Social Innovation - Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Social Innovation - Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

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Description: Reducing inequality and accelerating real, meaningful and widespread inclusive growth are the most urgent challenges of our age. The World Economic Forum recently launched the Global Challenge Initiative on Economic Growth and Social Inclusion to engage all stakeholders governments, the private sector, experts, civil society leaders and social entrepreneurs in the design and implementation of scalable solutions. In addition to supportive policy frameworks enacted by governments, private sector action across all industries is indispensable.

 
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Domain:  Business Category: Social Innovation 
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Contents:
SCHWAB FOUNDATION FOR
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Insight Report

Social Innovation
A Guide to Achieving
Corporate and
Societal Value
Prepared in collaboration with Oliver Wyman
February 2016

World Economic Forum
91-93 route de la Capite
CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva
Switzerland
Tel.: +41 (0)22 869 1212
Fax: +41 (0)22 786 2744
Email: contact@weforum.org
www.weforum.org
World Economic Forum®
© 2016 – All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or
Transmitted in any form or by any means, including
Photocopying and recording, or by any information
Storage and retrieval system.
REF 150216

Contents
4

Preface

5

Why social innovation matters to business

7

What are the business benefits to pursuing social innovation?
8

Build future markets
8

Design new products and services: Becton, Dickinson and Company

9

Serve new geographies or customers: Allianz

9

Expand sales and distribution: Novo Nordisk

10 Strengthen supply chains
10 Ensure stable supply and price of raw materials: Jollibee Foods Corporation
11 Increase product quality and price premiums: Nestlé
11 Enhance customer engagement: C&A
12 Invest in talent
12 Explore new sources of talent: SAP
13 Build tomorrow’s workforce: Intercorp
14 Leverage finance
14 Gain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica
15 Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley
17 How to get started: A framework for implementation
18 Identify
18 Mobilize teams around a leadership vision: MasterCard
18 Co-create with your future leaders: Centrica
19 Empower the front lines: SABMiller
20 Design
20 Focus on the real problem being solved: Philips
21 Offer patient funding and incubation support: Barclays
21 Engage a cross-functional change management team: Royal DSM
23 Learn
23 Embrace experimentation: Marks and Spencer
23 Create robust learning loops: RB
24 Define and measure performance: Pearson
25 Scale
25 Leverage technology for growth: Cisco
25 Create a centre of excellence to support growth: Novartis
26 Find new opportunities to create business value: ITC Limited
28 Partner
30 Conclusion
31 Contributors

3

Preface

Reducing inequality and accelerating real, meaningful and
widespread inclusive growth are the most urgent challenges
of our age. The World Economic Forum recently launched
the Global Challenge Initiative on Economic Growth and
Social Inclusion to engage all stakeholders – governments,
the private sector, experts, civil society leaders and social
entrepreneurs – in the design and implementation of scalable
solutions. In addition to supportive policy frameworks
enacted by governments, private sector action across all
industries is indispensable.
What form should that action take? Social innovation –
innovative, practical, sustainable, market-based approaches
that benefit society, with special focus on the vulnerable —
offers an answer. As “the voice of social innovation”, the
Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship has
championed the concept and practice of social innovation
for the past 15 years. The Schwab Foundation’s global
community of founders and chief executives of social
enterprises – for-profit and non-profit organizations created
with an explicit social mission – demonstrate how such
approaches and methodologies can create life-transforming
impact.
But what about multinational corporations? Do the tools and
approaches of social innovation apply? As this report
demonstrates, the answer is a resounding “yes”. Global and
regional companies are vital contributors that can take the
practice of social innovation – and the enduring social impact
it creates – to scale.
As a central effort in the Global Challenge Initiative on
Economic Growth and Social Inclusion, the World Economic
Forum and the Schwab Foundation offer this report as a
“how to guide” for companies to create social and business
value. Drawn from a series of workshops and interviews with
more than 35 executives from leading companies, and
guided by the Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Social
Innovation, this guide offers an action framework for
companies to embed social innovation within their
businesses.
The report begins by articulating the “why:” why social
innovation is becoming an increasingly relevant strategy for
companies to pursue in today’s shifting business landscape.
It then showcases the “what”: what social innovation
strategies and business models look like, what the range of
opportunities are, and what business benefits companies
can derive from pursuing them. Finally, the report drills down
into the “how”: how did companies turn intentions into
action? How did they identify opportunities aligned with their
long-term business strategy? How did they identify partners,
design metrics and devise internal structures to deal with
“business as unusual”?

4

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

The menu of approaches and framework for implementation
showcased in this report can serve as an inspiration and a
valuable reference for many more companies to embed
social innovation practices into their business strategy and
operations. We wish to extend our appreciation to the
members of the Global Agenda Council on Social Innovation,
who have been a great inspiration and support throughout
the process, the dozens of executives who shared their time
and insights with us, the Apax Foundation for their generous
support, our partners at Oliver Wyman for their commitment,
and the project lead Manju George, without whom this report
would not have been possible.
Jennifer Blanke, Chief Economist, Member of the Executive
Committee, World Economic Forum
Katherine Milligan, Head, Schwab Foundation for Social
Entrepreneurship

Why social innovation matters to business

The World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on
Social Innovation, an advisory body comprised of leading
practitioners, thought leaders and academics, defines social
innovation as “the application of innovative, practical,
sustainable, market-based approaches to benefit society in
general, and low-income or underserved populations in
particular”. Social innovation means being more strategic,
more ambitious and more collaborative in how access and
opportunity can be provided for billions of low-income people
to participate in the global economy.

Adapting to resource scarcity and environmental
concerns: There is heightened pressure on companies to
invest in the resilience of their supply chains and a growing
business case to assess their social and environmental
footprint, ensure responsible practices and “internalize”
negative external impacts. Companies that pursue business
models and strategies that invest in the economic prosperity
of key stakeholders in its supply chain, including small
producers and local communities, are better poised for
long-term competitiveness.

Corporate involvement in societal issues is not new, of
course. Companies have long deployed a portfolio of tools to
exercise their citizenship in society, including corporate
governance, corporate philanthropy and corporate social
responsibility. What distinguishes social innovation from these
traditional approaches is the pursuit of societal challenges in
ways that create tangible business benefits. While those
methods and approaches can vary, social innovation
strategies share certain characteristics:

Attracting and retaining talent: Tomorrow’s workforce
views business success differently than their parents’
generation, and prioritizes long-term sustainability over
short-term profit maximization. In the Global Shapers Annual
Survey 2015, six in ten millennials indicated that an
opportunity to “make a difference in society, my city, or my
country” is the top factor they look for in a job. Moreover,
considering that an absence of loyalty to employers marks
this generation – two out of three respondents in the Deloitte
Millennial 2016 survey expect to move to a new employer by
2020 – companies must “stand out” in their efforts to improve
employee retention, pride and loyalty, or face significant
turnover costs.



They are directly aligned with the company’s innovation
agenda and business strategy.



They leverage a company’s core for-profit assets, such
as human capital, value chains, technology or distribution
systems.



Increasingly, they are managed from within a firm’s core
operations or business units.

Benefits to the companies include not just financial returns
but also improvements to long-term competitiveness,
including access to new markets or consumers, strengthened
supply chains and talent retention.
Why is social innovation relevant to business?
Restoring trust in business: According to the 2015 Edelman
Trust Barometer, public levels of trust in business are at its
lowest since 2008. More than half (55%) of chief executive
officers who participated in the PWC Annual CEO Survey are
concerned about these declining trust levels. Businesses that
are able to enhance their net positive contributions to society
are more likely to earn the trust of stakeholders and secure
their licence to operate in society.

It is society that gives us the right to be active,
our licence to operate. A business leader has to
think about how to solve the societal challenges
of today, because if we don’t solve them, we will
not have a business.

