new, very
intuitive way by viewing and manipulating objects, media assets, videos,
Web content, processes, and more.
Mobile usage also increased the need for cloud computing so that
content could truly be available anywhere, at any time, and on any device.
The demands within the enterprise included a need for the Cloud to be
secure and the ECM technologies to be accessible by knowledge workers
not only through a laptop, but also a mobile device.
In the Web 2.0 era, organizations were required to deliver a matrix of
applications across multiple platforms and devices as consumer usage
and enterprise usage converged. Web Experience Management and
social networks combined personal and work information on both sides
of the firewall, presenting serious security threats. Largely due to social
networks, the number of digital media assets exploded and required
media management technologies. As the lines blurred between consumer
and business content, organizations became increasingly focussed on
how to minimize the risk of sensitive data falling into the wrong hands
when devices go astray or security breaches occur.
E VE RYO N E GE TS CON N ECTED / 103
The Semantic Web / 2010-2015
Some Call It an Evolution
Some call it an evolution, but it is closer to a revolution. Its power is certainly transformative.
In this era, content types, mobile devices, and Internet technologies converge to
fundamentally change the way people find, store, and manage content. As a result, the
workplace and households around the globe are significantly different. The new world is
more social and collaborative than ever before, with interactions happening across multiple
channels, devices, geographies, and in the Cloud.
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THE SEMANTIC WEB
As technology progresses beyond the first generation of social networks,
personalization has become everything. With the customization,
analytics, and intelligence available on the Web, communications have
shifted from many-to-many to many-to-one. Content is more dynamic,
searches are smarter, and as a result, information is much more relevant.
With new applications and content formats, Enterprise Content
Management (ECM) has expanded beyond the traditional content
types of the Web 1.0 era. Business forms and document management,
while still critical to the enterprise, are encompassed by the deluge of
digital media that followed in the Web 2.0 era. The focus of Web 3.0 is
on content applications and the ECM industry has followed suit with
developments in mobile apps and semantic search to help the enterprise
gain control of its content.
The Web 3.0 era, also called the Semantic Web, is characterized by
highly intelligent, interconnected, and very personal interactions with
multiple devices connected to the Web. The Semantic Web delivers
an intelligent online environment that understands the meaning and
context of content as it is being consumed. The Semantic Web describes
technologies that understand the meaning of terms over and above
just searching for terms. This understanding enables the anticipation of
user needs and the dynamic delivery of highly relevant and personalized
information and services, taking content customization and delivery to a
whole new level. A Web that understands meaning and context benefits
1 0 6 / CHA P T E R 4
users, systems, and organizations. Considering the network effect of
tagging and linking content across the enterprise, the Semantic Web and
related technologies hold great potential to provide referential value to
and enrich content.
With 10 years of experience building interactions with the Web, the
industry is changing. These changes require organizations to change
their profit models. In the entertainment industry, for example, television,
videos, and movies are rapidly and cheaply distributed through sites
like NetFlix®, Hulu™, and the Google TV™ platform. Along with new
distribution channels for media, consumption is changing. With an array
of mobile devices available, content is accessed from anywhere. Mobile
technology is having a great effect on ECM because it brings greater
context to content transactions. And the mobile market continues to
grow; it is estimated that by 2014, 50 percent of all mobile phones will be
smartphones or tablets.1
CONNECTING THROUGH MOBILITY AND CLOUD COMPUTING
In this era, the CLOUD emerges from the Web. The Cloud provides the
concept that not all servers and programs need to be physically located
at the point of origin of the user. Instead, the Cloud introduces the
concept of distributing computing throughout the entire Web giving the
user great flexibility to meet “peak demand” and make it easier for a
request to be delivered over the Web. At the same time, the availability of
bandwidth in most areas is leading to the creation of wireless equivalents
toWeb Operatingnetwork standards, and the Cloud is also becoming MOBILE.
The advent of cloud computing aligns directly with the expansion of ECM
Content tremendous volume
and the economies of Asset required to manage theLifecycle Transactional Content
of information available in digital format. Demonstrating a profound shift
in the way organizations acquire and use technology, cloud computing
is based on old methods used to store and share information, manage
1 “OpenText Everywhere”. Mobile Applications and Solutions PowerPoint: www.opentext.com/2/global/products/products-mobility.htm
databases, and deploy Web services. Cloud services combine thousands
of computers and storage networks, or public mainframes, into “server
farms”. The power of the Cloud lies in its immense server infrastructure.
Without the connectivity and powerful processing of mainframes
developed during the Pre-Web and Web 1.0 eras, cloud computing would
not have been possible.
for hosting applications
Hosted application on
servers via the Internet
Racks for equipment
via the Internet
Access to servers
via the Internet
spreadsheets, Web sites, emails—securely. Cloud-based computing
gives organizations the opportunity to manage the exponential growth of
content in safe and effective ways.
Many people spend time in the Cloud on a daily basis—on Web-based
email services like Gmail®, social networking sites like Facebook®,
photo-sharing sites like Flickr®, and video-sharing sites like YouTube®.
Organizations and individuals allow third parties to manage their content
and apps for them remotely, rather than maintaining their own hardware
and managing their content or applications locally. Instead, they connect
to the content and applications located on servers belonging to thirdparty providers over the Web. Many cloud services are open, which
means that the content is owned by the public cloud site.
People use cloud computing for storing and sharing information,
managing databases, and deploying Web services. While their services
may differ, cloud computing services deliver on demand over the Internet
from massive data centers. A key benefit—and the premise for how the
Cloud will revolutionize IT—is the ability to “rent” computing services
from a third-party provider rather than owning and maintaining physical
infrastructure. Cloud computing demonstrates a transformation in the
way organizations acquire and use technology. As organizations see
the benefits of “renting” over the capital expenditures of purchasing
and running software, they increasingly use content management and
collaboration services in the Cloud.
The Cloud also makes it easier for mobile workers to share information
across their various devices. It allows them to access the same content
whether on their desktop, laptop, or the evermore popular mobile
devices—smartphones and tablets.
Dial-up, ISDN, T1, T3
Access to the Internet
MOVING FROM CELLULAR TO MOBILE
The evolution of the cloud
SECURING THE DISTRIBUTED ENTERPRISE
The Cloud is a hot topic in the IT world, but not a simple answer to
an organization’s needs. As more technologies move to the Cloud,
organizations need to develop strategic approaches to manage all the
“stuff” that lives in the Cloud—the videos, blogs, images, documents,
2 he 1980s (Divestiture and a “Whole New Ballgame”). Telecommunications history Timeline: www.webbconsult.com/1980
Mobile technologies are exploding in Web 3.0. As early as the 1980s
development of cellular networks started taking off, but the mobile trend
did not take root until 1990. As described in Chapter 1, the early cell
phones were the size of small briefcases with limited battery life and
mobility. In 1983, the USA had its first cellular phone subscriber2 and the
inventor of the cell phone, Martin Cooper, managed to invent a phone
that was smaller than his original design at 16 ounces. The new DynaTAC
came to market with the hefty price tag of $3,500.
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 107
Cooper’s vision that the cellular phone needed to work for the person not
the location, inspired the major development of the First Generation (1G)
phones. 1G allowed for calls to be transferred from one cell site to the
next if the user travelled during a conversation. NTT in Japan launched
the first commercially automated cellular network. By the mid-1980s,
Japan became the first nation-wide 1G network.
An idea virus
“Working with the telecommunications giants that took the cell
phones to the mass market was like being part of a revolution.
It wasn't really until the early 1980s that cell phones became
portable for the first time, not requiring a car station or other
heavy terminal station. Since those early days, the number of
cellular phone subscribers has approached almost six billion
across the world. Because of what the cellular network
represented to communication, it became an idea virus and a
As a result there’s a cell phone for six out of every seven
people on earth today, we're truly a connected world. The
convergence of cellular telephony and personal computing in
smartphones and tablet devices is going to again revolutionize
communication in the same way—taking those six billion
subscribers and making them all nodes in a connected global
network with unlimited applications...”
By the 1990s, one million Americans subscribed to cellular phones and
mobile phones weighed as little as three ounces.3 As the year 2000
approached and the Internet was highly accessible, mobile devices
could handle more than phone calls. In the late 1990s, RIM® in Waterloo
released their first BlackBerry® pager with wireless Internet. It ran on
AA batteries. In 2002, the BlackBerry progressed from a pager device
to a phone with integrated email, and by 2007 Apple® launched the first
iPhone®. A year later, the first Android®-powered phone entered the
market and Apple® kicked off the tablet market with the first iPad® in
2010, giving users a whole new mobile experience.
GOING WIRELESS MORE QUICKLY
The Web 2.0 era moved us far from the 1996 Palm Pilot with wireless
capabilities. Salespeople on the road were thrilled to have their corporate
data available to them almost anywhere. With the surge of high speed
2.5G, 3G, and Wi-Fi network support, and the wide-scale deployment of
smart mobile devices, mobility became faster and more effective. With
improved connectivity, higher bandwidth, unrestricted accessibility, and
powerful devices, the enterprise had gone mobile.
Enterprise knowledge workers had multiple ways of accessing their
content from televisions to PCs to cell phones, and in the Web 2.0 era,
the next to evolve was the mobile device. By the beginning of the Web
3.0 era, the enterprise began adopting tablets as well as smartphones.
Smartphones offer advanced PC-like capabilities. But the limited
screen size of mobile devices sometimes makes it difficult to display
the information. The ability to view, filter, and sort information easily and
intelligently on a mobile device is a key requirement, and it is critical to
create a positive user experience. Newer mobile devices have become
more popular in consumer sectors with innovative interface design, a
QWERTY keyboard, email access, and calendar capabilities.
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3 arples, Gareth. The History of Cell Phones – A Vision Realized. The HistoryOf.net, 2008.
Knowledge workers have the choice of advanced devices including
BlackBerry and iPhone/iPad and mobile platforms like Google Android,
Nokia Symbian™ OS, Apple iOS, and Windows® Mobile.
Consumers can meet any of their digital needs with their mobile device.
Information and devices are customized to suit individual needs. Content
is no longer push; it is pull as users sign up for services like RSS feeds
to receive targeted information, Web pages are highly personalized and
social network “walls” display updates from select friends and groups.
Technology is empowering people; they decide what they want to
receive, and when, through apps, discussed in the next chapter, they
select and download to a mobile device—often for free.
Apps continue to become smaller, faster, customizable, and distributed
via the Apple App Store® and virally through social networks. With data
stored in the Cloud, apps can run on any device and with the powerful
new wireless networks available, they can run anywhere. Mobile apps
are created to serve a specific purpose with little or no back-officetype server or content integration. Used on an as-needed basis, apps
continue to save consumers time and effort because they are so
accessible and do not require a PC with an Internet connection to work.
to experience the Web in the same way as they move from one device
or location to another. Mobile devices liberate mobile professionals to
take their work with them, from the office, to the airport, to a customer
meeting, providing a secure and seamless experience across devices,
interfaces, and applications. By making applications available for all
operating systems including Apple iOS, BlackBerry, Android, and Java®,
organizations can give employees a choice in the device they used,
encouraging easy adoption and increased productivity.
BUILDING MOBILE APPLICATIONS
People continue to access a huge variety of services on their mobile
devices—from video-on-demand, mobile TV, news and sports portals,
mobile banking, and social networks. People are rarely without their
mobile devices. For many organizations, creating apps that make
their customers’ lives easier becomes very important. While Web
sites used to drive sales, enhance employee productivity, and increase
brand awareness; in the Web 3.0 era, the focus shifts to Web and
Apps availability by platform
The mobile workforce requires more powerful, secure mobile applications
to access the same functionality and secure access to vital enterprise
content expertise and resources. As ECM moves further into the mobile
platform market, this market continues to grow exponentially and outside
the usual distribution methods. More than 65 percent of enterprises in
the US and UK deployed five or more mobile apps in 2011. Organizations
with ubiquitous access to information in a secure, managed, and easyto-use way, experience greater efficiencies. Mobile Web users expect
Wave supports all major mobile operating systems
In 1999, Oliver and Nick Sturrock founded weComm in London,
UK. It was a pioneer of the mobile application industry building
robust and scalable applications. Its infrastructure allowed
developers and customers to focus on the creative process to
build better user experiences.
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 109
weComm provided interactive mobile data solutions and its flagship
product, the Wave Platform, enabled everything from interactive mobile
TV to financial services to mobile advertising. The Wave Platform allowed
customers to create high quality, media-rich apps for all leading mobile
handsets. It supported all the major mobile operating systems including
iPhone, iPad, Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, Symbian, and Java.
“The Wave Platform is technology agnostic! It helps solve the
biggest problem corporate customers, government organizations and app creators have today: namely the dilemma of
whether to select a single platform for app delivery or to incur
the high cost of porting, deploying, updating, and maintaining
apps across the entire landscape of devices. Wave powers the
development and delivery of compelling mobile application
experiences that possess a familiar native handset experience.
While developing Wave, we overcame a major cause of poor
mobile end-user experiences by developing our own Mobile
Transport Protocol (MTP), which monitors the quality of
network connection and estimates the latency and bandwidth
availability. Knowing that the connection is not available means
that we do not pump data into a broken data pipe; equally,
when there is a good connection we can enable businesscritical services such as real-time or high-volume content
publication and high-integrity transactions, such as eCommerce
or trading. We rebuilt the reliability and sequencing provided by
TCP but with a more sophisticated algorithm that understands
the likely causes of errors and responds more appropriately.
We have filed 11 patents on various aspects of MTP alone.”
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With the Wave Platform, organizations did not need to invest in
specific mobile skills, or pay for development for each operating
system. They used Wave Studio design tools. With these tools, they
could quickly build prototypes and easily change the content and
structural elements without losing its look and feel. That meant they
could host dynamic content that was always up-to-date and consistent
with their brand. The platform reused components so that customers
could move their app to market quickly, without paying for multiple
operating system developments.
After acquiring weComm technology, OpenText accelerated its mobility
strategy. The device-independent platform gives its customers the ability
to deliver functional apps for all types of devices. For more information
on this core technology, visit: opentext.com/btf-mobileecm.
weComm strengthened the OpenText position in mobile ECM by
providing enterprises with a way to create, deliver, and maintain mobile
applications for all mobile operating systems. With weComm technology,
mobile applications and solutions operate within a compliance-based
environment that requires security and policy controls.
Like weComm technology, mobile solutions such as OpenText
Everywhere help organizations find a balance between productivity and
governance by offering secure, reliable, mobile access to a repository
and other ECM technologies. This can be done within a single native
application designed specifically for an organization’s ECM deployment
so users do not have to move in and out of applications to keep workflow
processes moving and stay up-to-date with colleagues. By having the
same access to tools as mobile workers would in the office—workflow
steps, project workspaces, personal workspaces, favorites, and social
collaboration—the experience is seamless and the flow of work is
unimpeded. For more information on this technology innovation, visit:
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
OPENTEXT MOBILE WAVE
MOBILITY PLATFORM FOR EMP
Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMP) is one of the largest privately held providers of
emergency care in the US, with 1,200 physicians at 80 sites practicing medicine from
coast-to-coast. With remote sites across the country and groups of physicians frequently
on the road, EMP uses market leading technology solutions to keep employees informed
EMP wanted to push content to physicians’ mobile devices for on-the-go access to the
apps and content on their preferred mobile device. “A lot of times when their shift is over,
physicians don’t want to stay at the hospital and continue to fill out their paperwork. Our goal
was to enable them to more easily perform many of these administrative tasks outside the
hospital, whether it’s from the subway, their car, their couch, or wherever they happen to be,”
says David Peppard, CIO and CTO, at EMP.
With OpenText Mobile Wave, EMP found a platform that integrates with their OpenText
enterprise portal and enables them to publish native apps to the leading mobile devices on
the market, including Apple, Android, and BlackBerry. In addition to saving the company
money and improving physician’s productivity, the mobile solution is also helping EMP’s
screenshot OF WAVE technology on Android
TRACKING LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
The original smartphones had such small screens that it was undesirable
to accomplish some tasks on the go. With the introduction of the Apple
iPhone, and then the iPad, screens are far more suitable for tasks like
approving artwork for an ad or a vendor invoice. This drives the need for
high quality content both inside and outside the enterprise.
Organizations are launching new ways to exchange and process
content to increase productivity. More and more content types are
becoming available for employees inside and outside the office. The
integration of different media, including video, requires new solutions
for the creation, distribution, and consumption of digital media. The
consumption of digital media using mobile devices gives organizations,
specifically their marketing teams, new ways of personalizing messages
for their consumers.
As early as 2007, organizations were practicing proximity marketing and
using geolocation to target ads based on a mobile device user’s physical
location. Geolocation uses latitude and longitude data to pinpoint the
location of the person making the query. In 2009, several geolocation
APIs were being widely used, including the following examples:
• witter ® added upgrades that allowed users to autoT
matically share their location and even organize “tweets”
based on location origin to give users more meaningful and
• IM announced location-based services so that developers
could use methods to get location information into their apps
and geocoding (by taking GPS coordinates and converting
them into an address).4
• oogle® announced it was adding geolocation information
to search results to help .org, .com, and .net domains.5
More apps are integrating geolocation, like RentCompass which
launched the first Canadian apartment rental search application for the
Android. Search and geolocation seem to go hand-in-hand as a way to
increase the relevance of search results.
When used with search, geolocation helps users easily find a café
or good pizza in a new city. To make this happen for search, latitude
and longitude is stored in the index as document variables. A scoring
1 1 2 / CHA P T E R 4
function is built into the search so that it can measure the distance
between the user’s location and the latitude/longitude data of the
document, which is compared as the search happens. It remains
important to have a way to acquire a user’s location—a Web site or app
may have a profile stored for their users using an IP location software or
a GPS-enabled device.
When location extensions were added to RSS feeds, this technology
brought in a new age of coupling information with physical spaces. Local
news can be accessed through GeoRSS. People can access important
local information like transit schedules and environmental data on their
mobile phones. Technology developments in the field of sensors can
detect temperature and Web cam traffic cameras, and can feed this
information to mobile devices as well.6
This technology can be used to feed information through the mobile
Web. Context-aware systems know where individuals are, sense what
they are doing, and then adjust their behavior or make recommendations
based on the context.7 Based on mobile phone usage, the system is
aware of a person’s agenda, itinerary, intentions, and preferences, and
can filter and present information accordingly.8 So within a block of a
favorite restaurant, an individual might suddenly receive a coupon for a
free appetizer as the system anticipates behavior based on context.