Changing performance metrics: A growing number of
investors are including social and environmental
considerations into their performance metrics and investment
decisions. For instance, according to the Global Sustainable
Investment Review 2014, the share of sustainable assets
within all professionally managed assets globally grew from
21.5% in 2012 to 30.2% in 2014. For the first time, the 2015
Harvard Business Review ranking of the top 100 performing
CEOs in the world – a measure aimed at evaluating long-term
performance – weighted social and environmental
performance at 20% of the overall score. The #1 CEO on the
list, Lars Rebien Sørensen of Novo Nordisk, crisply summed
up the importance of this shift in measuring success: “In the
long term, social and environmental issues become financial
issues.”
Search for growth and inclusion at scale: Even as the
World Bank reports significant progress in tackling extreme
poverty across the world (with less than 10% of the global
population estimated to be living on less than $1.9 a day),
there are growing concerns on rising income inequality
worldwide. As the world searches for solutions at scale to
address societal challenges, governments and civil society
leaders are calling on business to make key contributions.
The recently launched Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) offers an opportune framework for such contributions.
Companies that turn societal challenges, such as
unemployment and lack of healthcare services, into
opportunities that enhance business growth and long-term
competitiveness will be positioned for sustainable success.

Peter Brabeck-Letmathe Chairman of the Board, Nestlé
Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

5

6

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

What are the business benefits to
pursuing social innovation?

The previous section identified key drivers for companies to
adopt social innovation strategies. This section provides
specific company examples to demonstrate the spectrum of
social innovation opportunities and the range of business
benefits that companies can generate, grouped in four broad
clusters:

Build future markets
Design new products and services: BD

Strengthen supply chains
Ensure stable supply and prices of raw materials:
Jollibee Foods Corporation

Serve new geographies or customers: Allianz

Increase product quality and price premiums: Nestlé

Expand sales and distribution: Novo Nordisk

Enhance customer engagement: C&A

Explore new sources of talent: SAP
Build tomorrow’s workforce: Intercorp

Invest in talent

Each cluster offers a starting point for companies to look for
social innovation opportunities most relevant to them.
Specific opportunities will be driven by multiple factors
including a company’s operating environment, geographic
footprint, product portfolio, supplier base and raw material
dependencies, and talent models.
For example, market-facing companies from sectors such as
healthcare or consumer goods have embraced business

Gain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica
Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley

Leverage finance

growth through innovations in products, services or
distribution channels targeting underserved consumers.
Companies heavily reliant on supply chains, including from
food, agriculture or textiles, have pursued strategies that
secure raw material supply, increase product quality and
engage customers, while companies in professional services
or IT focus on building future talent pools and enhancing
employee loyalty.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

7

e markets

Strengthen supply chains
Ensure stable supply and prices of raw materials:
Jollibee Foods Corporation

BD

nz

Increase product quality and price premiums: Nestlé

k

AP

corp

Enhance customer engagement: C&A

Build future markets
As growth slows in developed markets, the “next 4 billion”
Design new products and services: BD (Becton,
consumers in emerging economies represent a growth
Dickinson and Company)
opportunity for local and multinational companies alike. InGain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica
the short term, the relatively low purchasing power of these
In the late 1980s, concern was growing among health
Generateworkers regardingMorgan Stanley
financial returns: disease transmission risks from needleconsumers makes it harder to achieve profit margins, yet
forward-looking companies view their market-building and
stick injuries in their work environment. Although, BD was the
business development efforts in this segment as a form of
largest producer of needles in the world, the company
“long tail” investment. In doing so, they can gain insights on
identified safety-engineered designs as a key area for
the unique needs and preferences of these customers, drive business growth and social impact. In the 1990s and 2000s,
awareness and behavioural change, and innovate to make
BD invested over $1 billion to redesign its needle-based
product lines more affordable and relevant.
devices and recapitalize manufacturing in order to transition
most of the company’s needle product lines to safetyCompanies that successfully pursue social innovation as an
engineered designs. The company also invested in
opportunity for developing new markets typically innovate in
advocacy, training and an occupational injury surveillance
three specific ways. First, they design products and services system to raise awareness and encourage safer practices in
that respond to the unique needs and behaviours of lowhospitals.
income customers. This can include developing new
products and services or adapting existing product lines for
By 1994, a key safety product category generated $70
their needs (e.g. food brands fortifying existing products with million in sales just in the United States. This product
micronutrients to address malnutrition). Second, the
eliminated needles entirely for IV access procedures, the
products and services must offer strong value for money
highest frequency cause of injuries at the time. Moreover,
despite – or because of – low purchasing power,
safety-engineered devices became the single largest source
necessitating the design of cost-effective products.
of growth for BD over the last 25 years. Today, these devices
generate over $2.6 billion annually in global turnover – a
Third, products must be made accessible across large
successful strategy that, in many countries, preceded
geographies with poor infrastructure, which requires thinking legislation requiring health facilities to use them.
creatively about distribution channels. As demonstrated by
Novo Nordisk’s experience, in addition to enhancing the
quality of life of low-income customers, such innovations can
also present opportunities to promote microentrepreneurship and enhance incomes.

t in talent

Leverage finance

Focusing strategically on unmet societal needs has
enabled BD to identify and pursue new social
innovation opportunities to expand our global
relevance and growth.

Vincent Forlenza
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, BD, USA

8

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Serve new geographies or customers: Allianz

Expand sales and distribution: Novo Nordisk

In 2003, Bajaj Allianz, a joint venture between Allianz AG and
Bajaj Finserve in India, started offering insurance products to
a new customer segment: households with incomes
between $1.25 and $4 per day. For the consumers, who
were not covered by conventional insurance products or
government social protection programmes, micro-insurance
offers protection against a number of risks, including illness,
accidental death and disability, theft, fire, agricultural losses
and natural disasters.

Historically, a key obstacle to treating diabetes in Bangladesh
has been the availability of insulin. In 2006, the Denmarkbased global healthcare company Novo Nordisk undertook a
study that found that only 16% of the country’s population (all
living in or near the capital of Dhaka) had access to Novo
Nordisk products. Its only distributor at the time had just one
insulin facility; only 25% of pharmacists in Dhaka stocked
insulin; and most doctors and pharmacists lacked proper
cooling systems required to keep insulin in stock.

In the years that followed, Allianz subsidiaries in Colombia,
Indonesia and Africa also developed insurance product lines
for this consumer segment. Initially, the Allianz head office in
Germany supported each subsidiary with communication
and incubation services, but as the local businesses grew,
Allianz created a new business unit, Emerging Consumers,
tasked with business expansion in existing and new
geographies. While still small compared to its traditional
business, Allianz has built a profitable micro-insurance
business, which offers the long-term opportunity to grow its
customers from micro-insurance to conventional businesses.
As of June 2015, Allianz had micro-insurance operations in
11 markets, insuring a total of 57.4 million lives.

With the study results in hand, Novo Nordisk identified three
ways to strengthen its insulin distribution network. First, it
switched distributors, increasing the number of distribution
points from one central depot in Dhaka to 29 depots across
the country. Second, it established a partnership with the
Bangladesh Diabetes Association (BADAS) and the World
Diabetes Foundation to install proper cooling systems in
clinics. More than 310 systems have been installed to date
with the aim of reaching 550 clinics by 2017. Third, Novo
Nordisk built a local manufacturing facility with Eskayef
Bangladesh, a local pharmaceutical company, to produce
insulin locally, ensuring a steady supply. These distribution
system improvements alone led to a compound annual
growth rate in insulin sales of 9.5% in the past decade.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

9

Strengthen supply chains
Ensure stable supply and prices of raw materials:
Jollibee Foods Corporation
Increase product quality and price premiums: Nestlé
Enhance customer engagement: C&A