One of the challenges for this kind of technology as the demand for
it grows is its ability to be accurate. Location intelligence is a specific
type of business intelligence with data types, structures, analysis, and
presentation methods tailored for geospatial data.
Backed by this kind of computing power and an immediate connection
to people and content, it has become easier and faster to find, share,
and collaborate and build processes around content.
IMPROVING CUSTOMER EXPERIENCES
Web sites are evolving again during Web 3.0 with the combination of
Web Content Management (WCM), Digital Asset Management (DAM),
and social networking to create CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MANAGEMENT or
CEM. With CEM, a Web site is now as much a gathering place as it is a
source of information and content.
4 esseldahl, Arik. RIM Teams With Adobe, Shows New Blackberry Features - BusinessWeek Nov 09, 2009: www.businessweek.
5 arfeni, Lucian. Google to Add Geolocation Information to Search Results, Softpedia, Dec 2, 2009.
6 owell, Laurie. In search of Web 3.0, N W September 2008, pg 22.
7 iliconIndia. The ‘Invisible’ Context-Aware Technology is Here to Stay, Startup, Tuesday, 15 Nov 2011: www.siliconindia.com/
8 owell, Laurie. In search of Web 3.0, N W September 2008, pg 22.
CEM technologies help organizations to provide their customers, and
their employees through an intranet, with the best user experience. Often
this includes personalized information, interactivity,Lifecycle Transactional Content
and new forms of
media to consume. Unique customer experiences can lead to loyalty,
increased sales, and customized customer services.
GATHERING BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE
CEM combines semantic search Email/Chat
capabilities with Business Intelligence
to deliver highly relevant information and a richer customer experience.
Business Intelligence applies dimensional models to data and supports
reporting and interactive data analysis. Marketing departments are keenly
focused on gathering intelligence from users so they can become more
familiar with their audiences to target them with relevant information,
offers, and services. As with any body of knowledge, metadata is
requires to gatherConnectivity businessEngine
Metadata is increasingly important in the Web 3.0 era. In preceding eras,
metadata played a key role in the effectiveness of early search engines
and media management. Tagging information is important because
it required data to be machine-readable. A framework is needed to
describe the data and all its annotations.
Sophisticated modern metadata extends a body of knowledge beyond
Communities of Practice and other collaborative models introduced in
the previous chapter to enrich meaning. This aligns with Tim BernersLee’s vision as the inventor of the Internet: “The Semantic Web is not a
separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information
is given well-defined meaning, ‘better enabling computers and people to
work in cooperation.’”9
USING CONTENT ANALYTICS
Semantic computing exploits machine-represented meaning to enhance
search, data integration, knowledge management, and informationcentered business processes. The technologies that facilitate semantic
9 T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler,O. Lassila, The Semantic Web, Scientific American, 2001.
10 J. Hendler, Web 3.0 Emerging, Computer, Jan. 2009, pp. 111-113.
computing include the application of content analytics, context
production, and annotation coupled with efforts to map databases into
linked data repositories.
Content analytics is used today to complement Business Intelligence
and plays a huge role in semantic computing by facilitating semantic
data integration, search, and information management. Adding this
layer of intelligence to online, social, and enterprise content enables
organizations to generate structured information from unstructured
sources. Content analytics parses and interprets the Web, as well as
social and enterprise content. Then by indexing it all, it makes sense of
opinions and attitudes and provides recommendations. Content analytics
have become valuable to the enterprise because with it, organizations
can target and enrich content based on the combined intelligence of
measured attitudes and opinions, in-depth Web analysis, seeded search
results, and focused results.
TRACKING PATTERNS FOR BETTER RESULTS
Emerging technologies make it easier to integrate Web development
with metadata and taxonomies to relate terms to each other, even when
they are used on different sites.10 Web applications have appeared
that can build up a digital identity for an individual and target content.
LinkedIn® provides a good example of this. Based on content mined from
an individual’s profile, the application displays advertisements for open
positions that align with a person’s skill set and experience. Much of this
is done using content analytics. Content analytics completes a similarity
search to look for things that are statistically or semantically similar.
Content analytics help to make sense of the mess of content that exists
on the Web, searching through a variety of content types, including
articles, blogs and comments, emails, images, status updates, profiles,
contact center notes, forums, forum postings, SMS/IM texts, and audio/
video streams. Content analytics handle subjectivity by measuring
sentiment, opinions, and emotion. This becomes extremely important
for business applications in customer service and support, marketing,
product and service quality, contextual ad placement, and policy and
politics. New tools like Tip Top were developed to help marketers
determine if social influence was positive or negative, and make
refinements to social media based on the results.
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 113
Management, and picture management desk products. These products
powered digital publishing for some of the most prestigious newspapers,
magazines, and content-driven organizations, including Reader’s Digest,
CondéNast publications, BBC, TIME, The Economist, The Canadian
Press, and Radio France. Nstein also worked with life science industries,
governments, and organizations in North America, France, and the UK.
Context + Behaviour = Intent
Intent + Community Wisdom = Recommendations
Social search combines results and community wisdom
CONNECTING AND PERSONALIZING RESULTS
Nstein, a company out of Montreal, developed a semantic technology
called TME (Text Mining Engine) 5. It applied new linguistic tools to
help manage metadata and analyze sentiment, or feeling, in an article
to determine if reaction was positive or negative. TME 5 could extract
meaning, nuance, and context from unstructured content. The ability for
a company to analyze what was said about them, their products, or even
their competitors provided a deeper understanding of their audience.11
Mario Girard and Laurent Proulx founded Nstein in 2000 via a merger
between the IT research and development firm GESPRO and Net
Création, a technology marketing company. In addition to the Text
Mining Engine, Nstein worked with clients to design complete digital
strategies to implement Web Content Management, Digital Asset
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Interaction between Nstein components
TME identified concepts, categories, proper names, places, organizations, sentiment, and topics in particular content pieces and annotated
the content to show underlying nuances and meaning in content.
The company’s Web Content Management solutions allowed content
producers to develop and edit documents and slideshows, manage
contributions, and follow editorial and behavioral statistics in real time.
11 “Nstein Technologies Targets New Markets”, Nstein Press Release. 2009.
This helped organizations analyze the behavior of Web site visitors and
track patterns of behavior. Content-rich enterprises benefited from the
ability centralize vast amounts of content and understand how users
interacted with it.
Each of the technology offerings from Nstein used its patented text
mining technology. This technology helped the enterprise optimize
content, connecting users to relevant information on a personal level.
The Nstein 3S (Semantic Site Search) multi-index finding engine served
up highly specific content search results. The innovative technology
developments resulted in KMWorld awarding Nstein its “Trend Setting
Products” award for four years in a row.
One of the Nstein customers is a humanitarian, non-governmental
organization that worked on projects in war-torn regions and
developing countries facing endemic disease. To report the conditions
of a humanitarian emergency accurately to the rest of the world and to
governing bodies, the organization uses Nstein technologies to track
behavior in terms of the frequency of diseases in hospitals. By finding
data on the occurrence, timing, and location of epidemic increases
(or “seasons”), the organizations could then stockpile vaccines and
By understanding the patterns of behavior, organizations can increase
their Web conversion rates with promotions and ad placement strategies
based on positioning content most relevant to Web site visitors, catching
their interest and new business. The Nstein semantic search technology
helps its customers to do just that. That technology is now known as
OpenText Content Analytics.
With OpenText Content Analytics, customers can use enhanced
information retrieval capabilities provided by the native search inherent
to the OpenText ECM Suite. Users are also able to make use of this
technology within social media environments to analyze the interactions
between users and expose them to more relevant information. For
more information about this innovative technology, visit: opentext.com/
Associating content in context in semantic search
Not only can semantic technologies analyze the interactions between
users, but they can interpret patterns of behavior and use them to predict
behavior. One discipline that examines this question in depth is Web
navigation, which is based on usability studies (for example, videotaping
a Web site visitor’s navigation behavior). It is believed that navigation
behavior can be accurately predicted by users’ navigation paths.
Based on understanding how users navigate a Web site, organizations
can build adaptive Web applications. Predictive tools help interface
designers by indicating where users click on a Web site. When an
organization adds a semantic search component to their Web pages,
they can predict search behavior as well. In the Web 2.0 era, Web
users received more information than they needed, and much of this
information was not relevant to their interests or needs. Semantic search
is able to take search to new and more sophisticated heights, helping
users get more accurate and useful information.
The principle of the Semantic Web is that if data is available, it can
be analyzed. Based on the amount of information on the Web, the
ability to suggest behavior based on searching the Web is becoming
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 115
increasingly important for media organizations, governments, and
financial institutions. Take for example, the huge number of tweets that
have historically been posted before political uprisings and riots. This
information, in combination with semantic search, could help public
sector organizations predict when and where a potential uprising might
take place, and prepare for this to ensure public safety.
Marten Den Haring
“When Nstein was founded in the year 2000, it wasn't common
to use the word ‘Semantics’, but semantics was the founding
principle at Nstein: semantics for classification, summarization,
search, and even semantics for translation.
Nstein's insight was that semantically enriched data could
be browsed and searched more effectively. The distinction
between ordinary search and semantic search can best be
explained with the idea that search should be more like what
a knowledgeable person can do compared to a basic search
engine. When we ask a person to find information about
OpenText, we don't expect them to produce every document,
article, blog, and tweet ever written that contains the word
‘OpenText’, only the ones with relevant information. In addition,
we might reasonably expect to see related information about
companies that OpenText has acquired, such as ‘Global 360’ or
‘StreamServe’. The difference here is that the knowledgeable
person has more context to understand the information and
make logical connections and decisions.
Today, search by context rather than search by word is becoming
ever more important as the volume of information continues to
grow at exponential rates.”
Rather than using a mathematical model to measure how many times
a word is used and how often it appears within a block of text, the
Nstein technology uses a linguistic model. It scans content, emulating
the way a person would scan a Web page, picking out important
keywords or phrases to find relevant information. Just as history is used
to identify emerging trends, semantic technologies work in a similar way
by sorting through old data to look for repeated patterns. This process
is called back-mining.
AIMING FOR ACCURACY
The Web is made up of a huge amount of referential content. Content
is displayed as resources that link to other resources. The Semantic
Web looks for meaningful data using software that requires a library
or repository, documents, and images that lead to topics, people, and
places based on context. It makes connections with all the content that
it could reach because the software understands the meaning of the
data. This data can then be used to create a customized experience
tailored to suit an individual’s interests and preferences.
The majority of information that people deal with on a daily basis is
unstructured. Examples include emails, voicemails, video, and other
forms of information. As discussed in previous eras of the Web, this
kind of information is difficult to index. Companies have been evolving
complex indexing and search technology for almost a decade. Nstein
was one of the first companies to take this technology to market.
Organizations have benefited from Nstein solutions through improved
efficiencies and time-savings. Using semantic search technology from
Nstein, people can find the information they need to do their jobs and
make better decisions faster, based on more accurate search results.
The Web improves the ability to search for and share documents. The
Semantic Web expands on this ability, allowing data from a variety
of sources, including Web pages and online databases to be used
1 1 6 / CHA P T E R 4
and shared by different software applications, with an added level of
understanding. Semantic software examines meaning units instead
of words. This is called computer-aided indexing and it has the ability
to index 6,000 documents in an hour.
Semantically driven faceted search
Topic maps + query-driven PAGES
From searches through Pre-Web documents to the Search Engines
of Web 1.0, search technologies continue to evolve to increase the
precision of the results. With the amount of content available within the
enterprise, precision ensures that organizations make the best use of
every corporate asset. A proven benefit of search technology, the ability
to find content easily, accurately, and quickly, saves the enterprise time
Semantic Web technologies offer a huge advantage to the end user and
the enterprise. The precision of a search for information using different
criteria helps organizations collect data that may have been more difficult
to find, and enables enterprise users to share that information. The
Nstein 3S multi-index semantic site search used content analytics to
power a faceted search.
A faceted search takes different approaches to complete a search
by applying multiple filters. A navigational search tool like the original
Yahoo!® used a hierarchical structure, or taxonomy, to browse and
narrow the search. Then Web search engines generated a list based on
a query as one or more words in a text box. The difference between the
previous search technologies and Nstein 3S is that 3S embedded its
technology with text analytics capabilities to increase accuracy.
Content analytics and metadata enable rich, faceted searches across
many different platforms. Nstein technology gave users easy-to-read
results organized by topics and entities, along with links to other valuable
and related content. For the end user, it was incredibly user-friendly
because it generated a microsite based on search results.
EXPANDING ENTERPRISE SEARCH
3S, or Semantic Site Search, now known as OpenText Semantic
Navigation, expands the search capabilities of the OpenText ECM
Suite. The use of content analytics supports enterprise customers in
their compliance and litigation readiness needs by helping them identify
relevant content for archiving. The system automatically suggests which
content assets end users should file as official records and greatly
improves the efficiency of content collection and review for e-discovery
and audit purposes.
Despite improved access to information, it remains important to know
which sources should be trusted on the Web. User-generated content,
information posted to Wikipedia®, Twitter, and even comments on a blog,
for example, should be checked for authenticity and accuracy. Another
challenge posed by social content is the informal use of language and
the shorthand used in microblogging and texts. The advanced text
mining capabilities of Nstein technology are uniquely suited to a social
media world where deciphering emergent short-hand grammar and
abbreviations is critical.
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OpenText Semantic Navigation technology extracts meaning, nuance,
and context from vast amounts of unstructured content. This helps
organizations transform content into knowledge that is easy to find,
repurpose, and reuse. The ability to write once, publish many times
helps organizations, especially in the media and entertainment industry,
to deliver content more quickly and efficiently across digital channels.
The predictive technologies of the Semantic Web help improve user
experience in Web applications by integrating the content analytics
with Web Content Management systems. Content analytics play a role
in delivering the best and most compelling experience for mobile users
across multiple platforms. To find out how this technology has evolved,
With the development of gaming systems like Xbox Kinect, new
uses of immersive technology are rapidly developing for home use.
Contextual gaming liberates people from simply sitting in front of the
console. Further technology developments integrate this concept
into 3-D alternate reality environments to give games a fully immersive experience.
DISCOVERING NEW REALITIES
There are other new technologies emerging in the Web 3.0 era to build
more compelling user experiences. For example, multiple platforms
were introduced for gaming. Games moved from the arcade into the
home with game consoles, small mobile systems, and a number of
applications developed solely for gaming on smartphones and tablets. In
February 2012, for example, games were the most popular Apple App12
Store downloads. Gaming is now taking another turn—it is immersing
the players into the game.
Immersive technology has been used in educational situations like
military or medical training. The approach is based on technology
blurring the line between the physical world and the digital or simulated
world to immerse users in the experience. It can include:
• irtual worlds which are simulated environments like
• Augmented reality where a view of the real world has
elements that are augmented by computer-generated
sensory input such as video, graphics, or sound
• Contextual gaming like Xbox® Kinect™
• -D environments built for training, which is moving
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Immersive technology on the Web
Moving beyond entertainment, immersive technologies have a much
larger role to play in the future Web—and the enterprise. Applied inside
the enterprise, these technologies present immersive experiences
for corporate users, such as collaboration, learning and training, and
improving customer experience. As the technology develops further, it
can be applied to more virtual meetings. The 3-D space offers a way
to organize simultaneous conversations across several locations for a
brainstorming meeting, for example.13
Adding social collaboration tools to content management technologies
significantly changes how people distribute content, especially digital
media assets. Organizations can take advantage of mashups and extend
them with widgets. Widgets give control of content to the content owner
to share on the Web with other users. Widgets are mini applications that
12 “App Store Metrics.” 148Apps.biz, Feb 13 2012: 148apps.biz/app-store-metrics/
13 evin, Mervyn. 3-D internet and enterprise: emergence of virtual worlds and serious games in the Workplace, DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING IN
ORGANIZATIONS, VOL. 24 NO. 2 2010, page 17.
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH
INTELLIGENCE NETWORK (GPHIN)
FINDING THREATS WITH TEXT
The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN) Centre for Emergency Preparedness
and Response Public Health Agency of Canada uses the latest technology to spot threats
to human life. The GPHIN system uses translingual text mining to assign relevancy scores
to numerous articles coming from worldwide sources, helping analysts count and track
instances of possible threats.
A recent National Post article cited GPHIN’s importance to detecting global threats. Unlike its
American counterpart ProMed, GPHIN does not just track diseases. The group monitors any
threat to human life—natural or man-made, for example bush fires in California, pestilence
outbreaks in Africa, even theft of nuclear material. As such, the Canadian team and its
technology are continuously monitoring over 1,000 potential threats around the globe. The
team publishes eight different reports, three times a day. It is precisely this monitoring by
organizations like GPHIN that triggers responses—such as the WHO declaring H1N1 a
pandemic, which in turn accelerates the development of vaccines.
Processing up to 20,000 articles a day, it would be impossible to track this volume without
the search technology.
Translingual text mining results
extend content from any source and embed it into an experience, like
embedding a media player into Facebook to share YouTube videos.
“In the near future, I think we'll see a major shift to on-demand
apps for the enterprise and a lot of activity in the Cloud, but
longer term I think we're going to see a much more immersive
experience, where we interact with the technology in much
more pragmatic and perhaps kinesthetic ways. In the same way
that range camera technologies like those seen in the Xbox
Kinect have allowed us to manipulate virtual environments, the
same will be true for the way we leverage, share, and interact
with the content and information we use every day at work and
in the home. By making interfaces more immersive and intuitive,
we can provide people with a pretty revolutionary experience.
The possibilities are limitless...”
Online virtual environments have great potential to enhance collaboration
in the enterprise. Some companies use Second Life-type of environments
as a way to experiment with virtual events. OpenText held its first online
annual conference (Content World) in 2010. Each user had a professional
identity using an avatar, attended various presentations, chatted with
other attendees, and called virtual meetings on the spot. Customers,
partners, and OpenText itself saved on travel costs, but still had the
chance to collaborate and share best practices. By allowing users to
immerse themselves in a 3-D interactive environment, organizations
still access networking opportunities, resources, and speakers on topics
PRESENTING INFORMATION IN NEW WAYS
In 1999, Anthony Gallo started a company called Vizible in Toronto,
to humanize the Internet by making it more accessible and intuitive
through creative ways of presenting and navigating information. Vizible
saw the benefits of giving users new ways to engage and interact with
content that was less flat and hierarchical. In The Museum of Modern Art
(MoMA) in New York City had an exhibition called MoMA Workspheres. It
showcased the technology and it gained worldwide attention as part of
the great tradition of MoMA for industrial innovation and design.
One Vizible customer, Deutsche Bank, used the technology to create a
next-generation global equities research terminal. The application earned
Vizible the Deutsche Bank Technology Award for the most differentiated
and innovative technology of the year in 2004. The following year, Intel
used the technology in keynotes to demonstrate their view of the future
at two separate conferences. An increasing number of customers and
analysts began to regard Vizible as a leader in enabling organizations to
increase their business process productivity in innovative ways.
One of the early applications of Vizible technology for OpenText was
the combination of a 3-D user interface with media management. The
technology provided broadcasters and content creators with new,
compelling ways to deliver digital media content.
1 2 0 / CHA P T E R 4
INTERNET OF REAL LIFE
“The redesign of how we interact with our world is what the next
Web will be about. It will be about a new kind of Integration,
one that is more profound and impactful. The next iteration of
the Web will integrate the physical world seamlessly into our
virtual and connected world.
Content widgets extend content into embeddable
TAKING LEARNING TO ANOTHER LEVEL
Immersive technologies combined with the Semantic Web offer a huge
opportunity to extend learning systems. Immersive technologies add a
new level of customer experience, while Semantic Web helps users
locate and find content and deliver it in ways and channels that suit
their needs. Web 3.0 technologies give learning systems new ways
of managing learning and engaging more users to learn at their convenience. Collaboration tools make it easier to interact with the subject
matter experts and information.
As trends in the marketplace change, it is difficult for people to keep
track of information required to complete day-to-day tasks. In order to
stay competitive, organizations require that their employees have fast and
easy access to critical corporate information. When learning management
systems first came on the scene, they were typically scheduling systems
for classrooms. In the early 2000s, they evolved into e-learning programs
with enrollment and tracking tools.
Web connectivity is everywhere, always-on, and for everyone,
yet our world, the physical world, where we live, breath, walk
and talk, is not yet taking part in the Web in a meaningful way.
Yes—we depict the world through images and maps and locate
ourselves within it through GPS and tags, but that is not where
we are going, that is where we have been. We are headed
to a place where digital content and information connects
seamlessly with the physical world and allows the intermediation of browsers and operating systems to disappear. It
will all be in the Cloud.
Many are calling this the ‘Internet of Things’, I call it the ‘Internet
of Real Life’. The next generation of Web innovation will design
our everyday objects and the spaces and places around them
to include networked information and control. It will bring our
networked information systems into the design of our buildings,
cities, and natural environment. We will be interacting with
information and each other though our physical interactions in
the world and with its objects.”
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 121
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
CREATING A DIGITAL AND
As Canada hosted world leaders for the G8 and G20 summits, media from around the
world updated a global audience with Summit developments. This presented Canada with a
unique opportunity to draw international attention to the country’s strengths as a destination
for business, investment, and tourism. The Experience Canada pavilion was designed to
showcase Canada through compelling images, interactive displays, and access to experts
who could elaborate on Canada’s valued qualities as a host nation.
Although the International Media Centre was accessible to accredited media only, an online
version of the Experience Canada corridor extended the event to the public, enabling a global
audience to experience Canada as an innovative and contemporary destination. The site,
located at www.vg20net.org, combined digital experience management with an immersive
experience, presenting 3-D displays from the Experience Canada Marketing pavilion. As a
virtual counterpart to the physical site, the video mashup helped the Canadian Government
to further promote Canada’s key attributes using leading edge technology.14
A digital and immersive experience at the Canada Pavilion
14 Jenkins, Tom. Managing Content in the Cloud. OpenText Corporation: © 2010.
PROVIDING FIRST-CLASS EDUCATION
The company also offered Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 technologies in its
enterprise portals for a number of business functions, as well as
enterprise channel information and Customer Relationship Management
(CRM) portals for Communities of Practice and other forms of
collaboration. Behind every innovation was a philosophy of providing
a first-class user experience and the interface, as usual, was key to
adoption and ease of use.
To capitalize on informal learning that was growing in organizations,
Operitel developed LearnFlex Connect to open communication channels
and allow for greater sharing, collaboration, and interaction safely behind
the firewall. Users could use tools they were familiar with from other
social media platforms, such as the “Like” button from Facebook and
commenting functionality from blogs.
With organizations building certification programs, making more
courses available, and experiencing a large number of users enrolling
in e-learning, learning systems need to follow suit to support more
complex, corporate-wide systems. Because they focus on employee
development, many systems need to integrate with HR systems to
track completion results, as well as for compliance purposes. Social
media technologies introduce sophistication and complexity to learning
systems in the form of peer-to-peer, peer-to-manager, and peer-to-expert
interactions that the Internet facilitates.
In 2001, Michael Skinner, Jason Stimers, and Carlos Oliveira formed
Operitel in Peterborough, Ontario, to produce and distribute learning
management systems for high tech, financial, educational, and
transportation sectors. Its flagship product LearnFlex helped the
enterprise acquire, create, and transfer information and knowledge.
15 “Operitel Roadmap” Operitel PowerPoint, 2011.
Knowing that learning would follow the trend to mobile, Operitel
developed LearnFlex Mobile. On-the-go learning helped the enterprise
achieve their strategic business objectives while making it easier for
employees to learn. LearnFlex Mobile users could launch, complete, and
track e-learning courses on the move. They could even register for the
course, view their learning plan, and get approval from their manager—all
from a mobile device.
In 2011, the internationally renowned Brandon Hall Group honored
Operitel with the Best in Class Smartchoice certification after it assessed
the LearnFlex Learning Management System.15 Later that year, OpenText
acquired Operitel to add powerful e-learning capabilities to its solutions.
At the enterprise-level, e-learning solutions can help ensure content
security, enrich information, preserve knowledge, and more effectively
engage their employees, partners, and customers. E-learning solutions
continue to expand in time with the immersive and Semantic Web. As
trends in business and technology change, and the world becomes
more mobile, organizations will need more tools to help keep their
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 123
PROVIDING END-TO-END SOLUTIONS
ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT, or ECM, is a combination of content
technologies including document management, records management,
and archiving. ECM helps organizations manage people, processes,
WORKFORCE WITH KNOWLEDGE
“Our first two clients were very diverse; the first was the third
largest school board in North America and the second was a
worldwide manufacturing company that trained employees and
dealers. By working with these two unique organizations and
combining the expertise of the Operitel team, we were able
to build a Learning Management System that was flexible to
support the different business needs of our educational and
Our main differentiator has not changed for the past 10 years;
it is the simple fact that technology needs to be flexible
enough to enable an organization. We strongly believe that as
organizations evolve the technology that supports them needs
to evolve as well.
For many years a workforce could be defined by two qualities,
the knowledge it possesses and the skills to use this knowledge. As the Web evolves, our workforce will be able to have
greater access to knowledge, which means our workforce can
focus on evolving their skills knowing that the knowledge is
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technologies help manage and optimize the flow of content
throughout the enterprise. An effective ECM solution delivers all the tools
necessary to produce and manage content in any format, byTransactional Content
users, across unlimited domains. Another key requirement is a logical
centralized repository. Enterprise content is stored, shared, and managed
inside a shared repository to give end users access to content, no matter
where it resides within the ECM system. Content is protected in this
repository where it is stored in secure, compliant, and reusable ways.
Social technologies should integrate seamlessly within an enterprise’s
information ecosystem. That means that social media must be compatible
with the existing content lifecycle and transaction management technologies. ECM provides an ideal platform for creating content quickly
and easily, while also delivering it in a personalized context.
The knowledge worker has evolved into a mobile professional, Workﬂow
whether working remotely or in the traditional office environment.
And being mobile, they expect the ECM solutions they use every day
to be accessible on their mobile device, including technologies like
to professional and social networks makes
mobile collaboration possible. In the Web 1.0 era, collaboration drove
productivity, and in the Web 3.0 era, mobile devices have pushed
productivity levels even further. The ability to access business
information while participating in workflow processes, as well as
collaborating with customers and colleagues, has become crucial for
the mobile professional.
I N N O V AT O R ST O R Y
GLOBAL IT COMMUNITY
HELPING THREE MILLION IT PRO
MEMBERS ACROSS THE GLOBE
FURTHER THEIR CAREERS
With over 1,200 Member Organizations representing over three million IT professionals,
GITCA is the world's largest international not-for-profit independent organization powered by
dedicated volunteers. They are devoted to the development and growth of the IT community
and provide no-charge services to support and connect the leaders of user groups,
associations, and student IT organizations. With the current uncertainty of the global market,
GITCA wanted to ensure that its IT professionals maintained their skills in a constantly
evolving technology market. The company selected Operitel to provide official Microsoft®
e-learning for three million IT pro members.
Operitel Corporation, producer and distributor of the award winning LearnFlex Learning
Management System, is an educational technology company that specializes in building
adaptive Web-based enterprise-level applications. Using the Operitel e-learning solution,
GITCA has been able to provide highly relevant and quality e-learning content in a cost
effective way. The service is offered to IT professionals around the world, who can access
coursework at their convenience and work at their own pace. The e-learning solution has
helped GITCA achieve their mission of empowering IT professionals with the ability to
improve their skill sets to stay relevant, contributing to individual career growth and the
organization’s future direction.16
GITCA Web site
16 Culminis selects Operitel to provide Official Microsoft E-Learning for 3 million IT Pro members” Operitel Press Release: 2009: www.operitel.com/
Social networking on the go
ECM solutions framework
TAKING BUSINESS ON THE GO
Having the wireless Web means people can access the latest movie
review, email, weather, or stock reports, but many organizations do not
have the business applications require to help their mobile professionals
get the information they need and collaborate in real time. The enterprise
understands the advantages of wireless accessibility, realizing that users
can continually collect information from multiple channels and then distribute that information across the enterprise.
By giving mobile professionals access to their entire professional
toolbox on their mobile device, organizations can expedite their business
operations. Imagine a salesperson in the field needing a manager’s
approval to give a customer a discount—with the right mobile ECM tools,
that decision can be made almost instantly. The ability to have critical
information immediately available revolutionizes content management
and mobile computing. And by combining traditional content
management functionality with compliance, records management, social
media, process management, and other applications, organizations can
deliver critical information in context.
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Extending ECM to mobile devices involves more than just mobilizing
existing applications. Organizations need to consider a number of
important factors when moving powerful enterprise systems outside of
office and IT environments, including offline storage and secure access
to content; the use of mobile capabilities like GPS, alerts, and calendars;
performance based on the device, the network, and availability of
bandwidth; and the security of content.
The availability of content by mobile professionals improves their
ability to make decisions. A lawyer can apply records management
and compliance policies to dispositions received on a mobile device.
Marketing professionals can search, retrieve, view digital assets, and
approve the final artwork on a mobile device, and Web managers
can review and approve Web site content. Even the executive who
spends most of the time travelling and receiving numerous workflows
or processes in a week can receive the content needed to make sound
Mobile ECM delivers flexible solutions and applications for mobile
workers who require constant up-to-date information to do their
jobs. They can quickly and easily communicate and collaborate with
team members. Increased access to resources significantly improves
productivity, as organizations seize new opportunities, improve customer
services and retention, and mobilize applications to keep business agile,
responsive, and moving forward.
Mobile Device Platforms
BUILDING THE ECM
INDUSTRY AND AN ECM THOUGHT LEADER
Enterprise Repositories & Applications
“The ECM industry has continued to grow through economic
uncertainty, recession, and the “dot.com” bubble burst of
2000. Companies powering this business have been adaptable,
acquired and developed new technologies, and continued
The mobile enterprise framework
PROVIDING MOBILE INFRASTRUCTURE AND SECURITY
ECM provides an extensible content infrastructure for mobile
professionals, giving them access to applications that leverage the entire
enterprise ecosystem—from ERP systems to the enterprise library to
process and content management solutions. With a connection to these
back-end repositories, mobile ECM delivers fast and seamless access
to an organization’s IT environment, trusted corporate repository, and
enterprise processes directly on a mobile device.
And they have all played a part in building the Hidden Web
and Big Data. Companies that have seen success in the ECM
industry have remained flexible in times of change and nimble
in response to customers’ business needs. The ECM industry
evolved from search engines to systems that facilitated
document management on the Web. Collaboration tools were
added to help organizations effectively manage their business
processes and critical documents. Another key to successful
companies in this space was the ability to consolidate numerous
solutions—and it’s made the ECM industry what it is today.”
To be effective and safe, mobile platforms must be integrated with secure
services like directory services to authenticate users and deliver all of
the capabilities of an organization’s back-end infrastructure directly
to users on their mobile device. This model ensures that content is
managed securely and delivered expediently. This ability is not limited to
documents, text, and traditional content types; it also includes the ability
to sort, manage, and classify non-traditional content types such as social
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 127
media and other rich media experiences, including high definition video.
For more information on mobile ECM, visit: opentext.com/btf-mobileecm.
enhance business insight across their processes and the execution
of those processes.
EVOLVING BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT
As people access growing amounts of content using their mobile
devices, much of this content is produced in the context of business
processes. Whether ad hoc or structured, processes need to take place
within an organization to complete specific jobs or actions. As digital
content and the power of computers continues to grow, technologies are
being developed to automate the processes.
BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT, or BPM, has evolved as workflow has
become more complex, involving work steps for larger numbers of interWeb 4.0
related people and actions. Most often, these actions that are produced
involve other computer Information
Enterprise programs such as purchase orders in accounting
and contracts contained in digital documents.
BPM allows organizations to leverage and extend their existing
technologies to support the processes that drive theLifecycle Transactional Content
Content success of the
business. Take, forManagement an insurance company. A typical insurance
company receives approximately 10,000 claims a day. Once scanned,
the customer number and claim total is added to each machine. The
workflow applies certain rules to determine whether the claim falls within
assigned limits. If the data is complete and business rules satisfied, the
Web processed and the customer receives payment.
is automatically Content
Metastorm, founded in 1996 in Baltimore, could a complete BPM
suite for roundtrip process improvement including design, automation,
analysis, and monitoring of both human- and system-based processes.
Metastorm solutions addressed the process value chain with complete
end-to-end process software. Organizations could not only complete
business modeling Connectivity
and architecture, but develop Document to better
understand their operations, and then design, automate,
and monitor the processes. This gave organizations the ability to
1 2 8 / CHA P T E R 4
Claims processing at an insurance company
BPM offers organizations several benefits, not the least of which are
cost savings, better management of processes, increased quality, faster
time to market, and regulatory compliance. BPM governs the transaction technologies used in ECM suites to help organizations improve
efficiencies, shorten project lifecycles, lower costs, and increase product
and service quality. Industries such as financial services and insurance,
energy, government, life sciences, and healthcare use BPM to help with
customer on-boarding or claims processing. For more information on the
core technology from Metastorm, visit: opentext.com/btf-bpm.
GROWING IMPACT OF BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT
Global 360 approached its software development differently. It conducted
extensive customer implementation experience and two years of focused
research with the builders who designed and developed the systems, the
participants who worked within the system every day, and the managers
who monitored and managed the business. It was persona-based BPM—
the first BPM approach to focus on the way work gets done and how to
do it better.
ViewStar, one of the early workflow software vendors discussed in
Chapter 1, was acquired by eiStream in 2001. eiStream originated with
former Kodak software businesses Eastman Software (purchased from
Wang in 1997) and Kofile in 2000 by a group of investors led by a Dallas
businessman. Before it became known as Global 360, it acquired Keyfile
The impact of BPM grew during the Web 2.0 era. With more content
available to a greater number of people on a global level, ECM was
bound to become more BPM-focused. Some of the BPM interfaces
included: ERP for Human Resources, Legal and accounting departments;
Customer Relationship Management for customer support; and Supply
Chain Management for component tracking and content management.
The combined acquisitions gave Global 360 more than 20 years of
experience in helping more than 2,000 customers in 70 countries
reduce paper, automate processes, and empower individuals to deliver
increased productivity, service levels, and business performance. Global
360 software created, monitored, analyzed, and managed automated
business processes. Not only did it help clients address accounting
functions, claims management, reporting, and regulatory compliance,
but it offered document management technology as well.
The persona-based approach resulted in a better user experience,
interaction, and collaboration of everyone involved in a process. Clients
included AEGON, the City of Vancouver, Crédit de Lyonnais, Carlson
Marketing, and Revlon. In 2010, Microsoft honored Global 360 at its
Microsoft Partner Awards with Information Worker Solutions, Visio
Partner of the Year. When OpenText acquired Global 360 in 2011, it was
the leading independent provider of process and case management
solutions. For more information on this core technology, visit opentext.
Health Insurance Claims
Hospital Case Management
Process • Rules • Roles • Reports
Integration Components • Client Interfaces • Best Practices
USA Patriot Act Compliance
Credit Card Services
Account Balance Statements
Examples of BPM applications by industry
TAKING BPM MOBILE
The ability to access and view files from a trusted enterprise repository
using a mobile device in real time is a fundamental benefit of mobile
content. Mobile access to corporate content and systems gives people
the ability to manage critical documents like travel expenses, vendor
invoices, human resources documents, and customer information from a
mobile device. The ability to make informed decisions keeps processes
and productivity on track.
Decision-makers also benefit from mobile BPM because they can
access, review, digitally sign, and approve steps in business processes
in a secure and compliant manner no matter where they are. With Mobile
BPM, management accesses, engages with, and acts on the critical
information and processes that drives their business. It brings the mobile
workforce a step closer to seamless access to BPM.