Strengthen supply chains
The previous section highlighted opportunities for consumer- Ensure stable supply and price of raw materials: Jollibee
driven social innovation. The experiences of Jollibee, Nestlé
Foods Corporation
and C&A demonstrate how companies can achieve similar recognition: Telefónica
Gain market insights and brand
outcomes through innovations at the start of the supply
Jollibee Foods Corporation (JFC) runs the largest chain of
Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley
chain.
fast food restaurants in the Philippines and is reliant on a
steady supply of raw materials, such as vegetables, cereals
There are three major strategic benefits for social innovation
and animal produce, at significant quantities and stable
in a corporate supply chain. The first motivation is to ensure
prices. However, the agricultural sector in the Philippines is
the stability of access to raw materials. Many supply chains,
particularly vulnerable to such extreme weather events as
particularly those in the agriculture, food and consumer
typhoons, and when extreme weather reduces crop yields,
goods industries, are laced with intermediaries, all of whom
the price of produce inevitably spikes – exacerbated by
take a share of the price paid by the consumer. Unless small
middlemen who hike prices exorbitantly.
suppliers can increase productivity or volumes, households
may abandon crops that have become unviable, threatening
To mitigate this supply chain risk, in 2009 JFC began
the supply of raw materials. The threat of a global cocoa
sourcing produce directly from smallholder farmers in
shortage, for instance, has prompted many global chocolate addition to its traditional intermediary traders. JFC invested a
manufacturers to partner with social enterprises, such as
significant amount into partnership building and training to
Kennemer Foods in the Philippines, to help cocoa farmers
organize the farmers into functioning cooperatives. Buying
increase crop productivity.
directly from the farmers has meant that when one area of
the country is producing lower yields, JFC can buy from a
Extreme weather is another driver of supply volatility.
less affected region. Product quality is assured and prices
Diversification of and investment into a supplier base can
are more stable as the negotiation relationship is directly
create direct and trusted relationships with farmers, which
between JFC and the farmers.
help maintain stability in supplies and prices in the face of
extreme weather events, as demonstrated by the Jollibee
By 2015, Jollibee had helped over 900 farming families in 27
example.
cooperatives with an increase in income of 200-500%.
One-fourth of all vegetable produce sourced by JFC is now
The second strategic benefit revolves around improving the
purchased directly from the farmer cooperatives.
quality of raw materials, which supports a company’s ability
to achieve a price premium while strengthening consumer
loyalty. Nespresso is an example of a business model that
enables both smallholder farmers and the company to
increase the price premium by focusing on quality
improvements.

Leverage finance

A third motivation is reputation and proactively responding to
changing consumer preferences. An increasing number of
consumers are willing to pay a premium for products
sourced through socially responsible supply chains. The
experience of C&A is instructive in how companies can
generate a brand premium and customer loyalty through
investing in producers.

On the supply side, we benefit from better
diversification and hence more stable prices. By
having both a few traders and many farmers, we
have diversified our set of suppliers and are
assured of supply while helping boost the rural
economy.

Ysmael Baysa
Chief Financial Officer, Jollibee Foods Corporation, Philippines

10

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Increase product quality and price premiums: Nestlé

Enhance customer engagement: C&A

As a globally successful brand and reference for high-quality
premium coffee, Nespresso, a globally managed business of
Nestlé, needs a guaranteed and continued supply of highquality coffee beans. Nestlé identified a number of growing
trends that reduce the attractiveness of coffee farming
among farmers and threaten the potential supply of coffee to
the company. These trends included low crop productivity,
price volatility, lack of insurance and provisions for
retirements, and younger generations moving away to other
careers.

Cotton is the main fibre used for over 60% of C&A’s
products. In 2004, C&A made a commitment to steadily
increase the use of sustainably grown cotton in its product
lines. The company saw this as an opportunity to improve
the sustainability of cotton production practices among
farmers in its supply chain while at the same time enhance its
customer engagement and brand equity.

In 2003, Nespresso responded by creating a unique supply
chain model – the Nespresso AAA Sustainable Quality™
Program – that combines the company’s coffee expertise
and strict quality criteria and processes with the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Rainforest Alliance’s
know-how in sustainable farming practices. Nespresso
created the AAA Program to ensure its continued supply of
high-quality coffee, while preserving the environment and
enhancing farmer welfare. The programme builds long-term,
direct relationships with farmers and invests in their capacity
to continuously improve on the “triple As” – quality,
sustainability and productivity.
Farmers are offered training, financing and technical
assistance through a network of over 300 dedicated
agronomists. Price premiums, which are 30-40% above
coffee market price and 10-15% above market price for
similar quality coffees, are also paid. Investments are made
in post-harvesting infrastructures. By December 2014, the
programme was serving over 63,000 farmers in 11 countries,
covering 280,000 hectares of coffee farms.

In 2009, in partnership with Textile Exchange and the Shell
Foundation, C&A created CottonConnect, a social enterprise
that supports farmers and retailers to increase the
production and use of sustainable cotton. In 2014, C&A was
the largest purchaser of organic cotton globally and one of
the largest retailers of organic cotton apparel through its Bio
Cotton range of products. This range constitutes roughly
40% of its overall cotton product sales and the company has
the 2020 goal of achieving 100% sustainable cotton in all its
cotton products. While C&A chose to price its sustainable
cotton collections the same as its regular collections, organic
cotton products sell faster and price markdowns are lower,
which creates a higher gross margin for the company.
For farmers, the benefits include lower costs of production,
reduced reliance on traditional intermediaries, and crops with
higher resilience to climate change. However, to increase the
number of participating farmers, financial incentives need to
be created that compensate for the short-term loss of yield
during the transition period as well as investments that
further enhance crop productivity, such as high-performing
organic seeds. The C&A Foundation works closely with the
company and in collaboration with NGOs and governments
to address some of these larger challenges.

In addition to increasing the quality of coffee, the programme
increases farmers’ incomes, yields and sustainability.
Between 2009 and 2011, a survey of Colombian farms
demonstrated 22.6% better social conditions, 41% better
economic conditions and 52% better environmental
conditions than non-AAA farms.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

11

Gain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica

AP

Invest in talent

Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley

corp

t in talent

Leverage finance

Increasing levels of diversity in the workforce can present a
significant social innovation opportunity. Seeking a more
diverse workforce both increases the size of the recruiting
pool and can introduce new capabilities into an organization.
Many companies have realized the opportunity this can bring
– according to the “2011 Fostering Innovation Through a
Diverse Workforce survey” by Forbes, 85% of companies
agree talent diversification results in more innovative product
generation ideas.
SAP is one example of a company that has tapped into talent
pools traditionally considered unemployable, thereby
increasing the diversity of its internal talent. Firms have
recognized that “new” talent pools (other examples might be
immigrants, the long-term unemployed and the disabled) can
bring new strengths and perspectives to their team.
However, to successfully tap into these groups, firms need to
assess how existing hiring approaches and work procedures
will need to be adapted.
As the Intercorp example shows, other companies have
focused on increasing the availability of “employable” talent
in their operating markets either through youth vocational
skill training or through primary and secondary education.
Firms have approached the issue by searching for allies who
share the same mission and are willing to enter into
partnerships. Governments or educational institutions – or
even competitors – are often willing to co-invest or bring in
their expertise and teaching infrastructure. At the same time,
companies can play an active role by (co-)designing the
curricula, bringing in their practical experiences and ensuring
a targeted skill development that matches the demands of
business.

Explore new sources of talent: SAP
The growing demand for IT skills and the strong belief that
innovation comes from incorporating diverse perspectives
caused SAP to rethink the way the company defines talent. It
realized that there is a significant and traditionally untapped
talent pool composed of individuals with Autism Spectrum
Disorder (ASD) who could bring a different perspective to
problem-solving. Autistic employees have a unique skill set
that delivers business value. Adults with ASD have an
unemployment rate of close to 80% in spite of having strong
academic credentials, experience and/or marketable skills.
In 2013, SAP committed to hire 700 people with autism by
2020, equivalent to 1% of the company’s workforce. Like
many other companies, recruiting processes for most
positions at SAP were once designed to favour those with
strong communication skills and team-player capabilities.
But as people with autism rarely bring these skills, the
company was missing an opportunity to bring on board
exceptional talent that could bring strong business, science
and technology capabilities to the organization.
SAP then tailored its recruiting approach to hire autistic
people for jobs where they could make use of their strengths.
In the beginning, the company hired people within the areas

Innovation comes from the edges and from
incorporating diverse perspectives. SAP Autism at
Work enables us to leverage the perspectives and
abilities that people with autism bring to the
workplace.