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 129
But BPM functions beyond workflow. It aims to integrate all affected
applications within an enterprise by monitoring processes and
assembling all required information. BPM includes process and data
monitoring at the server level, enterprise application integration to link
together different applications, and Business Intelligence with rule
structures, integration of information warehouses, and utilities that assist
users to complete their work more efficiently.
MOVING FURTHER FASTER
Technology is advancing into the future faster than expected. As
emerging technologies integrate with search and retrieval technologies,
content becomes even more tailored and personalized. With increasing
quantities of digital content in the enterprise and the Cloud, the
enterprise is experiencing higher levels of efficiency.
The expectations of consumers have changed as well. As users
consume more applications that pull and aggregate requested
information, users’ expectations grow. They expect to receive the
information when, where, and how they prefer it. This expectation will
grow as the technologies of the Future Web develop.
Along with personalization, consumers expect to move seamlessly
between platforms, applications, devices, and content types. IT
departments will be required to make this happen while ensuring
security and governance requirements are met. The social and mobile
technologies of the Web 3.0 era challenge the enterprise in new ways,
while presenting new opportunities for growth and success.
Behind the firewall, more targeted and secure applications help the
enterprise manage its growing content more effectively. Based on
patterns of behavior, the enterprise becomes smarter—making use
of semantic tools to target information. Its content is augmented by
mobile features like geolocation and other push technologies. Mobility
empowers employees to work on the move and immersive technologies
heighten the experiences of Web users.
1 3 0 / CHA P T E R 4
SO M E CA LL IT A N E VO LU TIO N / 131
Future Web / 2015The Path of the Future
This is the era of the digital enterprise and the Web as an operating system. Using the
Web to access programs has enabled the development of fast, easy, and lightweight
applications. In the very near future, straightforward and affordable access to them will be
ubiquitous. The Web as an operating system, combined with mobility, social technologies,
and the Cloud will have a lasting impact on enterprise technologies as they morph into
Enterprise Information Management, and it will affect how we access, share, use, and
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and how the web
with deep risk and
slower rate of purchase than consumers buy new devices. Based on
experience in the past of consumer adoption leading the way with
technology, it can be expected that touch screen laptops and monitors,
and, in many places, tablets, will become common in the workplace as
IT replaces its current inventory.
ENTERING A NEW PHASE OF COMPUTING
In the future Web, the Web Operating System emerges from the
Cloud and mobile devices. In this type of architecture, the users, the
application, the content, the program, and the computing power (storage
and processing) can be located anywhere within the Web and the
application itself can be started and modified from any device.
Since personal computers first appeared in offices and homes, users
have interacted with them using three components: a monitor, a
keyboard, and a mouse. While there have been improvements in these
technologies, including flat screen monitors, Bluetooth® mice, and
ergonomic keyboards, 30 years later most users still use a monitor, a
keyboard, and a mouse.
Mobile phones with trackballs and trackpads in the early to mid-2000s
initiated a new way of interacting with computing devices. Then the
widespread consumer adoption of the Apple® iPhone® in 2007 and the
iPad® in 2010, with their multi-touch screens, introduced a fundamental
shift in usability. Other vendors of mobile phones and tablets quickly
followed suit and laptops and peripheral monitors have started to
incorporate touch screens.
Smartphones and tablet computers have introduced another critical
change in computing. Suddenly consumer demand is driving the
adoption of new technology, even behind the firewall. Computer usage
started in the workplace with mainframes and dumb terminals. Even
when desktop computers appeared, users considered them to be a
business tool for the workplace.
Today, consumers adopt new technologies, introduce them into the
workplace, and pressure the organizations’ IT departments to support
them. IT replaces technology based on budgets, generally at a much
AWeb 3.0 business model has evolved as devices like the iPad and
smartphone are driving the adoption of applications from digital
distribution platforms like iTunes® and the App Store®. Processsuccess of
this model and the rapid rates of consumer adoption are evident in the
billions of apps downloaded. But how will apps and their distribution
alter 2.0 course of business? Fundamentally, considering Apple has
already shipped millions of iPads and many Fortune 100 companies
are using them, with CIOs surveyed Networks
Social by Morgan Stanley expecting to
incorporate tablets into their networks in 2012.
With the arrival of the iPad, touch screen computing, and the simplification of installing applications on mobile clients using a digital
distribution platform, the world has entered a new phase of computing.
It is now possible Webforecast that every personWeb the planet can interact
with the Web and Management use of the Web will be written as an “app”
using a Web operating system.
The success of Facebook®, smartphones, and tablets has driven the
evolution of the Web as an operating system at least 10 years earlier
than originally forecast. This is the single most significant technology
development to affect business sinceEngine PC, and it will dominate
1 3 4 / CHA P T E R 5
computing well into the future. Client computing has been transformed
by smart mobile devices. The timeline chart on this page shows how
quickly mobile apps have evolved when compared to the rise of the
PC, a market that was 30 years in the making.
The rapid shifts experienced in consumer and enterprise computing
are forcing software vendors to adapt to meet the new demands of
PC Market: 30 years in
Web Operating System:
5 years in the making
1980: Started with personal computers:
Microsoft ® and Apple
2008: Started with smartphones:
RIM® and Apple
1985: Leveraged proprietary
2009: iTunes and App Store create
simple app delivery. Google® introduces
Android® as horizontal alternative
1990: Vertical: Mac vs. Horizontal:
Windows® with Vertical having initial
success. But in the end hardware
vendors choose Horizontal (Intel®)
2010: Vertical: Apple iOS vs.
Horizontal: Google Android
2000: Windows platform has PC
monopoly. Office integrated into suite
2010: Vertical has initial success in
early stages. But in the end Hardware
chooses Horizontal (Moto, Samsung)
2005: Suites became a platform for
2011: Horizontal wins as industry
2010: Applications dominated the
2012: Android platform has mobile
Web as operating system monopoly
2009: Web as operating system wars
begin in earnest
1995: Horizontal wins as industry
The demands of the marketplace also require a new standard in the
enterprise. This standard is known as ENTERPRISE INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT (EIM). As the enterprise becomes more complex both
in size and the amount of content, one thing is constant—the need
EIM can deliver a comprehensive software suite that encompasses: the
Customer the management of structured, unstructured
capture of information;Experience Enterprise Content
and application data; the exchange and presentation of information on
both sides of the firewall; intelligent business processes and solutions;
information applications that parallel ERP data and process; enterprise
information architecture that enables enterprise applications as well
as mobile, social, Digital Asset
and Cloud; and Business Intelligence and Transactional Content
These concepts are supported by the four pillars of EIM.
THE PILLARS OF EIM
THE Development of the pc market vs. web operating system
THE PATH O F THE FU TU R E / 135
The pillars represent functions of the three core technologies discussed
in the previous chapter: Customer Experience Management (CEM),
Enterprise Content Management (ECM), and Business Process
• nformation Governance provides the evidence of digital
content in the form of a record or document as found in both
CEM and ECM.
• nformation Exchange consists of technologies including
CEM and ECM, as well as connectivity that provide for the
on-ramp, off-ramp, and collaboration of digital content.
• nformation Process provides the flow of communications,
approvals, and content in a business activity; it is BPM.
• nformation Security consists of technologies we associate
with ECM and BPM, to manage permissions to view and use
Combined, these core technologies form EIM, the future of enterprise
software technology. The core technologies of CEM, ECM, and BPM still
require the use of enterprise business information technology, as earlier
detailed as libraries or repositories for the content to reside in.
MANAGING THE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE
EIM encompasses Web 2.0 technologies like blogs, wikis, and social
networks. These are forcing change in many organizations. As users
bring new and disruptive content-driven tools into the enterprise, the
lines are blurring between consumer-based Internet tools and enterprise
As discussed in the previous chapter, people are opting for new ways
to work together and share information—and introducing new forms of
content into the IT domain faster than organizations can develop and
implement strategies to manage them. Organizations have a critical
need to develop a new set of rules to manage this content as content
continues to evolve.
The key for EIM will be to discover how businesses can effectively
manage the customer experience, enterprise content, and transactional
content delivered in any format, across any channel (including the
Cloud), and any device. From an enterprise perspective, the focus is
productivity and how organizations must adopt new technologies to
remain competitive. For government, such fundamental change enabled
by the potential of this technology is the only means of maintaining
services while achieving essential cost savings.
Unproductive or disengaged employees cost the US economy up to
$350 billion per year in lost productivity. In the future, the desktop
office (or the old way of desktop computing) will be replaced by social
networks as the new productivity standard. This has already taken
place, as illustrated in chart below when Facebook caught up to Google
in total number of hits. This happened because people prefer human
interaction over machine-based algorithms, or peer-to-peer content over
a list of search results. Taking this a step further, group productivity is the
greatest source of organizational productivity.
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Weekly market share of visits to Facebook and Google
Key IT challenges
BALANCING SECURITY AND PRODUCTIVITY
When used in combination with search, the information found on social
networks—in profiles, blogs, blog comments—is considered referential
and therefore, trusted information. In the Future Web, the use of social
networks will surpass the use of email. Many organizations continue to
bar access to Facebook, Twitter®, and YouTube®. Echoing the 1980s
when organizations limited their employees’ access to email—unwittingly
decreasing their ability to network and generate business activity—
organizations are barring Web 2.0 technologies like social networking
Organizations view social media tools as security risks. The enterprise
has not yet understood the benefits of these tools, and perceives
social media as a threat to productivity. This is why many technology
organizations today focus on how to share digital information so that it
is secure, private, and protected behind the firewall.
Social media tools complicate the management of enterprise
content. They operate outside of conventional constraints, so
organizations need to develop, monitor, and manage new content
control policies. Using tools outside the firewall puts corporate
information at risk. However, security goes beyond the function of
a firewall and should prevent security breaches occurring from the
inside out, like the WikiLeaks example.
Organizations cannot determine if their social content is at risk
without understanding how it is stored, managed, and whether
these methods comply with external regulations and internal
governance policies. Through the effective use of technology,
organizations can create governance, risk management, and
compliance processes for social content and social collaboration.
Making social media secure inside the firewall will be a key area of
technology focus for many years to come as organizations try to
balance the need for security and access with the need for openness through social media and other productivity tools.
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SHIFTING TO A SEMANTIC ENTERPRISE
The move from analog content to digital content creates whole new
ways of learning, being entertained, working, and in fact, living. The
change from “digital content everywhere and anywhere” to “smart
digital content on demand” has brought a whole new set of risks and
opportunities not only to the consumer, but to the enterprise.
with existing IT infrastructure and applications; privacy; and overall
Search engine sites now capture more than one trillion Web pages.
Many organizations make hundreds of thousands of content items
available on their Web sites. Large commercial sites handle several
thousand products. Intranets store incredible amounts of unstructured
data. The challenge has become helping users find the exact
information they require. People expect a Web experience that gives
them the content they desire, based on their needs, their persona, and
their intent. As discussed in the previous chapter, the Semantic Web
delivers an intelligent online environment that understands the meaning
and context of content as its being consumed.
Text mining functionality like entity extraction or sentiment analysis
radically alters searches on the Semantic Web by adding a layer
of analytics to deepen the understanding of content and meaning.
Semantic Web technologies enable users to look beyond content for
facts and relationships between objects and their properties.
More intelligent search methods are coupled with the increase in
mobility and widespread availability of high-speed bandwidth. As
everyone has some sort of GPS on their person at all times, locationbased data combined with other intelligence gives users access to
highly targeted content. Brands run proximity-based campaigns
and marketing tailored Web sites to specific users using Web 3.0
technologies. Mobile GPS, social networks, and cloud repositories
provide additional, intelligent context to drive the development of
INCREASING MOBILE USAGE
Cloud services combined with mobile devices force vendors to change
their strategies, and significantly impact the behavior of IT departments
around the world. Analysts predict that building cloud applications
will outpace virtualization and storage. The enterprise will need to
overcome four key concerns to adopt the Cloud: security; compatibility
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INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH INCREASED USEAGE
As mobile usage increases, so will enterprise use of the Cloud. There
is a strong link between mobile accessibility and the Cloud. While
mobility promises to increase access to content in all formats, the
Cloud is able to handle this demand for volumes of information easily
and cost-effectively. Combined with mobile access, the Cloud is rapidly
introducing the “Consumerization of IT” to the enterprise, where the IT
department develops and distributes applications for users within an
organization’s own “private cloud”.
As discussed in the Web 3.0 era, the world has gone mobile. Millions of
cell phone handsets have been replaced by smartphones and tablets.
Governments and corporations have made huge investments to make
network connections faster and more affordable.
“APP-ITIZING” THE ENTERPRISE
Tablets and smartphones are rapidly becoming more commonplace in
the workplace. To remain competitive, software vendors will be required
to provide applications for these devices to allow users to access their
content in a useful way. To become a mobile application or “app”,
software must be adapted to support touch gestures for the first time.
At the same time, the GPS location information that mobile devices like
tablets now include software to enhance value.
In designing the enterprise applications of the future, wireless Internet
access will give users the feeling that they can be everywhere at once
and remain in touch with far-flung offices. And services, even on aircraft
in flight, will only increase to enable continuous interaction.
MOBILe access to enterprise content from multiple systems
FEEDING CONTENT INTO THE MOBILE ENTERPRISE
As mobile devices become more commonplace, organizations are
expected to support this trend and provide access to content in every
format across every kind of device. This portability—or the ability to
access content on the go—is a defining characteristic of digital content.
It is fragmented, mashed up, delivered across many channels, and
accessible across every device, at any time, in any place. And it needs to
be managed, especially behind the firewall.
Mobility feeds the pace and complexity of content that is created and
shared, and businesses are struggling to stay on top of managing
information. Users want to connect via their mobile device or tablet to
the Web, where they can access resources, applications, each other, and
content. And the enterprise needs to make sure that this is available.
Behind the firewall, immediate access to content means that knowledge
workers can make decisions more quickly, and the enterprise can
capture these decisions to increase productivity and protect information
at the same time. Productivity increases because the information can
be pulled together from a number of internal and external sources—
news, maps, weather, traffic updates, and more—through a mashup.
As discussed, mobile mashups deliver highly personalized and relevant
content by combining a user’s location, profile, and social network with
mobile phone functionality like GPS, ringtones, and alerts.
Some municipalities have offered or are experimenting with free public
access Wi-Fi networks to reduce the cost of Internet access for lower
income families. One Indo-Canadian entrepreneur (Raja Singh Tuli of
Datawind) designed a $35 tablet to sell in India. This makes the on-ramp
to the Internet more accessible than ever, and adoption continues to
grow in previously under-served parts of the world, such as Africa, parts
of Asia, and parts of Latin America. Upcoming 4G wireless networks in
developed countries will also provide new opportunities for connecting,
collaborating, and sharing information.
For enterprise software developers, the increase in the ubiquity of
wireless software access allows them to focus development efforts on
“app-ized”, mobile software. Previously, design had been focused on
the user sitting in an office using a monitor, mouse, and a keyboard over
a wired network. Support for mobile devices such as smartphones and
tablets started out as a nice-to-have capability that supported a small
subset of users. Now, mobile access via tablets and smartphones is
becoming standard for the enterprise.
DRIVING THE EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS
The Web as an operating system is the new architecture of applications,
replacing the old method of installing a single client application onto
a computer with the remote download of an app from a distribution
platform. Software companies no longer distribute consumer software
via a floppy disk, a CD, or a download from an FTP site—this will be
supplanted by a lightweight app downloaded from the Internet. The
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rapid adoption of cloud applications like Facebook, Gmail ®, YouTube,
and other Web sites, as well as improved public access has led to the
success of this new application paradigm.
Like these cloud applications, the lightweight apps are empty containers
and require access and the exchange of content to be applicable and
effective. These apps differ from client/server-based software, and even
Web-based software, because they are highly targeted, fragmented, and
small. Delivered on the fly when needed, they run on a mobile device, but
are not “stored” on the mobile device. Based on the Web as an operating
system, mobile apps are light on memory, fast to deploy, and cheap to
develop—and highly accessible to anyone for download and use.
organizations, all apps must be in the private cloud—behind the firewall.
As the technology evolves and the Cloud becomes more prevalent, the
limits in app development are being pushed by the use of the Web as an
operating system and distribution platform.
Mobile apps will drive the evolution of enterprise application software.
Behind the firewall, organizations will replace software applications
with a collection of specific and targeted apps which employees can
download and personalize on their own mobile device. An enterprise
app store would function in a way similar to the Apple App Store,
but will give IT the ability to monitor, certify, and administer the data
of the organization and how it is used. If an organization chooses
not to implement its own Web operating system, it surrenders its
security to some other organization outside the governance policies
of the organization.
The mobile market is currently being dominated by the rapid-fire
development of mobile applications or “apps”. These tools make life
easier for millions of people for social networking, taking photographs,
getting recipes and news, watching entertainment, and more.
Mobile apps are discreet programs designed to solve a specific purpose
with a tether to back-office servers or new types of ultra availability via
“app content servers”. Designed to perform at the touch of a smart
screen, the possibilities exceed what users can do with a conventional
PC connected to the Internet. This kind of immediate access to content
on the go makes mobile apps invaluable to users.
Many smartphones and tablets have apps already installed during
manufacture, but others customers download from various mobile
software distribution platforms. It is this second option for downloading
apps from the Cloud that holds great promise for the enterprise. For
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FOCUSING ON ONE TASK
Recent developments in the industry will impact how software is
packaged. The success of the Apple iTunes and App Store, as well as
the Google Android market, have shown the way. Just as consumers
want to buy songs or TV episodes rather than entire albums or seasons,
knowledge workers of the future will follow the trend, downloading apps
that focus on performing one specific task. Rather than accessing a
bloated software application full of features, users will want to access
and use the single feature they need.
Enterprise applications generally follow a form of “value chain” that
assists the organization to create value. IT is constrained by governance,
security, and performance, and that makes many enterprise applications
difficult to install and upgrades complex and lengthy. Generally, that
means that upgrades and installations only happen every few years.
PACKAGING ENTERPRISE SOFTWARE
Applications software written and shipped as a maintenance upgrade or
sold as a download will be replaced by a collection of apps with small
amounts of custom code for broadly-based solutions. This solution
granularity was not possible in the PC era. The cost of deployment did
not allow for so many small apps. Enterprise app stores, whether private
or public, offer relatively inexpensive apps that focus on a specific task.
Enterprise business application
Most modern forms of business applications can trace their origins
to the database and ERP eras—both characterized by a client/server
architecture approach as discussed in Chapter 1. As organizations
adopted the Internet behind the firewall, this complexity continued
and organizations were faced with the same set of constraints, except
the delivery method became an internal Web download to a browser
client. This still led to high costs in IT since training and implementation
The architecture on the server side was generally the same with one big
exception: the servers could all be connected just as the clients were.
This, in turn, led to a revolution of virtual usage of server machines with
the newly found Internet connectivity driving productivity improvements
for IT, server utilizations went from 10 percent to over 50 percent or more.
In the 1990s and early 2000s, IT departments generally installed
enterprise software on-premise and had IT staff run it. IT investments
were large and high risk with long buying processes and complex,
detailed RFPs. These long, complex software purchasing processes
meant that IT purchasers wanted to deal with as few vendors as
possible. This favored vendors with complete suites of products with a
large number of features. To meet this IT demand, even to be short-listed,
vendors developed suites with more and more features.
In the diagram on this page, one sees an enterprise business application
can be broken down into tasks that can each be handled by apps.
Individual departments within an organizations can easily purchase the
apps they need from the internal app store. This lessens the financial
risk when business requirements evolve. Since departments purchase
feature-based apps to solve the tasks at hand rather than a featurebased software suite, total cost of ownership and financial investment
TASKS BROKEN DOWN INTO APPS
In the Web 4.0 world, enterprise apps will number in the hundreds, if not
thousands, and these apps will need to be managed and administered.
A typical fully-fledged and dedicated application may be broken down
into its molecular functions, each of which will be made available with
one or two percent of the total functionality of the original application. In
other words, the multitude of functions available in a mature enterprise
application will be broken down into sub-functions. Each sub-function
will represent an easily installed, downloadable app from an enterprise
app store. It could require hundreds of specific function apps to duplicate
the functionality of a single software application.
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INTRODUCING CONTENT ON THE GO
The promise of an app store-type type architecture for the enterprise
would allow users to have easy-to-use specific downloads—an easy,
one-click experience. This would then create a simple “shopping cart”
charge to IT, immediate delivery of the software and content to the user
on-demand without IT intervention (or support). All that is required is a
device with access and a budget.
For this to work, the app must be very simple, since it will be
downloaded without a manual or training. Complex functions cannot
be delivered with the same consumer user experience. They must be
deconstructed in order to take advantage of “one-click” computing.
connect to public store—there is currently no ready connectivity to the
content and software that already exists behind an organization’s firewall.
DEVELOPING PRIVATE CLOUDS
Apple’s iCloud® is a cloud storage and computing service from Apple
that was made public in June 2011. This is a public cloud that delivers
computing resources on demand over the Internet using Web services
or applications. An internal cloud is required to duplicate this behind
the enterprise firewall. An internal or private enterprise cloud emulates
cloud computing services on a private network. Security, compliance,
governance, and reliability can be more closely managed in a
Paving the way for the enterprise private cloud, innovations in the
consumer Internet continue to shape the way that people share and
interact with information. From file- and photo-sharing Web sites to
cloud-based storage services, it is becoming easier and faster to
publish, share, and access content on the go. To date, the consumerstyle experience has improved customer satisfaction and set new
standards for business user adoption with expectations for convenience,
speed, and ease of use.
The combined model
It is likely that organizations will engage in a hybrid or combined model—
something in between the current model and the more consumer-based
app store model. This will be more complicated to manage, but IT may
not have much of a choice. Consider the migration from the horse to
the automobile in transportation a century ago. Cities were saddled with
the complexity of administering two systems at the same time. This
transition occurred over more than a decade.
The same will be true for apps and applications. IT will begin with the
highest value apps and connect them into a traditional application
process. This is another critical reason why IT departments cannot
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For the enterprise, a cloud-based operating and distribution system
lays the groundwork for the development of the personal “mobile
social cloud”. Based on the convergence of social, mobile, and cloud
computing, technology vendors will provide their customers with
an “appstructure”—an architecture that allows for the development
of mobile social cloud apps for distribution in the private cloud of
Consider a day in the life of user within an organization. A user arrives at
work and opens a file from the desktop. Later on in the day, at an internal
meeting, the user works from a laptop, but still wants to access the same
document opened earlier so the team can collaborate on this document.
At lunch, the user receives an urgent request for a comment on the
document from a team member back at work. The user can access
the document via a smartphone or tablet, modify the document, reply
to the request, and upload the modified document. And finally, at
home later that evening, the user can review the same document
using a home computer connected securely to the organization
through a firewall tunnel.
At no point is the security of the document or the other team members’
work ever compromised by being located or accessed outside the
firewall. The entire process works around a secure version of the
enterprise private cloud.
department, or business unit, to manage the enterprise apps and the
content behind the firewall within the apps development environment.
This set of tools will enable enterprise IT departments to manage
an enterprise app store. This appstructure is what supports the
“Consumerization of IT”.
A day in the life of the enterprise
As noted earlier, the Cloud is a collection of devices connected through
the Internet. Much of the Web as an operating system that will make an
app store possible depends on low cost and high speed connections. In
the enterprise, content in the Cloud is varied. Core enterprise application
content—such as SAP® archives or Microsoft Office® documents or
emails—is vital to support the functions of the Web 4.0 enterprise.
Globally, IT departments will race to create more effective productivity
tools based on the innovations of the Cloud, an app store, and mobile
devices to create new “apps” for their customers behind the firewall. In
effect, every major organization in the world that maintains a firewall and
a proprietary repository of content will want to create a private cloud
This will include on-premise cloud services with an app store available
to all internal consumers. These self-service kiosks will be developed
to provide a set of very personalized apps unique to each organization,
Content in the cloud
This will bring new challenges for the enterprise. Enterprise apps will
need to make use of repositories behind the firewall to guarantee security
and privacy of information.
SECURING ENTERPRISE APPS
As with the consumer world, any single user will download a set of apps
that IT or management push to them as a regulatory requirement, or the
business customer will select the apps that they require on an as-needed
basis. These apps will continue to be segmented in the same way that
major applications have been segmented previously in organizations, by
vertical and horizontal applications. To explain: a vertical mobile app is
THE PATH O F THE FU TU R E / 143
file management for a given company and a horizontal mobile app is an
employee expense form submission.
DIFFERENTIATING CONSUMER AND ENTERPRISE APPS
Behind the firewall, organizations will replace the software applications
of today with a collection of specific and targeted apps which users can
download and personalize on their mobile devices. Employees within
the enterprise will expect the user-friendly features of consumer apps.
Enterprise apps will handle secure content, support a permissioned
access structure, and have rules of access for use. Audit and regulatory
requirements must be respected. IT must certify and administer the
apps to protect the organization, but likewise protect the ease of use.
In this way, they will differ from the consumer apps currently flooding
Besides offering security, another key difference between consumer
and business apps will be that most business apps will require a
content repository to make them useful. Access to content behind the
firewall typically involves moving through numerous levels of security or
“permissions”. A mature Enterprise Content Management (ECM) engine
provides a solid foundation for enterprise grade apps by delivering a
secure repository and can be coupled with a rapid app authoring and
AN ENTERPRISE APP STORE
There will be early distinctions between private and consumer app
stores. Security requirements will define most of these distinctions,
especially in this new world of BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) to
work. Many people increasingly use their own personal devices in the
workplace, combining personal information with enterprise content
and mobile apps.
This implies that IT departments no longer own the “client device”
and will have limited authority over information on mobile devices.
As personal and professional content mixes, organizations will need to
manage corporate information with precision. A private device cannot be
wiped clean if an employee leaves the organization—but the enterprise
app and the associated content must not leave with it. For this reason,
features like archiving and the control of content will take place through
the app itself rather than the device.
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To demonstrate how this works, we can examine a potential Accounts
Payable (AP) app based on a module used within accounting
departments to determine exceptions to rules in an Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) system. To be effective, the app requires access to
secure content such as contracts, emails, and attachments, plus any
other content, as well as access to ERP data such as AP ledger entries
and purchase orders and shipping. Combined access to both the ERP
and ECM system allows for the quicker resolution of an issue by a
Line Manager who doesn’t have to wait for accounting staff to resolve
the issue. For the app to be effective, it requires secure access to a
repository of databases.
ECM, with its proven content management functionality and security,
anchors the mobile social cloud. It takes advantage of existing IT
infrastructures and security to create an environment where businesscritical information can be exchanged, used on the go, and retained in
ways never before possible. A good illustration of this is a document
SHARING CONTENT SECURELY WITH AN APP
A document sharing app brings together a secure repository, a mobile
app, and the private cloud. It allows enterprise users to share, edit, and
manage content in secure folders across devices changing the speed
and simplicity of information sharing within an enterprise. Enterprise apps
like this use existing secure IT infrastructures to create an environment.
This technology revolutionizes the way people share information within
the enterprise. A good example of a document sharing app is OpenText
Tempo. To find out more about this innovative technology, visit: opentext.
OPENTEXT TEMPO APP FOR THE IPAD
Content fuels enterprise apps
With an app like this, organizations maintain absolute control of their
data, while allowing users to easily and effectively share content which is
typically emailed or stored on cumbersome network shared drives. The
important point here is that the enterprise still “owns” the content and it
is protected. The ability to maintain safe data in existing systems while
providing the cloud-based app experience that users demand benefits
everyone. In a very essential way, the mobile social cloud will change the
speed and simplicity of information sharing in the enterprise.
The effect of mobile apps on the industry can be compared to the
evolution of writing computer code from line prompts to using a
Microsoft Windows® GUI, in which the user never sees the underlying
code. It took 40 years to move from a machine-based language
to a sophisticated graphical interface that many people could use
almost intuitively. This forever altered the way people accessed, used,
developed, and communicated using computers and the Web. Using
the Web as an operating system has taken the Internet to a whole new
level of abstraction, much in the same way that Facebook and YouTube
abstracted the Web beyond the browser and Web sites, heralding a shift
in computing and the delivery of content and services to users.
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REINVENTING THE ENTERPRISE
Improved access, bandwidth, and computing power have helped
commercial users learn to use the power of the Internet. As youth create
video mashups on YouTube, use an iPod touch® to video-chat with
friends in another hemisphere, and share media across any number
of devices, the enterprise must and will follow suit—using innovative
technologies to shift old paradigms and create new business models.
Here are some of the more visible shifts that are taking place:
• E-learning is we-learning.
• Social work now means working socially.
• nformation searches are being replaced by semantic searches.
• assive amounts of free-flowing digital information create new
risks and windows of opportunity for organizations worldwide.
• ew digital workflow tools combine business knowledge with
effective operational methods.
• he “Consumerization of IT” now determines enterprise
technologies, operating and growing the enterprises of
Behind the firewall, digital technologies drive changes in the old
hierarchies, attitudes, and approaches. The demand for new technologies
has prompted the development of devices and applications, which in
turn produce new kinds of interactions and types of content to manage.
The traditional hierarchies and silos of major organizations defined how
information is created and shared, and how it flows. When information
begins to be managed as an enterprise asset, the organization shifts
dramatically. The enterprise of the Future Web needs to adapt to derive
value from all this information in dynamic, innovative ways.
More and more, organizations expect to manage content storage and
exchange in many forms across different repositories—and devices—
into the Cloud. Security is a major area of concern, with a focus on
putting control mechanisms into place to protect intellectual property
and personal data. At the same time, employees expect and demand
immediate access to intelligent and valued information.
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Smart apps will overtake monolithic, siloed legacy systems. Millions
of apps will be invented, out of which a few new mission critical apps
will emerge to dramatically transform how people work in all industries.
Experiencing content will impact how people buy, employees learn and
grow, and partners and suppliers interact in the ecosystems of the future.
More effective tools will be required to unlock the power of content, and
organizations that do not deliver these tools will simply fall behind their
competitors and eventually disappear.
There is much risk and opportunity for every enterprise, not-for-profit,
and government institution across the globe in the Future Web era.
Hyper-mobile connectivity is not only possible, but affordable and
widespread. Without a doubt, the digital future is here to stay. The key
question now is how this new social, mobile, and cloud-based culture
will shape commerce, education, and lifestyle. In turn, how quickly can
established institutions and structures change to adapt to the imperatives
of this technology, while holding true to the underlying principles and
values which characterize our society?
FOLLOWING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
Enterprise software companies should follow and understand consumerdriven technology trends. They provide opportunities like the formation
of complete industries or new business models. When overlooked,
organizations fail to keep pace with new developments and fall behind
Besides mobile apps, consumers are adopting a number of other
technologies, including 3-D television, voice control (Siri® on the iPhone
4S), motion control Xbox® Kinect™, and more. Will these technologies
become more common in PCs, tablets, and smartphones? Will they be
adopted by the enterprise? Only time will tell, but chances are good that
at least some of them will.
There are also other technologies that may currently be too expensive
for wide consumer adoption. Technologies such as: transparent
monitors, holographic 3-D projections, detection of eye movement, facial
recognition, and 3-D printing. Most of these will be used in niche
markets and applications, but certain enterprise applications will need
to support them.
In addition to changes in hardware technology and how users interact
with computing devices, consumers have also driven changes in
software design. Features made popular by instant messaging
(Yahoo!® Messenger, Windows Live® Messenger), social networking
sites (Facebook), and blog sites (Blogspot®, WordPress®, Tumblr®)
have already made their way into enterprise software. Many enterprise
software applications provide the ability to chat, comment, rate, and
share with other users. No longer simply trends, users expect these
features as part of their enterprise software.
Another software design trend that has garnered a lot of attention in
the last few years is “gamification”. Gamification seeks to apply the
design techniques of video games (which are some of the most highly
sophisticated programs today) to consumer and enterprise software
applications. Game controllers will not likely be used to interact with
enterprise software, but gamification may make a software application
more engaging or “fun” based on features like points, scoreboards,
competitions, and so on. Gamification increases user adoption and
provides incentives for users to complete what would otherwise be
boring and mundane tasks. At this point, many software vendors are
experimenting with game design techniques and some of them will likely
make their way into enterprise software in the coming years.
TRANSFORMING: READY FOR APPTITUDE
The CEM, ECM, and BPM industries have a rich heritage of adapting
consumer trends on the Internet and inventing new and compelling
applications for the enterprise market. The core technologies for
effectively managing content behind the firewall parallels the evolution
of the Internet itself. The innovations of those core technologies led
the evolution of the market from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 technologies for
Enterprise 2.0 applications, to Web 3.0, and finally into Web 4.0. These
solutions have shaped what is becoming the EIM market and today, its
technology is well-positioned to guide the evolution into EIM.
asset management and social networking. In 2010, apps broke onto the
scene, destined to dominate the industry.
Largely hidden behind the firewall, EIM technologies will transform the
way people interact with technology and information, with tremendous
impact on lives around the world. Moving forward, technology is
advancing more quickly than ever, while content continues to grow at
an enormous pace. As consumers drive the use of technology in the
enterprise, there is pressure on technology companies to continue
innovating to provide secure, mobile, and social content management
solutions across all verticals.
The future holds great opportunity for technology companies with
vast repositories and core technologies that allow them to provide the
enterprise with secure, mobile, and social capabilities in the Cloud. With
experience building online retail Web stores, building an enterprise app
store securely behind the firewall is the next step to providing enterprise
customers with technology that allows their employees to be more
productive, engaged, and efficient.
Organizations cannot keep up with the technological evolution, much
less anticipate it. The shift from PC to mobile devices may already be
over. In this state of technology flux, there is one constant: the enterprise
reliance on content. Content is the knowledge base of the enterprise,
whether in the private sector, government, or academia. Content,
properly maintained and structured, is the enterprise’s most valuable
asset. Vital for effective service or product delivery, for creative innovation
and for accountability, content is the cornerstone of business. It must be
managed effectively. As illustrated in this book, the Web 4.0 enterprise
will make use of disruptive developments like social media, the Semantic
Web, cloud computing, and mobile apps to create, share, manage, and
enrich content—improving productivity and inspiring innovation to new
heights along the way.
The EIM market began with the early databases in the 1980s.
Repositories replaced databases in the 1990s, enabling proprietary
access to content. In 2000, repositories were expanded to support
applications to manage content and processes in an organization. These
applications were then integrated into suites such as the OpenText ECM
Suite. In 2005, suites became a platform for more applications, like digital
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LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
President and CEO of Open Text Corporation
For 20 years now, OpenText has been helping organizations manage
and maximize the value of content to gain significant business success.
From its origins as creator of one of first Internet search engines and
early Web-based document management, workflow, and portal software,
OpenText realized the potential of the Internet early on as a platform for
collaboration, along with the value of digital content as a strategic asset
that must be managed throughout its “life”.
The strength of the past success in solving problems for users has
created a billion dollar industry, and transformed OpenText from a startup with roots at the University of Waterloo into a billion-dollar company.
The huge popularity of mobile computing and apps, the Web’s evolution
into an operating system and cloud computing are creating compelling
experiences for end users within the Hidden Web—and in combination
will to transform the technology industry forever.
From its inception to its current position today as a market leader in
Enterprise Content Management (ECM) software, OpenText has been the
cornerstone in the formation of an industry. Tremendous opportunities lie
ahead for ECM, Business Process Management (BPM), and Customer
Experience Management (CEM) as fundamental technologies in the
Enterprise Information Management (EIM) industry, to solve some of the
major challenges faced by users of the Hidden Web and Big Data all over
The industry continues to evolve and OpenText will continue to innovate
in a space that has already led the way for users throughout the world.
Analysts calculate the ECM and BPM markets to be over $8 billion each.
Cloud and smartphones/tablets should take this market space well over
$20 billion. This is one of the fastest growing industries in the world.
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We would like to thank the staff, users, and partners of Open Text Corporation for their
contributions to this book.