Anka Wittenberg
Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer, SAP SE, Germany

12

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

of quality assurance and software testing. From those early
days, the programme has expanded from technical-oriented
roles into other functional areas that include human
resources, IT, compliance, procurement and finance.
Build tomorrow’s workforce: Intercorp

designed to focus on those subjects. At present, Intercorp
already benefits as a shareholder with a fully profitable
educational platform. However, the main benefits will
materialize once the first classes from the Innova schools
have graduated from Intercorp University or completed their
vocational programmes.

According to the Manpower Group’s 2015 Talent Shortage
Survey, Peru is among the countries facing the most serious
employment shortages, with 68% of employers reporting
difficulty filling open positions, largely due to poor-quality
education opportunities. With this challenge in mind, in 2011
Intercorp invested in Innova schools, technical institutes
(IDAT and IPAE) and a university (UTP) to offer a world-class
education at an affordable price to children and young
people from lower-middle-income households. More than
19,000 students attend Innova schools and 41,000 are
enrolled in the vocational institutes and universities, with
plans to triple the number by 2025.
By investing in Peru’s education system, Intercorp will benefit
from more skilled workers ready to join its workforce. As both
Peru and Intercorp are experiencing particular difficulties in
filling positions that require a science or engineering
background, 22 of the 32 university career paths have been

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

13

Gain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica

Leverage finance
Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley

Leverage finance
Finance can be a key tool for a company to engage in social
innovation. Companies such as Telefónica have helped grow
social enterprises by managing impact investment funds or
incubators. In addition to generating financial returns, such
investments can offer a pipeline of ideas to support a
company’s innovation agenda and can become future
partners, or even future customers.
To benefit the most from its impact investments, a company
should invest in start-ups that are strongly aligned with the
company’s business strategy or operating in adjacent
markets. As Morgan Stanley’s case also illustrates, targeted
investments into social entrepreneurs can generate new
business opportunities for the company.

Gain market insights and brand recognition: Telefónica
In 2013, Telefónica Open Future, a division of the Spanish
multinational telecommunications company Telefónica,
partnered with the Government of the United Kingdom to
support the growth of socially innovative start-up ventures.
Through Wayra UnLtd, the country’s first accelerator facility
for digital technology social ventures, the partnership offered
seed funding, coaching and mentoring, and access to
Telefónica Open Future’s global network of more than 600
start-ups and 60 partnerships across 17 countries.
Ventures supported by the facility are working on innovative
mobile or digital solutions that serve the company’s existing
and future customer base. They include Roadio, which
created mobile technology to improve the way people learn
to drive, and WeFarm, a peer-to-peer platform that offers
vital information on farming practices to over 43,000 farmers
in some parts of Latin America, where Telefónica has
significant business operations.
Wayra UnLtd’s social ventures raised $12.5 million in thirdparty investment. Its successful financial performance
placed the accelerator programme at the top of rankings by
the Social Incubator Fund, a UK Government facility that
supports social incubators and accelerators in the country. In

Increasingly, companies are leveraging their financial
capital and core competencies to help ambitious
social ventures to grow and scale

Nicholas O’Donohoe
Senior Adviser, Blended Finance, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USA

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

2015, Wayra UK partnered with Merck Sharp & Dohme, a
global healthcare company, to launch Velocity Health, an
accelerator that supports start-ups that are designing
preventative healthcare delivery models.
The acceleration Telefónica provides to the social ventures
has created measurable social outcomes. At the same time,
the company benefits from new ideas, market insights, brand
recognition and consumer engagement.
Generate financial returns: Morgan Stanley

Through the investment partnership with MSPE, CreditEase
was able to access Morgan Stanley’s global platforms,
including the Institute for Sustainable Investing, and
collaborate with the company’s risk management, asset
management and investment banking operations. By
December 2015, CreditEase had over 40,000 employees
across 232 cities and 96 rural areas in China, serving several
million borrowers. Investing in CreditEase’s growth has been
a financially attractive proposition for Morgan Stanley, too
– CreditEase’s online P2P lending unit, Yirendai, successfully
listed its shares on the New York Stock Exchange in
December 2015.

Since the early 1990s, Morgan Stanley’s Asia Private Equity
business (MSPE) has made investments in a number of
fast-growing businesses in the Asia-Pacific region, including
those focused on inclusive finance. MSPE’s investment into
CreditEase in 2011, a peer-to-peer (P2P) lending facilitator in
China, is an example.
CreditEase is a national leader in China’s microfinance
industry. In 2006, the company pioneered the P2P lending
model in the country, introducing credit products to the
vastly underbanked middle class and rural consumers.
Previously, these consumers relied on informal channels for
credit, as the traditional products offered by banks were
suitable only for high- and middle-income consumers.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

How to get started: A framework for
implementation

Making social innovation work inside a company is not easy.
Where do you start? How do you identify a specific
opportunity and design a business model around it? How do
you build capacity from the ground up, test approaches,
measure outcomes and refine models? How can you get
initiatives to scale?
Drawing from interviews with over 30 companies, this section
outlines the key steps to build socially innovative businesses.
The four steps – identify, design, learn and scale – are
analogous to traditional business development processes
and thus will be familiar. However, when they are applied to a
social innovation opportunity, important differences often
emerge.

In the “identify” step, for example, interview subjects
highlighted the critical importance of tapping into a wide
network to unearth strategic opportunities – including social
entrepreneurs and civil society organizations. In the “design”
step, executives emphasized that existing structures can
create significant inertia – therefore social innovation initiatives
often benefit from separate structures, such as incubators
and ring-fenced funding. Once an idea has been
demonstrated as viable and has started to scale in one
market or business unit, companies are faced with the
question of how to scale or replicate this success in other
markets. As several of the cases in the “scale” section
demonstrate, a centre of excellence that is tasked with
knowledge transfer and replication can significantly aid and
accelerate the scaling process.

Scale
Learn

Embrace experimentation: Marks and Spencer
Create robust learning loops: Reckitt Benckiser
Define and measure performance: Pearson

Design
Identify

Leverage technology for scale: Cisco
Create a centre of excellence to support scale: Novartis
Find new opportunities to create business value: ITC Limited

Focus on the real problem being solved: Philips
Offer patient funding and incubation support: Barclays
Engage a cross-functional change management team: Royal DSM

Mobilize teams around a leadership vision: MasterCard
Co-create with your future leaders: Centrica
Empower the front lines: SABMiller

Partner

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

17

Identify
A social innovation journey starts with unearthing
opportunities with the potential to contribute to a company’s
strategic objectives. These ideas may come from numerous
sources within the company – employees, the leadership,
and from front-line business operations. Significantly, ideas
can also be generated from beyond the company, including
supply chain partners, civil society actors and other key
stakeholders in operating markets.

The differing experiences of three companies that identified
major social innovation opportunities aligned with business
strategy and capabilities are shared below. MasterCard’s
experience shows how senior leadership can highlight social
innovation opportunities within a company’s vision for the
future. Centrica provides a good illustration of engaging
mid-level employees in identifying and pursuing such
opportunities. The SABMiller case demonstrates the value of
empowering and supporting front-line teams to spot
opportunities in their local markets as they emerge.

Mobilize teams around a leadership
vision

an end-to-end, non-financial service that makes the
distribution of humanitarian aid safe, simple and smart using
Europay, MasterCard, Visa (EMV) chip technology. The
network is now active in areas of civil unrest such as Yemen
and after natural disasters, such as when Typhoon Haiyan
struck the Philippines.