Special thanks go to writers and editors: Jodi Szimanski, Elizabeth Chestney-Hanson,
and Doug Varley; editor Ian E. Wilson; librarian Annie Bélanger; researcher
Scott Stevens; and the following contributors:
Rana Alurabi, Mark Barrenechea, Scott Bowen, Scott Burkholder, Matthew Brine,
Eugene Cherny, Ken Coates, Marten den Haring, Bertrand De Coatpont,
Margaret Dobbin, Vinit Doshi, Ed Durst, Joe Dwyer, John English, Chris Fabesch,
Bill Forquer, Anthony Gallo, Joel Gray, Manfred Heiss, Adam Howatson, Micah Kalen,
Ulf Kasshag, Kamran Kheirolomoom, Walter Kohler, Mark Kraatz, James Latham,
Wolfgang Lellman, Jason Likins, Paul Loomis, Jennifer McCredie, Bill Morton,
Brad Nicholson, Lucy Norris, Donna Pearson, Norma Philips, Patrick Pidduck,
Lubor Ptacek, Treber Rebert, Dawn Reid, Eugene Roman, Steve Russell, Cyrille Scuri,
Mike Skinner, Marc St. Pierre, Michele Stevenson, Oliver Sturrock, Ron Vangell,
Pam Vetter, Nigel Williams, Neil Wilson, and designers: Claudia Knorr, Craig Reidel,
and Gary Smith.
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3-D Virtual Environments—See Virtual Reality.
Application—Software or programs used to execute tasks on computers.
1G (1st Generation)—The first generation of telecommunications standards introduced in the 1980s were analog standards. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT)
launched the first commercially automated cellular network of the 1G generation
in Japan in 1979.
Application Programming Interface (API)—An interface implemented by a software program to enable interaction with other software, much in the same way
that a user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.
2G (2nd Generation)—The second generation of wireless telephone technology
was commercially launched in Finland on the GSM standard. Phone conversations
were digitally encrypted, the systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum than 1G which allowed for far greater mobile phone penetration levels, and
2G introduced data services for mobile with SMS text messages.
3G (also 3rd Generation or International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
(IMT-2000))—A family of standards for mobile telecommunications defined by the
International Telecommunication Union. Services include wide-area wireless voice
telephone, video calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Compared
to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G networks deliver simultaneous use of speech and data
services and higher data rates, allowing network operators to offer users a wider
range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity.
Advanced Search—A variety of software tools that allow users to get more relevant
search results. These tools include Boolean Operators, Stemming, Adjacency and
Proximity Searches, Thesauri, and Synonyms.
4G—The fourth generation of cellular mobile communication standards which is
being gradually implemented. It provides expanded broadband coverage for mobile Internet access, including HD TV and 3-D TV.
App Store—A digital distribution platform for iPhone® mobile apps developed and
maintained by Apple Inc. Users can visit the App Store® for example, to browse and
download apps developed by Apple.
Appstructure—An architecture that allows for the development of mobile social
cloud apps for the private cloud of the enterprise.
Archive (verb)—Systematic transfer to alternate storage media of digital data of
continuing value that is no longer required to be immediately accessible. Often
stored on Computer Output to Laser Disk (COLD) systems.
Archives (noun)—Records and digital assets that have been identified as being
needed for future legal, evidentiary, or historical value. These are permanently
preserved in the context of their creation as evidence of action, decision, and
transaction. ‘Archives’ also refers to the department or institution entrusted with
ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)—A group out of the US
Department of Defense developed this early form of the Internet in 1969. It used
TCP/IP as its primary networking protocol.
ASCII—A standard for the digital description of alphabets in a language using
a single byte of memory in which a byte is composed of eight bits and a bit is a
simple one or zero.
API—See Application Programming Interface.
GLOSSARY / 153
Broadband—Relating to or being a communications network in which the bandwidth can be divided and shared by multiple simultaneous signals (as for voice
or data or video).
Augmented Reality—Computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video,
graphics, or GPS data augments elements of a live view of a physical, real-world
environment. By adding elements like computer vision and object recognition to
provide information about the surrounding real world of the user, the technology makes the world interactive and digitally manipulates it.
Browser—See Internet browser.
Avatars—Users create avatars or personalities of themselves for the purpose
of a role in a call center, to play a game on the Wii, or as an attendee at a virtual
conference. It’s a digital personification of the user to increase personalization
and allow users to play different roles within different contexts.
Back-mining—Part of the Semantic Web process that goes through old data
looking for patterns.
Bandwidth—The volume of information per unit time that a computer, person,
or transmission medium can handle.
Batch Processing—The process consists of the execution of a series of programs
or jobs on a computer that require no manual intervention. The input data is all
preselected and the computer runs the scripts or command-line parameters to
process it and produce a set of output data files. The program collects the input
data in batches of files and then processes the data in batches.
Big Data—Applies to the large data sets that exists in the public Internet, private
Internet (behind the firewall), and repositories of data (also behind the firewall).
The enterprise software data strives to capture, manage, process, and store
these growing data sets.
Binary Synchronous Communications—These are the connections that carry
data between dumb terminals and mainframes. This IBM link protocol was developed in 1967.
Blog (also Web Log)—A chronological and topic-oriented collection of entries
posted on a Web page. Typically, blogs communicate an author’s point of view
and solicit feedback in the form of comments which can be posted with the blog.
Boolean Operators—Logical connectors used within advanced search software
to obtain more relevant results.
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Business Applications—Software programs used to solve business needs such
as word processing, accounting, or customer relationship management.
Business Intelligence (BI)—A technology for analysis of information contained
in structured data. It is the structured counter-part to content analytics.
Business Process Management (BPM)—Refers to aligning processes with an
organization’s strategic objectives, designing and implementing process-centric
tools or architectures, and determining measurement systems for effective
Calendaring—Collaboration software used to schedule time on an individual,
team, or enterprise basis.
Canadian Digital Media Network (CDMN)—Established in April 2009, CDMN was
created to stimulate job creation, commercialization, and global competitiveness across Canada. One of the founders of the national digital media conference, Canada 3.0, CDMN has established nodes in the form of development centers, acceleration centers, and commercialization hubs to connect businesses,
entrepreneurs, research institutions, and governments.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)—The part of a computer that does most of the
data processing. The CPU and the memory form the central part of a computer to
which peripherals are attached.
Channel—A communication medium to output content. It could be via the Web,
printed materials, video, CD-ROM, etc.
Chat (also Instant Messaging or IM)—Real-time instant messaging and other
forms of chat within the context of an overall topic, Web site, or meeting space.
Client/Server—A system of sharing files and executing applications within a
LAN or WAN.
Cloud Computing (“The Cloud”)—A metaphor inspired by the cloud symbol
used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams, Cloud computing
describes the disruptive transformation of IT toward a service-based economy,
driven by economic, technological, and cultural conditions.
Collaboration Object Lookup Architecture—This software architecture allows
users to collaboratively search, acquire, manage, and share information from
several data sources using a single interface.
Collaboration Software—Programs that link processes and individuals across
different locations and time zones to create an environment where team members work together to share ideas, experiences, and knowledge.
Collaborative Workspace (or “Conference”)—A shared workspace in a connected environment where users can collaborate and work together even when
separated by geography. Users can both store content in the workspace, as well
as hold discussions.
Commenting—Adding online comments to social media to add value, including
commenting on online documents, blogs, wikis, and more.
Community of Practice (CoP)—A self-organizing collection of people who collaborate and share resources to support work in a specific field. Organizations
develop Communities of Practice to encourage and aid knowledge transfer and
collaboration between employees, promoting productivity and fostering innovation through the act of sharing, refining. and distributing best practices.
Compliance—Adherence to a body of regulations, government legislation, or
standards (for example, ISO 9000).
Composite Applications—Model-driven development environments that rely on
graphical process modeling tools to support direct interpretation of the models
into executable code. The technical concept can be compared to mashups, however, composite applications use business sources of information, while mashups
typically rely on Web-based sources.
Conferencing—Real-time meetings between groups over the Web. In organizations, these meetings facilitate the exchange of information as if all the users were in one room together, such as collaboration around presentations or
spreadsheets, on white boards, and shared screens.
Connectors—In database management, a link or pointer between two
Content Analytics—A technology for analysis of information contained in content. It allows customers to optimize user experience by dynamically serving up
content based on automatically created content relevance.
Content Lifecycle Management (CLM)—The combination of document management, records management, workflow, archiving, and imaging into a fully
integrated solution to effectively manage the lifecycle of content, from creation
through to archiving and eventual deletion.
Content Management—Storage, maintenance, and retrieval of HTML and XML
documents and all related elements. Content management systems may be built
on top of a native XML database and typically provide publishing capabilities to
export content not only to the Web site, but to CD-ROM and print.
Content Syndication (also Web Syndication)—A form of syndication which
makes Web site content available to multiple sites, often in the form of Web
feeds delivering summaries of recently added or updated content.
Contextaware Systems—These systems know where you are, sense what you are
doing, and then adjust their behavior or recommendations based on the information. It refers to the idea that computers can both sense, and react based on their
Contextual Information (Collaboration)—Smaller services/objects that can be
embedded in business applications.
Contextual Searching—Contextual search goes beyond searching on file name
or key fields. It looks at the data within documents and records and supplies
results based on the context of content.
Control—A program module or routine that enhances program functionality. A
control can be as small as a button on a user interface or as large as a complicated forecasting algorithm. The term is often used with regard to user interface
functions such as buttons, menus, and dialog boxes.
Converters—An application that converts data from one code to another.
Cross-Platform—Refers to developing for and/or running on more than one type
of hardware platform. It implies two different processes. The first is programming source code that is compiled into different machine environments, each of
which has to be supported separately. The second method is with the use of an
interpreter such as the Java Virtual Machine.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)—Enterprise-wide software applications that allow companies to manage every aspect of their relationship with
customers. The goal of these systems is to assist in building lasting customer
relationships and to turn customer satisfaction into customer loyalty.
DAM—See Media Management.
GLOSSARY / 155
Data Archiving—Data archiving offloads historic data from the online database
and archives it for future access on a secure media.
Database—A collection of data arranged for ease and speed of search
Database Management Systems—Software packages that control the creation,
maintenance, and use of a database.
Data Capture—A method of data input that requires no data entry. Specific
devices are designed to capture data such as barcode readers or magnetic stripe
readers (like on a credit card).
Data Center (also called Server Farm)—A collection of computer servers usually
maintained by an enterprise to accomplish server needs far beyond the capability of one machine. Server farms often have backup servers, which can take over
the function of primary servers in the event of a primary server failure.
Disruptive Innovation or Technology— Used in business and technology, a
disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a
new market and value network, and eventually disrupts an existing market to
displace an earlier technology there.
Document—A piece of work created with an application, such as by word processor. A computer file that is not an executable file and contains data for use by
Document Management (DM)—Involves the capture and management of documents within an organization. The term traditionally implied the management
of documents after they were scanned into the computer. Today, the term has
become an umbrella under which document imaging, workflow and information
Document Repository—A database that includes author, data elements, inputs,
processes, outputs, and interrelationships.
Data Warehouse—A database designed to support decision making in an organization. Data from the production databases are copied to the data warehouse so
that queries and analysis can be performed without disturbing
the performance or the stability of the production systems.
DS1 (Digital Signal 1)—Devised by Bell Labs, this T-carrier signaling scheme is
a widely used telecommunications standard in North America and Japan. It is
capable of transmitting both voice and data between devices.
Desktop—The area of the monitor screen in a graphical user interface (GUI)
against which icons and windows used to run applications appear.
Dumb terminal—Displays information, but does not run any applications or process data—that is all done on the mainframe connected to the dumb terminal.
Also called a green screen.
Digital Asset—Describes any subdivision or collection of content and metadata
that holds value to the owner. Digital assets may include photos, video, audio,
Web pages, text documents, Microsoft® PowerPoints, or graphics.
Digital Asset Management (DAM)—See Media Management.
Digital Economy—An economy based on goods and services produced
through Web technologies, digital media technologies, and other electronic
Digital Experience Management (DEM)—Using tools such as widgets to embed
digital media, DEM presents significant content distribution opportunities for
organizations outside the enterprise, as well as enabling emerging social collaboration tools within the enterprise.
Digital Media—The term encompasses a wide variety of content types—photos,
graphics, audio files, video clips, Flash® animations, PDFs, PowerPoint files, and
Disposition—Final deletion of content when it reaches the end of its lifecycle.
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ECM—See Enterprise Content Management.
ECM 2.0—Managing content from Web 2.0 social networks.
ECM Applications—Applications usually tailored to address line-of-business
problems or customized for specific vertical markets.
Electronic Digital Management System—In order to manage digital
documents, systems created to allow users on a network to view, markup, and
Email—One of the first and most popular uses for the Internet, email (electronic
mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
Email Management—The application of content lifecycle management to emails
to manage the creation, archiving, storage, and disposition of email messages.
Enterprise 2.0 (E2.0)—The use of emergent social software platforms, such as
social networking, blogs, wikis, and other Web 2.0 technologies within organizations, or between organizations and their partners or customers. Also called
enterprise social software.
Enterprise 4.0—The evolution of technologies within the enterprise based on
a Web operating system in which the large client/server-based legacy software
applications written over a year and shipped to the customer are replaced by
collective mobile apps based on custom code for broadly based solutions. These
apps will be developed and maintained inside the private cloud and will require
EAM, or Enterprise Application Management.
Enterprise Application—A computer program designed to perform
specific functions, such as inventory control, accounting, payroll, material management, etc.
Enterprise Application Management (EAM)—As IT departments increasingly develop and maintain a variety of very personalized apps unique to each organization, EAM describes the management of a new set of tools that will
be required to manage content inside the firewall within the Web operating
Enterprise App Store—The enterprise equivalent to the Apple App Store® as a
distribution platform, only maintained behind the firewall (or in a private cloud).
Enterprise Content Management (ECM)—Systems that capture, store, retrieve,
print, and disseminate digital content for use by the enterprise. Digital content
includes pictures/images, text, reports, video, audio, transactional data, catalog,
Enterprise Information Management (EIM)—Enterprise Information Management can deliver a comprehensive software suite that encompasses the capture
of information; the management of structure, unstructured, and application data;
the exchange and presentation of information on both sides of the firewall; intelligent business processes and solutions; information applications that parallel
ERP data and process; enterprise information architecture that enables enterprise applications as well as mobile, social, and Cloud; and Business Intelligence
Enterprise Repository—Think of this as the enterprise library—It is a location
for storage, often for safety or preservation within the enterprise. It is a trusted
source of content which can be searched and retrieved.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)—Any software system designed to support
and automate the business processes of medium and large businesses. This may
include manufacturing, distribution, personnel, project management, payroll,
and financials. ERP systems are accounting-oriented information systems for
identifying and planning the enterprise-wide resources needed to take, make,
distribute, and account for customer orders.
Entity Extraction—An entity extractor locates and extracts places, people,
organizations, and more. Controlled vocabularies and linguistic rules are used
to identify and extract all occurrences of an entity type. Entity types can include
product names, company names, proper names, geographic locations, dates,
times, and more.
Ethernet—Commercially introduced in 1980, Ethernet is a family of computer
networking technologies for local area networks (LANs).
Extensible Markup Language (XML)—An initiative from the World Wide Web
Consortium defining an “extremely simple” dialect of SGML suitable for use on
the World Wide Web. See also HTML and SGML.
Extranet—An IP network providing secure connections between remote users
and a main site, or among multiple sites within the same company, including
connectivity to business partners, customers, and suppliers.
Faceted Search—By applying multiple filters, a faceted search does not follow a
hierarchal structure only.
Firewall—A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed
to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications.
Federated Search—The simultaneous search of multiple online databases or
Web resources, federated search is an emerging feature of Web-based library
and information retrieval systems.
Forums—Online discussion forums in which users post “articles” to forums
organized around a topic, typically in question and answer format resembling an
Full-Text Retrieval—Software that allows users to search the entire text portion
of digital information and retrieves files that match the user’s search criteria.
Document-retrieval systems store entire documents, which are usually retrieved
by title or by keywords associated with the document. In some systems, the
text of documents is stored as data. This permits full text searching, enabling
retrieval on the basis of any words in the document.
GLOSSARY / 157
G8—An annual summit meeting of the heads of government for the Group of
Eight for the world’s major economies—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Russia, UK, USA, and European Union. Created by France in 1975, the G8 nations comprise of 53 percent of global nominal GDP. Each year, the conference is
hosted by a different member state; in 2010 it was held in Huntsville, Ontario.
G20—A semi-annual summit meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies. Former Canadian Finance Minister proposed
the G20 in 2008. These countries account for more than 80 percent
of gross national product, 80 percent of world trade, and two-thirds of the
Geolocation—Associates a geographic location with an IP address, GPS coordinates, Wi-Fi connection location or other computer or chip identification like a
MAC address or RFID tag. Data can include country, region, city, postal/zip code,
latitude, longitude, and time zone.
Gigabyte (GB)—The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage. One gigabyte is 1,000 MB or one thousand million bytes. The unit
symbol for the gigabyte is GB or Gbyte.
GPS or Global Positioning System—A satellite-based navigation system
maintained by the US government that provides location and time information
anywhere on the Earth, which is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)—A type of user interface that allows people to
interact with programs in more ways than typing such as computers; hand-held
devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices; household appliances, and office equipment with images rather than
Heat Maps—Graphical representations of how elements in an area of space are
viewed or read. For a Web page, a heat map shows where a user is mostly likely
to look on the page.
Hidden Web (also called Deepnet, Deep Web, or the Invisible Web)—Refers to
World Wide Web content that is not part of the surface Web, which is indexed by
standard search engines.
Hosting—Maintaining a computer system and its applications at a thirdparty site.
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)—A structured document format in which
elements (commonly referred to as “tags”) are embedded in the text. Tags are
used for presentation formatting to delimit text which is to appear in a special
place or style. HTML is an extension of SGML.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol—The networking protocol that serves as the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
Immersive Technology—Immerses a user into a digital or simulated world by
blurring the lines between the digital world and the real world. Most often seen
in gaming, military training, and flight simulation, but can also extend to virtual
worlds like Second Life.
Index—In data management, the most common method for keeping track of
data on a disk. Indexes are directory listings maintained by the operating system, RDBMS, or the application. An index of files contains an entry for each file
name and the location of the file. An index of records has an entry for each key
field (for example, account number, or name) and the location of the record.
Information Governance—The set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies,
procedures, processes, and controls implemented to manage information on all
media in such a way that it supports the enterprise’s immediate and long-term
regulatory, legal, risk, environmental, and operational requirements.
Instant Messaging (IM)—See Chat.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)—A software application consisting
of a source code editor, compiler and/or an interpreter, build automation tools,
and a debugger for computer programmers.
Internet—An interconnected system of networks that connects computers
around the world via the TCP/IP protocol.
Internet Browser—The program that serves as the client front end to the World
Internet Service Providers (ISP)—A company that provides access to the Internet.
Intranet—An “internal Internet” configured behind a firewall to connect individuals and departments. A privately maintained computer network that can be
accessed only by authorized persons, especially members or employees of the
organization that owns it.
IP address—An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that is assigned
to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for
communication between its nodes.
ISDN—A set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission
of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of
the telephone network.
Java—A programming language that originated at Sun Microsystems (has
merged into Oracle®) with the purpose of allowing application developers “write
once, run anywhere”. It is currently one of the most popular programming languages in use for client/server web applications.
Keyword—A term used as a keyword to retrieve documents in an information
system such as a catalog or a search engine.
Knowledge Management (KM)—An umbrella term for making more efficient use
of the human knowledge that exists within an organization. The major focus is to
identify and gather content from documents, reports, and other sources and to
be able to search that content for meaningful relationships. Knowledge Management also concerns the ability to identify high-value individuals within an
Knowledge Worker—One who works primarily with information or one who
develops and uses knowledge in the workplace.
LAN—Local Area Networks connect computers within a limited area like an office
building, computer lab, school, or home.
Learning Management Systems—A software application to administer, document, track, and report training programs, classroom, and online events, e-learning programs, and the associated content.
Mainframes—Computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer
statistics, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and financial
Metadata—Sometimes known as data about the data, metadata describes and
provides context for content.
Meta-search—Allows users to enter search criteria once but access several
search engines at the same time and create a single list of results or display the
results according to their sources.
Micro-blogging—Blog posts with a limited character set to keep messages short.
An example of micro-blogs are "tweets".
Microprocessor—See Central Processing Unit.
Mobile App—Mobile apps, also called mobile applications, are software applications that run on smartphones and tablet computers. Mobile apps are discreet
programs designed to solve a specific purpose with a tether to back-office servers or new types of ultra availability via "app content servers". They are designed
to perform at the touch of a smart screen, enabling users to do things that begin
to exceed what is possible with a conventional PC connected
to the Internet.
Mobile Device—Includes personal digital assistants, smartphones, and tablet
computers. A mobile device is a small hand-held computing device typically
operated with a touch screen or miniature keyboard.
Mobile ECM—Secure access to ECM technologies and functionality via a
Mobile Professional—One who works primarily out of the office or travels often
away from the workplace.
Multimedia—Integration of text, voice, video, images, or some combination of
these types of information. Also called Rich Media.
Multiplatform—Refers to a software application that’s developed to run on different operating systems.
Multiprotocol—Refers to applications developed to run across different networking protocols.
Mashups—A Web page or application that combines data or functionality from
two or more external sources to create a new service.
Online—Connected to or accessible via a computer or computer network. Typically refers to being connected to the Internet or other remote service.
Media Management (also known as Digital Asset Management, Brand Asset
Management or Media Asset Management)—Media Management consists of
the ingestion, storage, management, retrieval, production, and distribution of
Online Community—A virtual community that exists online whose members
form relationships, establish trust, and exchange knowledge. Online communities combine social software functionality, including text-based chat rooms and
forums that use voice, video text, or avatars.
GLOSSARY / 159
Online Discussion Forums—See Forums.
Plug-in—A computer program that interfaces with a host application.
Open Source Software (OSS)—Computer software for which the source code
and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided
under a software license that meets the Open Source Definition or that is in the
Process Management—The automation of business processes using a rulebased expert system that invokes the appropriate tools and supplies necessary
information, checklists, examples, and status reports to the user.
Operating System—A computer’s master control program that manages its internal functions controls its operation. An operating system provides commonly
used functions and a uniform, consistent means for all software applications to
access the computer’s resources. Windows® and UNIX® are operating systems.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)—Recognition of printed or written characters by computer. Each page of text is converted to a digital image using a scanner and OCR is then applied to the image to produce a text file.
OSS—See Open Source Software.
Permissions—Management of who can access a computer or network. The Access Control List (ACL) is the set of data associated with a file, directory, or other
resource that defines the permissions that users, groups, processes, or devices
have for accessing it.
Personal Computer (PC)—A computer built around a microprocessor for use by
an individual, as in an office, home, or school.
Platform—The term originally concerned only CPU or computer hardware, but
it also refers to software-only environments. A messaging or groupware platform implies one or more programming interfaces that email, calendaring, and
other client programs are written to in order to communicate with the services
provided by the server.
Podcast—A series of digital media audio or video files that are released episodically and downloaded through Web syndication.
Portal—Within the enterprise, software that provides access via a Web browser
into all of an organization’s information assets and applications. Portals provide
a variety of services including Web searching, news, white and yellow pages
directories, free email, discussion groups, online shopping, and links to
Portlets—Pluggable software components that are managed and displayed in a
Web portal. Portlets produce fragments of markup code that are aggregated into
a portal page.
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QWERTY—The most used modern-day keyboard layout on English-language
computer and typewriter keyboards.
RAM—Random Access Memory is a form of computer data storage. When there
is no power provided, any data saved in RAM is lost.
RAS—Refers to reliability, availability, and serviceability. This is a defining
characteristic of a mainframe computer to describe its robustness. Reliability
refers to the computer’s ability to detect and report faults. Availability refers to
the amount of time the computer is operating without downtime. Serviceability
describes how easily it is to diagnose the system when a problem arises.
Real-Time Collaboration—Tools that let people to collaborate simultaneously.
The primary data collaboration tools are electronic whiteboards, which are
shared chalkboards and application sharing, which lets remote users work
in the same application together. Some form of human communication is
also necessary, so text chat, audio, or videoconferencing is often part of the
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)—RSS feeds deliver aggregated and syndicated
Web content to Web-based or desktop clients called “readers.” RSS readers
inform users when Web sites, blogs, wikis, or news sources get updated.
Records Management (RM)—Refers to the creation, retention, and scheduled
destruction of an organization’s paper and film documents. Email and computergenerated content also fall into the RM domain.
Redundancy—The duplication of critical components of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or
Relational Database—A database in which all the data and relations between
them are organized in tables. A relational database allows the definition of data
structures, storage and retrieval operations, and integrity constraints.
Reporting—Metrics-focused analysis of user behavior (unlike Web analytics
which is experience-driven).
Rich Content or Media—See Digital Media.
Rights and Permissions—Identifies the circumstances under which a particular
asset may be used. For instance, indicates who legally owns the asset, in what
mediums it may be used (Web, print, TV) and the financial liabilities incurred to
include the asset.
ROM—Read Only Memory is a type of media storage for computers and other
electronic devices that can’t be modified, or can be modified slowly and with
difficulty. It is a non-volatile memory type which means that the data remains
stored even without a power source.
RSS Feeds—A format of XML that is intended to share information in a condensed format (such as a title, description, and link to a new article). RSS feeds
are good for syndication.
Scalability—Ability to reach high-performance levels.
Search—A technology focused on user-driven information retrieval based on
statistical occurrence of search keywords in text-based content.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)—A protocol that encrypts information over the Internet. Many payment Web sites use SSL to protect users’ personal information.
Semantic Web—See Web 3.0.
Semantics—A term used often in the context of the Semantic Web which typically refers to RDF-based modeling of online user experience. In the
context of content analytics, the term semantics is sometimes used to refer
to the connotation of information contained in content or what is the information about.
Semantic Search—Searches data beyond just word recognition but seeks
to understand the intent of the user and the contextual meaning of words as
Sentiment Analysis—Sentiment analysis detects the tones in content, identifying and displaying opinions that are expressed in clusters of sentences, phrases,
Server—A server computer, sometimes called an enterprise server, is a computer
system that provides essential services across a network, to private users inside
a large organization or to public users in the Internet. Enterprise servers are
known to be very fault tolerant, for even a short-term failure can cost more than
purchasing and installing the system.
SGML—See Standard Generalized Markup Language.
Short Message Service (SMS)—Text messaging sent using this service, which allows a short alphanumeric message (160 alphanumeric characters) to be sent for
display on a mobile or cell phone.
Single Sign-on—Allows a user to log in to a system once yet access all the related systems without being prompted to log in to each one.
Smartphone—A mobile phone that offers advanced, PC-like functionality such as
email, Internet access, calendaring, and viewing capabilities, along with a built-in
full keyboard or external USB keyboard and VGA connector.
Social Bookmarking (also Social Tagging)—A way for Internet users to share,
organize, search, and manage bookmarks of Web pages of interest. Tags and
descriptions can be added to these pages to make them easier to find. Popular
examples include Delicious.com and StumbleUpon.com.
Social Media—Media designed to be disseminated through social interaction,
created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media
uses Internet and Web-based technologies to transform broadcast media monologues (one-to-many) into social media dialogues (many-to-many).
Social Networks—Web sites that facilitate connections of people based on selfgenerated user profiles. Facebook.com and LinkedIn.com are examples of social
Social Workplace—The social workplace uses Web 2.0 technologies to connect
people with their peers and with critical content and information. Also referred
to as Enterprise 2.0.
Social Software—Describes software programs that lets users leverage the
Internet to interact, collaborate, and communicate. Examples include social sites
like Facebook®, Flickr®, and YouTube®, along with ecommerce sites Amazon.com
and eBay®. The terms Enterprise 2.0 (E2.0) and Web 2.0 are also used to describe
this style of software inside the enterprise (for organizations) and outside of the
enterprise (for individual consumers), respectively.
Social Tagging—See “Social Bookmarking”.
Software—The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the
functioning of a computer and direct its operation.
Software as a Service (SaaS)—This type of computing delivers a single application through the browser to a large number of customers using a
GLOSSARY / 161
Structured Data—Data that resides in fixed fields within a record or file. Relational databases and spreadsheets are examples of structured data.
Tablet—A tablet computer, or tablet, is a mobile computer that is larger than a
mobile phone or personal digital assistant (PDA) but smaller than a laptop, with
a flat screen that is operated through touch and an onscreen virtual keyboard.
Tag Clouds—A tag cloud is a visual depiction of user-generated tags.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)—A file format for storing images, including
photographs and line art.
Tagging—Enables users to assign keywords to content such as blogs, documents, forums, and video files without following predefined terms.
Taxonomies—The classification of data into groups or categories.
TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol—The basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.
Telnet Protocol—A network protocol used on the Internet or LANs that provides
an interactive text-oriented communication in both directions using a virtual
Terabyte (TB)—A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to
one trillion bytes or 1,000 gigabytes (GB).
Text Analytics—Sometimes referred to as text data mining or text mining, text
analytics as a subset of Content Analytics refers to a set of technologies for
analysis of information contained in text-based content assets.
Thumbnail—A low-resolution small size rendition of an image asset; or, small
size textual rendition of a text asset.
Touch Screen—A visual display that can detect the presence and location of a
touch within the display area.
Transaction—Synonymous with a specific business application, such as order
entry, invoice information capture, etc. To create, change, or display business
information in an enterprise application, users have to call certain transactions
in the system. See also—Transactional Data.
Transactional Data—Orders, purchases, changes, additions, and deletions are
typical business transactions stored in the computer. Transactions update one or
more master files and serve as both an audit trail and history for future analyses.
Ad hoc queries are also a type of transaction but are usually not saved.
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Twisted pair cable—A type of wiring that twists together two conductors to
cancel out electromagnetic interference that was invented by Alexander Graham
Bell. This is used for telephone line networks.
Unstructured Data—Data that does not reside in fixed locations. Free-form text
in a word processing document is a typical example.
User-Generated Content (UGC)—Refers to different types of content or digital media produced by end-users and made publicly available. Also known as
consumer-generated media (CGM) or user-created content (UCC).
User Interface (UI)—A user interface is the system people use to interact with a
computer or other device. Typically, a system may expose several user interfaces
to serve different kinds of users.
User Profiles—A collection of personal data associated to a specific user typically within an online community or corporate intranet. Profiles often contain
a picture, relevant personal and professional information including knowledge,
skills, abilities, department, projects, roles, other contacts and links.
Video—The technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing
scenes in motion.
Virtualization—An umbrella term that describes software technologies
that improve portability, manageability, and compatibility of applications
by encapsulating them from the underlying operating system on which they
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)—Allows remote users of a network to access a
central organizational network and its data through an authentication process
like a login.
Virtual Project (Workgroup)—A group of individuals who work on a common
project via technologies such as email, shared databases, threaded discussions,
and calendaring. Virtual workgroups are mandated by company policy and employment requirements.
Virtual Meeting—A meeting between users that does not require them to be in
one geographic location. This can include the ability to share computer screens,
audio, and video.
Virtual Reality or Virtual Worlds—Computer-based simulated environments or
communities (such as Second Life®), where users can interact with one another
and objects in the environment. Also called “immersion” or interactive 3-D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars for graphical display
Web Browser—See Internet browser.
WAN—A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad
area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional,
or national boundaries).
Web Content Management (WCM)—Systems designed to drive Web sites by separating content from presentation and providing the following capabilities—capacity planning, site design/layout, look/feel navigation, content development,
production, delivery, session tracking, and site evolution.
Web—A shorthand way to refer to the World Wide Web and possibly its complementing technologies. For example, a Web authoring tool might be used to create documents that contain HyperText Markup Language (HTML).
Web 1.0—Began with the release of the WWW to the public in 1991, and is
the general term that has been created to describe the Web before the
Web 2.0 phenomenon.
Web 2.0—Refers to Web-based applications that enable new and emergent
ways of searching, presenting and consuming information using the Internet.
Web 2.0 is characterized by predominantly by technologies that use the Web as
a platform for collaboration and communications. The term also covers applications that are participatory in nature, lightweight, and easy to deploy (APIs and
mashups, for example) and are available online as a service.
Web 3.0 (also the Semantic Web)—The phase of Web application development
directly following Web 2.0, which includes the ability for programs and systems
to “understand” the meaning of content and services, to deliver highly personalized and relevant content and services to end users and computers. These highly
personalized services will be accessible using ubiquitous connections and powerful mobile devices, including the Blackberry®, iPhone®, and Android®.
Web 4.0—Web 4.0 achieves a critical mass of participation in online networks
that deliver global transparency, governance, distribution, participation, and
collaboration. Fundamental to this era is a reliance on the Web as an operating
system, which, when combined with mobility and cloud computing, it moves the
Internet a step closer to becoming the foundation of McLuhan’s “Digiverse” as a
massive web of digital information and collective intelligence.
Web Analytics—A technology for user behavior analysis (click-stream analysis). It allows customers to generate reports on user behavior on the site and to
optimize user experience by dynamically serving up relevant content based on
Web Content—The content featured as part of the user experience on Web sites,
including text, video, images, sounds, and animations.
Web Editor—An HTML editor is a software application for creating Web pages.
Although the HTML markup of a Web page can be written with any text editor,
specialized HTML editors can offer convenience and added functionality.
Web Engagement Management (WEM)—The evolution of WCM from static pages
of Web content into interactive discussions based on social networks using
blogs, wikis, and other tools that encourage a two-way communication.
Web Operating System—The Web as an operating system is the new architecture of applications, replacing the old way of installing a single client application
onto a computer with the remote download of a mobile app from a Web-based
Web Services—Web Services refer to the Web-based provision of services via
open interfaces. This enables the integration of “third-party” applications with a
Web site, giving rise to new sites or mashups.
Web Site—A collection of related Web pages with supporting images, videos, or
other digital assets that share a common domain name or IP address in an Internet Protocol-based network.
Widget—Highly portable Web applications which allow non-technical users
to add dynamic content or functionality to Web pages. User-friendly Web
sites are increasing their use of widgets to simplify and enhance the Internet
Wi-Fi—A very high bandwidth connection. A Wi-Fi-enabled device such as a
personal computer, video game console, mobile phone, MP3 player, or PDA
can connect to the Internet within range of a wireless network connected to
GLOSSARY / 163
Wiki—A collection of articles that can be entered, edited, linked, and expanded
by any authorized user. Wikis facilitate the open sharing of knowledge on a
designated Web page.
Workflow—Using applications and technology to automate the execution of
each phase in a business process.
World Wide Web (WWW)—An HTML-based Internet system developed at the
European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. Also relates to the
complete set of documents residing on all Internet servers that use the HTTP
protocol. The Web is accessible to users via a simple point-and-click system.
WORM (Write Once, Read Many)—Data storage technology that allows data to
be written to a disk a single time without it being erasable. Because it is not
rewritable it has been an archiving technology used by the enterprise. Optic
media is a form of WORM.
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)—Describes the presentation of content that appears very similar during edits and output.
XML—See Extensible Markup Language.
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How Stuff Works, www.howstuffworks.com.
Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics, http://www.
The History of, www.thehistoryof.net.