Senior leadership has an important role to play in igniting
social innovation. They can outline a long-term vision for how
this can support a company’s business strategy and set goals
that incentivize business units to generate and pursue
opportunities.
Ajay Banga, the Chief Executive Officer of MasterCard, has
made financial inclusion a top corporate priority, outlining a
vision of connecting people to formal financial services as a
key lever for the company’s future market. With 85% of the
world’s retail transactions undertaken in cash, and with
MasterCard’s existing capabilities in digital payments,
providing access to formal financial services presents an
enormous opportunity for business growth.
To incentivize business development in financial inclusion,
leadership included related targets within the company’s 10
strategic objectives. At the same time, a public commitment to
connect an additional 500 million people, including millions of
small merchants, to the formal financial system by 2020 was
made. As a result, teams around the company started
identifying new opportunities to use existing business
capabilities to serve new customer segments.
One new customer segment was government. For example,
the Egyptian Government and Central Bank have prioritized
financial inclusion as a pressing issue due to the ongoing
political unrest, as even those with access to formal banking
were not able to use the services regularly. MasterCard
worked with Etisalat and the Central Bank to develop a mobile
banking platform offering bill payments, money transfers,
e-commerce and loan facilities. The solution now enables
financial inclusion through a national identification card with a
digital signature to over 60 million Egyptians.
A second new segment was international aid organizations.
MasterCard worked with organizations like Mercy Corps, Save
the Children, World Vision, the International Rescue
Committee and others to create the MasterCard Aid Network,
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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Given the ambitious scope of the leadership’s vision,
MasterCard teams are tasked not only with identifying
opportunities that build on existing capabilities but also with
developing totally new products. For example, with grant
funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, MasterCard
launched the Lab for Financial Inclusion in Nairobi, Kenya in
2015. Though the returns for entirely new product lines are
much more difficult to anticipate, if successful, the company is
hoping these innovations could make a significant contribution
to the company’s financial inclusion objectives.

Co-create with your future leaders
Employees can be a vital source of socially innovative ideas.
Companies can engage employees in idea generation through
development programmes, competitions, awards or
intrapreneurship workshops.
In 2011, the Chief Executive Officer of Centrica was acutely
aware of the external pressures on energy companies and the
macro trends affecting their business in the long term.
Subsequently, he issued a challenge to the high-potential
professionals selected for an internal talent development
programme: how can Centrica take its efforts beyond
traditional corporate social responsibility initiatives to open up
new sources of innovation and creativity and take the brand to
the next level?
Through a year-long development programme, four teams
worked on this question. They were immersed in different
business models for social innovation, spoke at length with
charities and social entrepreneurs, and visited several sites
and initiatives that successfully wove social and financial value
together. Out of that immersive experience, the teams
generated several proposals to present to the chief executive
officer and leadership team. The winning proposal was to set

up Ignite, an impact investment fund, which was the United
Kingdom’s first corporate impact fund investing in energy
enterprises pursuing financial value and social change.
In 2012, Centrica launched Ignite and set up an investment
panel including two Executive Committee members. To
manage the fund’s operations, an internal team with corporate
strategy and mergers and acquisitions experience was
recruited. By 2015, the £10 million fund had made 11
investments and was providing pre-investment support to
nine additional enterprises. The team collaborates with
Centrica business units, and high-potential managers are
often seconded to the fund or the investee companies, or
serve on their executive boards.

Ignite helps us to make a contribution to society,
keeping us abreast of ideas and developments,
encouraging innovation and giving our people an
insight into how to manage a real business from the
beginning.

Iain Conn
Chief Executive Officer, Centrica

Perhaps most significantly, the fund has become a source of
strategic foresight and market intelligence for Centrica.
“Traditionally we looked at macro trends and sought external
consulting advice to think through our strategy,” said Julia
Rebholz, Head of Ignite. “The fund complements this macro
advice by helping us to understand these trends better from
an entrepreneurial, bottom-up perspective. How can the right
investments address those macro scenarios? Where should
we be taking small steps on things that could be scaled for
the future? It gives us a different lens as well as relationships
with venture capital, private equity and impact investment
funds, which we didn’t have previously.

Empower the front lines
Business units and local teams interact closely with
consumers, communities and other societal stakeholders in
their day-to-day work. If empowered, they can become
successful “intrapreneurs” who can spot high-potential social
innovation opportunities relevant to day-to-day business.
Historically at SABMiller, innovation is driven at the country
level, allowing teams to respond to local contexts and
challenges. Geography can be a useful dimension for
identifying social opportunities in a global company. A prime
example is the “localization” of the brewing company’s supply
chain in Africa, which began in Uganda in 2002 when a
conversation between the regional Managing Director and
Uganda’s Finance Minister unearthed a mutually beneficial
opportunity: local sourcing of grains for brewing operations.

helped reduce reliance on barley imports from Europe,
thereby reducing costs. Sales growth was challenging in a
static market, but creating a local supply chain and offering
farmers an assured market helped strengthen the company’s
relationship with local communities and created significant
economic opportunities for the smallholder farmers
themselves. Perhaps most importantly, such an initiative
would build trust and a track record of partnership with the
government, which was looking for ways to promote the
inclusion and economic development of Ugandan farmers.
The SABMiller team and the Ministry of Agriculture jointly
evaluated a number of Ugandan crops as brewing ingredients,
with a local variant of sorghum proving the most viable. The
company worked on modifying the brewing process in order
to replace malted barley with sorghum, and the resulting new
product – Eagle Lager – became highly successful, now
accounting for over 50% of the sales of SABMiller’s Ugandan
subsidiary, Nile Breweries. Given the local production, Nile
Breweries also benefited from an excise rate of 30% for Eagle
instead of the 60% levied on beer brewed from imported
ingredients, reducing the retail price and offering a highquality, affordable alternative to unregulated and dangerous
illicitly produced local brews.
Subsequently, SABMiller businesses in other parts of Africa
replicated the model using locally sourced sorghum, maize
and cassava; today, local sourcing is a key part of SABMiller’s
Africa growth strategy. To continue to incentivize and motivate
business units, the company visibly showcases such activities
through corporate recognitions, including the Mackay Awards,
which highlight initiatives that grow the business while having
social and environmental benefits. In addition, the Executive
Committee and the Corporate Affairs team are mandated to
ensure that regional teams are globally connected to enable
successful innovations to be replicated across markets.

Key questions


Where are the key opportunities for us to be more
innovative and socially inclusive?



Can social innovation help manage risks that will affect
our business?



How can we use existing assets and capabilities to
solve societal challenges?



Can we engage and collaborate with our key
stakeholders – customers, suppliers, distributors,
retailers, governments, NGOs – to create greater
financial and social value?



How can we embed the social innovation agenda into
the strategic vision? Can we communicate this better
to our employees?



How can we mobilize the creativity and
entrepreneurship of our business teams to identify and
pursue opportunities? Can we use existing structures
and processes (e.g. company-wide goals, talent
development programmes, innovation budgets,
competitions, corporate awards) to encourage our
people to identify more social innovation ideas?

Such an initiative was attractive to SABMiller for several
reasons. Sourcing more affordable raw materials locally
Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

19

Design
Companies need a robust yet flexible design process to
convert ideas into feasible concepts, prototypes or business
models. Social innovation opportunities almost invariably
demand collaborations with external stakeholders and
business models that differ from business as usual. They will
also often take longer to get to market and to reach
profitability. Hence, opportunities may need design and
incubation support that sits outside of established structures.
However, a balance must be struck – going too far outside of
existing processes can make it harder for managers to
endorse and execute, hindering implementation.

Focus on the real problem being
solved
Internal structures that work well in a “business-as-usual”
scenario may not be sufficiently equipped to incubate socially
innovative ideas. As a result, ideas can get stuck within a large
company. Hence, practitioners have often found it useful to
either refine existing structures or create new ones.
In 2013, Philips noticed that its Africa sales teams were
generating numerous inclusive innovation ideas aimed at
marginalized communities– including LED lights with solar
panels and medical devices for low-resource settings – yet
none of them were making it through to implementation. The
ideas were getting stuck in the company’s internal structures
and information flows of its conventional product development
process. In the standard process, the sales divisions identify
ideas and then request the manufacturing divisions or
business units to develop new products. The business units
then evaluate the ideas and decide if they are fit for
production. In the socially innovative cases, the business units
were checking with their existing retailers to see if they would
stock such products, who, of course, responded that they
would be of no interest to their existing high-end customers.
Philips realized that its socially innovative ideas were facing
internal barriers to scale. Given it targeted a new and
unfamiliar segment of customers, it reasoned, it would take
new internal structures and business models to serve them.
Thus the Philips Africa Innovation Hub was created in 2014 as
an internal collaboration between Philips Africa and the global
R&D and strategy teams. Unlike many incubators housed
within R&D departments or business units, the Africa
Innovation Hub is located in Nairobi and hierarchically sits
inside the sales organization to be as close to customers and
market insights as possible.
Using ring-fenced funding provided by the Philips Executive
Committee, ideas are incubated through a highly structured,
stage-gated process. The stages include a pre-seed phase

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

The three examples below illustrate how companies have
managed this balancing act as they have designed social
innovation business cases. The experience of Philips
highlights the need to be cognizant of barriers that existing
structures may create. The Barclays example shares insights
on providing the catalysing incubatory support while still
ensuring relevance to front-line businesses. The Royal DSM
experience shows how multiple teams from across an
organization need to be involved in a change management
process to make this happen.

focused on scouting, exploration and market research; a seed
(validation) phase that generates clarity on product
specifications and costs; an alpha phase where the business
model is tested through pilots and limited sales; and a beta
phase that generates significant sales. After each phase, the
“social intrapreneurs” working on each idea pitch to an
Innovation Board, comprised of senior executives from the
regional market, research and business units. If successful,
the idea moves to the next stage with replenished funding.
Once the concepts reach the beta phase, they are expected
to be transferred to the business units as profitable
businesses.

Inclusive innovation means you create locally relevant
solutions for unmet needs of people who are
excluded today. You may need to change the
approaches or business models that are customary.
Create local ventures with autonomy to break away
from existing conventions, while leveraging assets.

Frans van Houten
Chief Executive Officer, Royal Philips

Such a structured process intentionally allows for significant
trial and error: if a concept doesn’t work in the alpha phase, it
can go back to the seed phase and create a new plan. This
new structure, which relies on close collaboration between the
sales teams and the Innovation Lab, now helps Philips to
successfully reach new customer segments. In 2014, the
company went to market with a “pay-as-you-go” model that
rents out LED lights to low-income households for a daily fee
(helping customers who struggle with a large upfront
payment), and in 2015 Philips announced the first in a series of
medical devices and solutions for low-resource settings,
specifically for community care.

Offer patient funding and incubation
support
In comparison with opportunities that are more familiar to
business, socially innovative ideas often need more time to get
to market and reach profitability. Companies can support their
scoping and implementation by offering dedicated financial
resources and targeting lower financial performance
thresholds in the short term.
In 2012, Barclays launched the Social Innovation Facility to
catalyse social innovation across the company’s business
units. The company made a number of design choices to
ensure that the Facility encourages experimentation balanced
with prudence and business relevance. First, it ring-fenced
£25 million for the first three years of the Facility’s operations,
allowing it to create excitement within business units, build a
pipeline of ideas, and make flexible, longer-term investment
decisions. Second, it created a formal application process
that recognizes ideas can be at different stages of
conceptualization and product development. Ideas that are in
the early “discovery” phase go through a shorter, more agile
application process and receive lower amounts of funding
than those that are closer to establishing their business case.
Third, it established strong governance and elaborated clear
criteria to ensure rigour in the evaluation process. A diverse
Governing Council of senior Barclays leaders sets the strategy
and oversees the investment decisions, with each investment
idea evaluated against four criteria: commercial attractiveness,
ability to generate social impact, alignment with company
strategy and ability to scale into a successful business.

We take prudent risks, but risks nonetheless so that
we are really planting some seeds of innovative
ideas. And if we fail, we fail fast.

Diane Eshleman
Managing Director and Global Head, Citizenship and Reputation,
Barclays

Integral to the design of the Social Innovation Facility is the
principle of co-investment. The business unit that generated
the idea and requested funding from the Facility is expected to
co-invest and is ultimately responsible for its implementation.
Such a requirement ensures that the ownership of each
initiative being funded lies with the business units themselves.
To ensure ownership beyond the initial funding, the Facility
evaluates ideas based on performance metrics that are
closely aligned with each business unit’s view of success
rather than on set standardized hurdle rates. Its rationale for
maintaining such flexibility is that it will maximize the chances
that the idea will be supported and scaled after the funding
from the Facility ceases.
Once an idea is selected, the Facility signs a formal contract
with the business unit in question and releases its share of the
funding in tranches linked to the achievement of key
milestones agreed at the time of the initial investment. By the
end of 2015, the Facility had funded over 35 proposals across

its business units and operating regions. As with any
innovation facility that is prepared to experiment with
early-stage ideas, some of the propositions did not get off
the ground or were stopped early, many evolved and pivoted
as the development cycle progressed, and some are now
successfully integrated into business units and launched into
the market.
The long-term nature of social innovation propositions
means that many of the investments are still in development,
being incubated with partners or tested through a pilot
phase. In Uganda, Barclays is leveraging the Social
Innovation Facility to partner with civil society organizations
Grameen Foundation and Care International to develop
innovative technologies and mobile-based financial products
that are relevant and accessible to disadvantaged
communities.

Engage a cross-functional change
management team
An effective change management process is often a key
ingredient to make social innovation successful.
Collaboration between internal champions with executive
authority and functional expertise is important to drive ideas
forward.
Since its founding in 1902, Royal DSM has continuously
transformed itself – from coal mining to chemicals to a global
science-based company active in health, nutrition and
materials. Innovation and sustainability were identified as key
business drivers in its latest transformation and, starting in
2005, DSM’s Board led a number of internal change
initiatives to embed these two core values across all its
businesses. The Board members themselves assumed key
roles in the change management process as Chairs or
Sponsors of internal and external initiatives.
All DSM businesses were assigned a Sustainability
Champion to drive change from within business units,
ensure compliance with corporate policies and report on
progress. Internal communication and training efforts –
including the creation of an intranet focused on sustainability
and innovation that offered regular webinars and training
programmes to staff members – accelerated the adoption of
these values internally.
Two new teams were created at the middle management
level to support business units: the DSM Innovation Center
focused on creating radically new innovations and enhancing
the innovation performance of existing businesses and
products, and the Corporate Sustainable Development
department that drives the sustainability agenda by
promulgating policies, setting company-wide targets and
monitoring progress.
Changes were made at an operational level as well, to track
compliance and provide the innovation and sustainability
teams with the metrics required to make informed decisions.
An existing department focused on operational excellence
was given an expanded mandate to measure the social and
environmental impacts of all DSM products throughout their
life cycles, while the audit department conducts regular
sustainability audits not only within DSM but on key partners
Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

21

and suppliers in its value chain. Since 2010, all business units
report progress on sustainability targets on a quarterly basis.
These efforts have helped the company to create a portfolio of
competitive products: 95% of the new products in DSM’s
innovation pipeline meet or exceed the sustainability
thresholds set by the company.

Key questions




Are existing structures blocking socially innovative
ideas from progressing? What new structures could we
create to support the design process?



What can we do to incubate more socially innovative
ideas (e.g. ring-fenced funding, longer incubation times)?



How do we ensure incubations remain relevant to our
business and have the ownership of business teams
(e.g. co-funding from business, evaluation of incubations
with metrics relevant to the main business, ensuring
managers are involved in the evaluation)?



Which teams and expertise in house need to be involved
in the design and change management process?



22

Have we spent enough time to understand the new
stakeholders we are trying to serve? Can we serve
them through existing capabilities and business models?

If we cannot implement a feasible business model with
existing structures and capabilities, are there partners
we can collaborate with?

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Learn
Field testing and rapid prototyping are essential, as are an
open mindset and willingness to rethink assumptions in the
face of contradictory information; learning loops baked into
the development process from the outset; and tailored yet
flexible metrics to track performance and measure
outcomes. Only if what is learned is measured can it be
communicated and adjusted accordingly.

Marks & Spencer provides an example of the value of rapid
experimentation to identify the winners and kill the losers. RB
serves as a reminder of how important it is to challenge
assumptions and use learnings to improve the offering. The
Pearson case illustrates just how ambitious a company can
be in adopting outcome-based measurement and metrics.