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Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), 26, 52
Advanced Search, 70
Android, 13, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 135, 140
App Store, 13, 15, 16, 17, 109, 118, 134, 135, 140, 147
Apple, 13, 26, 27, 51, 68, 101, 108, 111, 118, 134, 140, 142
Application, 10, 13, 14, 15, 52, 53, 59, 82, 83, 84, 86, 106, 107, 115, 133,
134, 135, 138, 139
Application Programming Interface (API), 26, 34, 65, 68, 86, 93, 112
Appstructure, 142, 143
Archive, 14, 16, 17, 23, 32, 36, 42, 72, 76, 93,112, 143
Archives, 14, 17, 23, 72, 76, 78, 112, 143
Archiving, 40, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, 102, 124, 144
Artesia, 89, 92
ASCII, 22, 31, 77
Augmented Reality, 118
Bandwidth, 20, 31, 78, 88, 90, 92, 106, 108, 110, 126, 138, 146, 154, 163
BASIS, 41, 42
Batch Processing, 40, 154
Beame & Whiteside, 26
Behind the Firewall, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 59, 60, 63, 70, 78,
82, 83, 86, 87, 95, 96, 123, 130, 137, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 146, 147,
Big Data, 14, 149
Binary Synchronous Communications, 23, 154
Blackberry, 17, 101, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 163, 166
Blog, 15, 16, 67, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 95, 96, 97, 107, 113, 116, 117, 123,
136, 137, 147, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165
Browser, 15, 25, 36, 51, 53, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 78, 101, 121, 141,
Business Applications, 59, 86, 113, 126, 141
Business Intelligence (BI), 112, 113, 130, 135
Business Process Management (BPM), 8, 10, 18, 23, 25, 27, 31, 38, 39,
40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 52, 63, 64, 70, 72, 74, 76, 80, 83, 88, 94, 102, 106,
113, 124, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 149
Canadian Digital Media Network (CDMN), 97
Cell Phone, 23, 70, 88, 107, 108, 138
Central Processing Unit (CPU), 20, 21, 22, 48, 75
CGK, 34, 37,
Channel, 14, 23, 46, 78, 84, 90, 94, 96, 105, 106, 118, 121, 123, 126,
Chat, 8, 10, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 31, 32, 41, 43, 49, 50, 52, 64, 70, 72, 76,
78, 80, 83, 88, 94, 101, 102, 104, 106, 113, 120, 124, 128, 132, 134, 135,
Client/Server, 14, 20, 25, 30, 39, 42, 52, 61, 63, 72, 82, 83, 88, 94, 106,
Cloud, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31, 34, 41, 43, 50, 52,
64, 70, 72, 76, 80, 83, 87, 88, 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109,
113, 120, 121, 122, 124, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140,
142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149
Cloud Computing, 10, 17, 20, 34, 103, 106, 107, 142, 147, 149
Collaboration, 1, 3, 6, 12, 20, 33, 52, 61, 62, 64, 67, 70, 71, 82, 83, 85,
86, 87, 89, 92, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 106, 107, 110, 118, 120, 121,
123, 124, 127, 129, 134, 136, 137, 149
Collaboration Object Lookup Architecture, 102
Collaborative Workspace, 101
IN DEX / 171
Communities Of Practice (COP), 6, 12, 15, 16, 20, 21, 47, 48, 52, 62, 77,
82, 83,92, 98, 99, 100, 106, 113, 134
Conference, 55, 61, 82, 101, 120
Connectivity 27, 28, 29, 30
Consumerization of IT, 13, 14, 138, 143, 146
Content Analytics, 113, 115, 117, 118
Content Lifecycle Management, 8, 10, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 31, 41, 43, 50,
52, 64, 70, 72, 76, 78, 80, 83, 88, 93, 94, 102, 103, 104, 106, 113, 124,
128, 132, 134, 135
Content Management, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31, 32,
40, 41, 43, 48, 49, 50, 52, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 76, 78, 80,
82, 83, 88, 89, 94, 96, 100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 112, 113, 114, 118,
124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 144, 147, 149
Content Syndication, 87
Contextual Searching, 102
Control, 10, 42, 43, 44, 55, 60, 71, 75, 86, 90, 93, 106, 110, 118, 121,
137, 144, 145, 146
Customer Experience Management (CEM), 84, 86, 107, 112, 136, 147,
Customer Relationship Management (CRM), 15, 43, 123, 129
Data Capture, 8, 10, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 31, 32, 41, 43, 49, 50, 52, 64, 70,
72, 76, 80, 83, 88, 94, 102, 104, 106, 113, 124, 128, 132, 134, 135
Data Center, 48, 107
Data Warehouse, 48
Database, 17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 32, 35, 39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 53, 54, 57, 58,
59, 73, 77, 89, 90, 91, 102, 107, 113, 116, 141, 144, 147
Deep Web, 14, 16, 17, 78, 158
Desktop, 3, 9, 11, 14, 15, 23, 27, 30, 33, 49, 53, 56, 57, 63, 77, 78, 87,
88, 107, 134, 136, 142
Digital Asset Management (DAM), 8, 10, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 31, 41, 43,
50, 52, 64, 70, 72, 76, 78, 80, 83, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 102, 103, 104,
106, 112, 113, 114, 124, 128, 132, 134, 135, 147
Digital Economy, 99
Digital Experience Management, 86, 87, 122
Digital Mailroom, 32, 37
Digital Media, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97, 103, 106, 112, 118, 120
1 7 2 / BEHI ND T HE F IREWA LL
Document Capture, 31, 37
Document Management (DM), 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 31, 38, 39, 41,
42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 52, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 70, 72, 74, 75, 80, 82, 87,
88, 94, 102, 104, 106, 113, 124, 127, 128, 129, 132, 134, 135, 149
DOKuStar, 35, 36
Dumb Terminal, 20, 21, 23, 27, 134, 154
Email, 9, 17, 26, 30, 34, 36, 40, 41, 44, 46, 47, 56, 63, 64, 67, 70, 72, 73,
75, 87, 92, 95, 101, 102, 103, 107, 108, 113, 116, 126, 137, 143, 144,
Enterprise 2.0, 83, 147
Enterprise 4.0, 14
Enterprise App Store, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 147
Enterprise Application, 3, 5, 10, 43, 83, 87, 103, 130, 135, 139, 140, 142,
Enterprise Apps, 15, 141, 143, 144, 145
Enterprise Content Management (ECM), 10, 12, 20, 30, 32, 43, 48,
74, 78, 82, 83, 88, 92, 96, 98, 99, 103, 106, 109, 110, 124, 126, 127,
129136, 144, 147, 149
Enterprise Information Management (EIM), 9, 10, 23, 52, 70, 88, 94,
102, 130, 133, 135, 149
Enterprise Repository, 129
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), 20, 59, 144
Entity Extraction, 138, 157
Epicentric, 67, 68, 69, 86
Ethernet, 23, 25
Exceed, 27, 28, 29, 30
Extranet, 47, 63, 64, 68, 69
Facebook, 13, 15, 16, 82, 85, 94, 95, 96, 107, 120, 123, 134, 136, 137,
140, 145, 147
Faceted Search, 117
Firewall, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 41, 59, 60, 63, 70, 78, 82, 83, 86,
87, 95, 96, 103, 123, 130, 135, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146
FirstClass, 70, 101
Flickr, 88, 107
Forums, 63, 85, 86, 87, 96, 97, 113
Fulcrum, 42, 55
Full-Text Retrieval, 41, 72
G20, 96, 122
Geolocation, 112, 13
Gmail, 107, 140
Google, 13, 15, 16, 41, 44, 52, 67, 70, 93, 96, 106, 109, 112, 135, 136,
Google TV, 106
Global Positioning System (GPS), 88, 112, 121, 126, 138, 139
Graphical User Interface (GUI), 27
Green screen, 20, 21
Heat Maps, 94
Hidden Web, 5, 6, 8, 12, 20, 52, 82, 106, 127, 134, 149
Hosting, 78, 107
Html, 23, 25, 52, 56, 59, 60, 65, 66, 78, 112
Hummingbird, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30
HyperText Markup Language, 52
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), 52
IBM, 48, 53, 56, 58, 59, 63, 73, 86, 154, 165, 168
Immersive Technology, 118, 158
Index, 16, 35, 37, 38, 41, 42, 48, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 70, 112, 113, 115,
Information Dimensions, 41, 55
Information Governance, 95, 136
Information Highway, 49, 51
Instant Messaging (IM), 101, 147
Integrated Development Environment, 158
Intel, 21, 22
Internet, 10,11, 13,14, 15, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 41,49, 51, 52, 53,
55, 56, 57, 58, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 76, 78, 81, 82, 86, 87, 101, 105,
106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 118, 120, 121, 123, 136, 139, 140, 141, 142,
143, 145, 146, 147, 149
Internet Anywhere, 56, 57
Internet Browser, 56
Internet Explorer, 15, 25, 56
Internet Service Providers (ISP), 63, 107
Interwoven, 67, 69
Intranet, 12, 15, 16, 20, 41, 47, 52, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 70, 71, 76,
82, 85, 100, 101, 106, 113, 134, 138
iOS, 13, 109
iPad, 108, 109, 110, 112, 134, 145
iPhone, 17, 103, 108, 109, 110, 112, 134, 146
ISDN, 23, 107
iTunes, 134, 135, 140
IXOS, 75, 77, 78
Java, 26, 109, 110
Kinect, 118, 120, 146
Knowledge Management (KM), 61, 69, 83, 85, 87, 98, 101, 113, 115
Knowledge Worker, 10, 15, 30, 78, 96, 103, 108, 109, 124, 139, 140
Local Area Network (LAN), 9, 20, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 38, 39, 40, 41, 49,
52, 60, 72, 73
Latitude, 60, 62
LearnFlex, 123, 125
Learning Management Systems, 121, 123
Linkedin, 13, 96, 113
LINUX, 26, 56
IN DEX / 173
Livelink, 61, 63, 64, 70, 71, 73, 75, 78, 101
Lotus Notes, 61, 63, 70
Mac Os X, 26
Macintosh, 26, 27
Magellan 46, 48
Mainframes, 20, 21, 23, 26, 30, 33, 48, 107, 134
Mashups, 84, 86, 87, 118, 139, 146
Media Management, 66, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 103, 113, 120
Memory, 20, 21, 22, 140
Metadata, 75, 90, 91, 92, 113, 114, 117
Microprocessor, 22, 24, 32
Microsoft, 9, 19, 26, 27, 30, 33, 39, 42, 43, 45, 48, 51, 52, 55, 56, 64, 67,
70, 72, 73, 77, 86, 87, 88, 125, 129, 135, 143, 145
Microsoft Office, 19, 143
Microsoft PowerPoint, 88
Microsoft SQL Server, 39
Microsoft Windows, 26, 27, 33, 45, 55, 56, 72, 73, 77, 145
MKS, 56, 57
Mobile, 107, 108, 109, 110, 118, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 134,
135, 139, 140, 142, 143, 149
Mobile App, 10, 13, 17, 97, 106, 109, 110, 135, 139, 140, 144, 145, 146,
Mobile Device, 10, 11, 13, 17, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112,
123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 143, 144
Mobile ECM, 110, 126, 127, 128
Mobile Professional, 99, 109, 124, 126, 127
Mosaic, 55, 56
MSN, 16, 67
Multimedia, 22, 62, 67, 89
Netscape, 16, 24, 51, 52, 56, 58, 60, 62
Netscape Navigator, 56, 58
NIRV Center, 63
1 7 4 / BEHI ND T HE F IREWA LL
Novell, 25, 39, 45, 57, 73, 138, 139
Novell Netware, 39, 57
Nstein, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118
Odesta, 61, 62
Off-Ramp, 30, 45, 136
On-Ramp, 9, 30, 31, 40, 136, 139
Online, 10, 16, 25, 37, 38, 48, 49, 52, 55, 63, 65, 66, 78, 82, 84, 92, 93,
94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 106, 113, 116, 120, 122, 138, 147
Online Community, 97, 98
Open Text Corporation, 5, 55, 63, 149, 151
OpenText, 5, 9, 16, 20, 34, 35, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 52, 54, 55, 56,
57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 82, 86, 87, 92,
93, 95, 98, 99, 101, 102, 110, 111, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 122, 123,
128, 129, 134, 145, 147, 149
OpenText Index, 16, 52, 58, 70
OpenText Social Workplace (OTSW), 95, 96
Operating System, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33,
41, 43, 49, 50, 52, 56, 58, 64, 70, 76, 77, 80, 88, 94, 102, 104, 106, 109,
110, 113, 121, 124, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 139, 140, 143, 145,
Optical Character Recognition (OCR), 31, 34, 35, 37, 39, 102
Oracle, 26, 39, 46, 58, 59, 73
Open Source Software (OSS), 26, 102
Operitel, 123, 124, 125
PC DOCS, 43, 45, 73
PC Search, 42
Permissions, 57, 67, 136, 144
Personal Computer (PC), 9, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 48, 134, 135
Platform, 8, 13, 15, 18, 27, 39, 46, 50, 56, 60, 61, 64, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84,
85, 87, 94, 95, 97, 101, 103, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 114, 117, 118, 123,
124, 127, 130, 132, 134, 135, 139, 140, 147, 149
Podcast, 88, 93, 94
Portal/Portlets, 16, 40, 52, 59, 62, 67, 68, 69, 70, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 93,
95, 100, 103, 109, 111, 123, 149
Process Management, 38, 39, 40, 49, 63, 74, 126, 136, 149
Quest Software, 46, 48
RAM, 21, 22
Records Management (RM), 52, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 83, 102, 124, 126,
RecoStar, 34, 35
Relational Database, 23, 58
Reporting, 113, 129, 160, 168
Repository, 57, 64, 76, 83, 90, 101, 110, 116, 124, 127, 129, 143, 144,
RSS Feeds, 45, 109, 112
SAP 9, 36, 46, 59, 77, 143
Search, 10, 15, 16, 27, 40, 41, 42, 52, 54, 55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 70, 86, 88,
89, 94, 106, 112, 116, 117, 126, 127, 130, 138, 146, 149, 151
Search Engine, 15, 16, 40, 41, 42, 55, 57, 60, 61, 63, 102, 113, 117, 138
Second Life, 118, 120
Semantic Search, 106, 113, 115, 116, 146
Semantic Site Search (3S), 115, 117,
Semantic Web, 7, 13, 84, 105, 106, 107, 109, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118,
121, 123, 127, 129, 131, 138, 147
Sentiment Analysis, 138
Server, 14, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 39, 48, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,
60, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 75, 76, 77, 83, 87, 88, 94, 101, 106, 107, 109,
128, 130, 140, 141
Server Farm, 23, 107
SGML, 54, 55, 60, 89
Short Message Service (SMS), 70, 113, 146
Single Sign-On, 67
Smartphone, 13, 14, 17, 87, 106, 107, 108, 112, 118, 134, 135, 138, 139,
140, 143, 146, 149
Social Media, 15, 16, 83, 84, 85, 86, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 113, 115, 117,
123, 124, 126, 127, 137, 147
Social Networks, 15, 78, 82, 83, 84, 94, 95, 106, 109, 124, 136, 137, 138
Social Software, 96
Social Workplace, 85, 95, 96, 98
SSL, 121, 124, 130
StreamServe, 45, 46, 47,
Structured Data, 35, 40, 41, 42, 88, 138
Sun Microsystems, 26
Symbian, 109, 110
Tablet, 13, 14, 17, 106, 107, 108, 118, 134, 138, 139, 140, 143, 146, 149
Tagging, 16, 54, 85, 91, 94, 106, 113
Taxonomies, 90, 113
Telnet Protocol, 30
Text Analytics, 117
The Cloud, 5, 11, 21, 103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 120, 121, 122, 130, 133,
134, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 147
Touch Screen, 103, 134
Tower Technology, 75
Transaction, 10, 16, 20, 24, 30, 59, 77, 102, 110, 124, 128,
Transactional Content Management, 102, 103, 136
Transactional Data, 30, 103
Tweet, 95, 112, 116
Twisted Pair Cable, 25
Twitter, 67, 82, 97, 112, 117, 137
IN DEX / 175
UNIX, 25, 26, 27, 28, 39, 42, 49, 57, 61, 70, 77, 159, 168
Unstructured Data, 35, 40, 41, 42, 88, 138, 162
User Interface, 26, 27, 31, 38, 61, 94, 103, 120
User-Generated Content, 82, 94, 95, 97, 117, 162
Video, 23, 30, 53, 58, 67, 75, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 99,
102, 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 122, 128, 146, 147
ViewStar, 38, 39, 40, 129
Vignette, 64, 65, 67, 75, 84, 86, 87, 94
Virtual Environments (3D), 118, 120, 122, 146
Virtual Meeting, 99, 118, 120
Virtual Private Networks (VPN), 82
Virtual Reality, 153
Virtual Worlds, 118
Virtualization, 58, 138
Vista Plus, 46, 48, 49
Wang Laboratories, 21, 32, 33, 129
Wave, 109, 110, 111
Wide Area Network (WAN), 24, 42, 52
Web 1.0, 10, 13, 15 49, 67, 106, 107, 117, 124, 147
Web 2.0, 10, 13, 15, 52, 82, 83, 84, 86, 92, 95, 96, 98, 102, 103, 106,
108, 115, 123, 124, 129, 136, 137, 147
Web 3.0, 10, 13, 30, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 118, 121, 123,
124, 130, 138, 147
Web 4.0, 10, 11, 13, 14, 90, 134, 135, 141, 143, 147
Web-based Application, 15
Web Browser, 15, 25, 36, 51, 53, 56, 58, 60, 62, 101
Web Content Management (WCM), 16, 25, 49, 52, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68,
78, 112, 114, 118, 124,
Web Crawler, 70, 78
Web Experience Management, 84, 105
Web Operating System, 10, 13, 15, 134, 135, 140,
Web Services, 68, 86, 93, 107, 142, 163
1 7 6 / BEHI ND T HE F IREWA LL
Web Site, 16, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 78, 83, 84, 87,
88, 94, 95, 107, 109, 112, 115, 126, 138, 140, 142, 145
Webmaster, 56, 64
weComm, 110, 111
Wi-Fi, 108, 139
Widget, 86, 118, 120, 121
Wiki, 1, 6, 12, 15, 16, 20, 22, 52, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 95, 96, 106, 117,
134, 136, 137
Windows, 26, 27, 30, 33, 39, 42, 45, 55, 56, 61, 72, 73, 77, 109, 110,
135, 145, 146, 147
WordPerfect, 43, 45
WordPress, 87, 147
Workflow, 10, 27, 30, 32, 36, 38, 39, 43, 45, 49, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68,
69, 91, 92, 94, 102, 110, 124, 126, 128, 129, 130, 146, 149
Workgroup, 32, 61, 62
World Wide Web, 14, 51, 53, 57, 67
Write Once, Read Many, (WORM), 32, 48, 75, 77
X Terminal, 21, 27, 30
X-Server, 21, 30
X-Window, 27, 28
Xbox, 118, 120, 146
Xerox, 23, 27, 39
Yahoo!, 16, 52, 57, 58, 59, 67, 70, 117, 147
YouTube, 53, 82, 88, 92, 93, 94, 107, 120, 137, 140, 145, 146