Embrace experimentation
It is important to avoid pilot fatigue. We’ve been
working very hard to get visibility of all the global
community programmes in the supply chain and
focusing on the ones that drive the biggest social
In 2014, Marks and Spencer (M&S) launched its Global
impact and greater supply chain resilience so we can
Community Programme (GCP) to make its supply chains more scale them and stop the others.
Companies can test a portfolio of new ideas in small pilots.
These can then be regularly reassessed, with some being
halted and others scaled up as outcomes become clear.

resilient to threats posed by climate change and an
increasingly competitive supply landscape, especially in
emerging markets. The GCP introduced a more robust and
standardized approach to evaluate the company’s growing
portfolio of programmes that create business and social
benefits in its supply chains. M&S uses results from the GCP
evaluations to scale interventions that make stronger
contributions to supply chain resilience and to stop those that
do not compare as well.

For example, M&S initiated multiple pilots in Kenya along with
its suppliers to reduce absenteeism among its employees.
The pilots were designed to address the causes of
absenteeism, including inadequate sanitation, livelihoods and
security in the informal settlements where the employees
lived. Two pilots were managed in parallel, a health training
using peer facilitators at work and a three-day leadership
course in both work and community settlements. Qualitative
and quantitative assessments performed before and after the
pilots evaluated the costs and benefits as well as the capability
of partners to manage the programmes at scale. The
leadership course showed better results: reduced
absenteeism, increased productivity and leadership abilities
and improvements in sanitation and security through stronger
involvement by communities. The supplier saw a better
business case and was willing to invest in scaling it up. On the
other hand, the health intervention showed weaker results and
required ongoing support from third parties, thus making it
too costly for the supplier to finance it on its own.
Such experimentation helps M&S to understand the root
causes of its supply chain risks better and to make smart
investments in the most sustainable and scalable solutions.
Lessons captured from earlier pilots, including the ones that
were less successful or were stopped, make the design of the
subsequent pilots faster and more effective.

Louise Nicholls
Head, Responsible Sourcing, Packaging & Plan A, Marks and Spencer

The team responsible for GCP includes senior business
representatives from across the company to ensure that the
chosen programmes align with the business strategy and
deliver tangible benefits to business and communities.
Collaboration with its suppliers from around the world adds
additional rigour – the team engages them through its supplier
website, supplier conferences and other meetings. These
platforms offer an opportunity for M&S to “sense check” pilot
ideas with suppliers, gather best practices and evaluate the
applicability of ideas across its global supply chains.

Create robust learning loops
Many valuable insights on how to make products and
business models more robust will surface as initiatives
progress. Companies will benefit from establishing robust
processes that ensure lessons are captured and transferred
back to the company so that products and services can be
improved.
In 2013, RB, formerly known as Reckitt Benckiser, launched
the Save a Child a Minute programme to eliminate diarrhoea, a
leading cause of malnutrition and child mortality in emerging
markets. The programme was based around two innovative
and low-priced hygiene products that support the prevention
of diarrhoea: a multipurpose soap bar that can be used by
families for cleaning and washing hands, and a toilet powder
to make the use of pit latrines more hygienic.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

23

We gained a number of insights that we can apply to
other parts of our business. Working with emerging
market consumers made us investigate ingredient
combinations that are far more cost effective and far
more beneficial to the environment.

Patty O’Hayer
Director, Global External Relations, RB

RB launched a number of pilots in communities in Pakistan,
Nigeria and India, three of the top six countries with the
highest incident rate of diarrhoea-driven child mortality. A
“learning mindset” and collaboration with a wide range of
stakeholders were critical to ensure effective product design
and meaningful social outcomes. The Government Affairs and
Policy team at RB worked closely with business units and
organized brainstorming workshops with NGOs, local
communities, suppliers and other social innovators to develop
new products. Hygienists – often women recruited from local
communities – played critical roles both during and after the
pilots, including signing up women from rural households,
educating them on hygienic practices, selling the RB products
and tracking incidents of diarrhoea on a weekly basis. A third
party evaluator carried out surveys before and after to
independently measure impacts.
RB gathered a number of insights on product preferences,
behaviour change and viable business models through this
process. Some lessons learned challenged its existing
assumptions, and the team therefore had to go back to the
drawing board a number of times. For instance, an initial
assumption was that affordability would be the most
important consideration for low-income consumers – but
fragrance turned out to be just as important to promote
penetration and use because it connected to consumers’
emotions and aspirations in their purchasing decision.
A second lesson revolved around how to incentivize behaviour
change – while soap was prevalent in most households, many
families were not using it regularly enough. Building on this
insight, RB revised the behaviour change programme to
include incentives such as recognition and awards for healthy
and clean households that promoted healthy competition and
hence an increase in soap usage.

Define and measure performance
To effectively monitor performance and refine results, a
company requires clearly defined business and social
outcomes. Whenever possible, the Key Performance
Indicators should be kept simple, while measuring both
business and social performance.
In 2013, Pearson, the world’s largest education company,
adopted “efficacy” as a key organizational focus towards
achieving its long-term mission and business success. The
company’s approach to efficacy brings greater emphasis on
measuring the impact of its products and services on learner
outcomes, and using those results to improve existing
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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

products and inform the development of new ones.
Embedding efficacy into existing processes – including, most
notably, the product development process – is critical. All
existing and new products are required to fulfil specific
efficacy and research criteria at each stage of the product life
cycle. For example, product teams are required to define and
prioritize intended learner outcomes; to measure whether the
use of the product delivers those learning outcomes; and to
integrate those lessons into their product roadmaps.
To fulfil this requirement, product teams are responsible for
identifying geographies where they will conduct efficacy
evaluations and research studies to measure their product’s
efficacy, and mobilizing key research partners who will be
involved in this evaluation. To help product team members
master these new skills, they are supported by a number of
designated efficacy and research leaders who aid in the
execution and assurance of outputs.
Senior leadership has formally endorsed efficacy as being
central to the company’s growth and impact plan, as it
continues to be refined by a central unit, the Office of the Chief
Education Adviser. To hold themselves accountable for
results, they have made several significant changes. The CEO
and the Executive Team’s performance evaluation now
includes an Efficacy Performance Indicator, and efficacy
reporting dashboards are provided to the Executive Team on
a monthly basis to enable them to make evidence-informed
decisions. Moreover, Pearson has committed to externally
reporting on the efficacy of some of its portfolio by 2018, in a
rigorous and audited fashion.
Early examples already show the value that efficacy has in
supporting business success. For instance, the efficacy
activities conducted with Pearson’s Wall Street English team
generated multiple opportunities worldwide to improve the
student learning experience, which led to meaningful
improvements in centre design and content delivery. Such
outcome-based, evidence-informed decision-making is
embraced by the senior leadership as an obligation to the
company’s customers and learners, while enabling company
growth.

Key questions


Which ideas are ready to be tested in the field through
pilots?



How should we define the success and failure of
pilots? What metrics should we use to assess the social
and commercial success of pilots?



Are we conscious of our key assumptions going into
pilots? How can we ensure feedback that stress-tests
our assumptions?



What structures and processes can help us to
maximize learning from pilots? Who should we
collaborate with to enhance learning and access to
insights?



How do we ensure a rigorous and evidence-based
approach to decide which pilots to take forward and
which to stop?



How do we embed social performance metrics into
our existing performance management systems?

Scale
In some ways, getting started is the easy part. Often where
things get stuck is in scaling successful prototypes or pilots
across business units or regional offices. Unless the value to
the firm is transformational in the longer term, however, such
efforts will always be viewed as little more than side projects
or “good-hearted efforts”. And transformational value is
ultimately about scale.
Most of the examples showcased in this report are relatively
new undertakings. The proliferation of corporate social
innovation in recent years is good news and is surely a trend
that will only accelerate in the decade following the launch of
the Sustainable Development Goals. However, it also means

Leverage technology for growth
Companies should assess their business models on a regular
basis and make adjustments as needed to set them up for
growth. This includes making continuous upgrades to
products, processes or internal structures as well as changing
external partners if necessary.
To contribute to society and continue growing its business,
Cisco’s leadership realized the world needed more people
who understand networking technology and can participate in
its future benefits. Launched in 1997, Cisco’s Networking
Academy programme teaches students IT and career-building
skills. In so doing, the company helps fill a pressing IT skills
gap across industries while building the capacity for its future
workforce; today, graduates of the programme are an
important source of talent for Cisco’s businesses as well as
for the company’s customers and partners.

We are helping to build the digital workforce of
tomorrow - a generation of global problem-solvers
who can innovate as technologists, think as
entrepreneurs and act as social change agents. This
in turn builds Cisco’s reputation as a trusted adviser
and accelerates demand for our products and
services.

most companies are still feeling their way when it comes to
achieving meaningful increases in their efforts and
interventions.
The examples in this section offer useful guidance. Cisco’s
experience demonstrates how to build for growth from the
start, while continually reassessing design elements along
the way. The Novartis case illustrates the value of explicitly
mandating someone to extract lessons from one market and
facilitate adoption by other markets. Finally, the ITC example
proves that pursuing social innovation is far more valuable
than a “one-off” effort and, if harnessed to its full potential,
can be a continuous source of business value.
Networking Academy was able to grow rapidly, sharing
content with a worldwide network of academies, instructors
and students.
Students and instructors worldwide are connected to the
same standardized materials online, enabling a consistent
experience of instruction, learning and skills building. Over 146
million online student assessments have been administered to
date, providing the company with the aggregate data required
to adapt and improve its curricula and instructor training to the
evolving needs of students and employers.
Over the years, Cisco has continually invested in the
Networking Academy learning platform, its global network of
20,000 instructors, and its Facebook community of 900,000
active users, to ensure students are prepared for industryrecognized certifications, entry level IT jobs and the digital
economy. The market relevance of the skills gained is
underscored by nearly a decade of student exit surveys from
2005 through 2014, during which time 1.3 million students, or
42% of the total, reported the Networking Academy training
directly contributed to their getting a new job. “Graduates
definitely stand out in our interview process,” said Jonathan
Walker, Manager of Cisco Services. “They have all the basics
in technical skills, but they also bring an enthusiasm for the
technology that sets them apart from other candidates.”

Create a centre of excellence to
support growth

Kathy Mulvany
Vice-President, Corporate Affairs, Cisco

Establishing a centre of excellence can help companies
identify and share best practices and centralize tasks that
support growth, such as establishing partnerships and
measuring results.

In the first year, Cisco launched 37 Networking Academies in
seven states across the United States. Almost 20 years later,
that number has grown to more than 9,500 academies in over
170 countries that benefit 1 million students a year. Because
all course materials are delivered online over the internet,

In 2007, the Swiss-based multinational pharmaceutical
company, Novartis, started its Healthy Family programme in
India. After three years, the programme, which provides health
education and affordable medicines to rural villagers, became
profitable and has since been rolled out in 17 Indian states
Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

25

and three other countries: Kenya, Vietnam and Indonesia.
Further markets are expected to follow.
The Healthy Family programme was initiated by the Executive
Committee and corporate strategy team, but today it is
managed by the Sandoz generics division, since most of the
products sold through the programme come from Sandoz.
The Group Corporate Responsibility (CR) team acts as a key
adviser to the Sandoz team and reporting lines reinforce this
structure. The head of the Healthy Family programme has a
dotted-line reporting relationship into the global head of CR, in
addition to the hard-line reporting relationship into Sandoz.

A central team like our corporate responsibility team
can support the business in achieving success. It
also helps from an internal and an external
communication perspective to spread the message
that this is the right thing to do.

Charlie Hough
Vice-President and Global Head, Strategy, Corporate Responsibility,
Novartis

The CR team provides multiple types of support to Sandoz.
The first is as a clearinghouse of best practices. The CR team
visits operations in the countries at least 3-4 times a year,
collects best practices to share lessons across divisions and
at headquarters, and facilitates regular exchanges between
the country programme directors. Second, the CR team has
specific expertise in impact measurement and thus conducts
the social impact assessment of every Healthy Family
programme. Third, it assesses new markets for expansion by
analysing their health systems and population densities, and
then helps to tailor the programme to local market conditions,
especially government relations. Finally, it acts as a sounding
board to test new ideas and facilitate partnerships between
the Sandoz team and external stakeholders, such as health
NGOs and investors in health infrastructure in the
programme’s operating geographies.
Novartis built on the success of the Healthy Family
programme to launch the “Novartis Access” initiative in 2015.
This initiative’s portfolio of 15 patented and off-patent
medicines focused on cardiovascular disease, respiratory
disease, breast cancer and diabetes will be made available in
30 low- and low-middle-income countries over the coming
years at an average factory price of $1 per month per
treatment.

Find new opportunities to create
business value
Social innovation need not be a one-off project or initiative
within a company. Supported by an entrepreneurial mindset, it
can be a constantly evolving process that generates new
sources of social value while supporting a company’s
business growth and market competitiveness.
Since 1999, the diversified conglomerate ITC in India has
continuously found ways to create business value through
social innovation. Initially ITC was looking to expand its
agricultural exports business, which was uncompetitive due to
downstream costs in the supply chain. After a thorough
evaluation of how to most effectively intervene in the supply
chain, ITC discovered that the mandi (physical auction
platforms) where farmers brought their produce and sold to
intermediaries were in need of disruption. In 2000, ITC
implemented e-Choupal, a technology-enabled portal that
discloses ITC’s purchase price right alongside mandi prices.
Farmers can check these prices at any of e-Choupal’s 6,500
rural internet kiosks, and those who choose to sell to ITC get
their produce quality checked by the kiosk manager and
deliver the produce directly to ITC’s nearest warehouse.
Higher price transparency and lower handling and
commission fees increase the farmers’ margins by over 25%
on average and, in the 15 years since its implementation, ITC
has directly reached 4 million farmers across 40,000 villages
and has grown its export sales by more than 600% to $600
million annually.
As exports grew, ITC started exploring new businesses that
build on e-Choupal’s strengths. In 2002, the company
launched its packaged foods business, which grew to $1
billion in revenues by 2015. Despite being a late entrant in the
market, its flagship brand of wheat flour, Aashirvaad, became
a market leader within 18 months of its launch. e-Choupal was
key to Aashirvaad’s success, as it allows ITC to aggregate
produce by crop variety and quality to create customized flour
mixtures – a valuable feature in the Indian market where
consumer preferences for taste vary significantly across
regions. Farmer incomes increased significantly as a result –
both because those who grew superior-quality wheat for the
first time were receiving a price premium, and because
e-Choupal sent direct market signals to farmers about which
varieties to start planting to get a better harvest price. In
addition, the e-Choupal ecosystem trained farmers and
installed large watershed projects, raising farm productivity
and incomes.

Social innovation can create enduring value to all the
stakeholders by continuously reconceiving the past
and reimagining the future, as ITC e-Choupal has
demonstrated. We call this a “forever start-up mind
set.”

Sivakumar Surampudi
Group Head, Agri and Information Technology Businesses, ITC Limited
26

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

In hindsight, ITC views the business opportunities that
emerged out of these initial efforts to re-engineer its value
chain as “e-Choupal Version 1.0”. Subsequently, the
company launched versions 2.0 and 3.0, each time adding
new revenue streams. Version 2.0 reconceptualized
e-Choupal as a platform that channels sales of agricultural
inputs and other services to farmers, while Version 3.0 offers
the e-Choupal ecosystem to external partners for a fee. ITC is
now developing Version 4.0, focused on adapting e-Choupal
to emerging concepts such as the “sharing economy”.
The continuous evolution of the e-Choupal platform is
supported by a project management methodology internally
branded as “Roll Out, Fix It, Scale Up”. Once the company
has 60-70% clarity on a new business model, it is rolled out
live, refined with input from multiple stakeholders and scaled
up.

Key questions


Is the business model ready to be replicated to new
contexts? What elements should we review and adapt
regularly to keep it relevant over time?

− Does technology play a role in our scaling process?


Which team at the headquarters is best placed to
coordinate the roll-out and to function as the centre of
excellence to share lessons and best practices? What
roles and tasks should be assigned to the centre of
excellence?



Can we find new sources of value in an already
successful social innovation initiative?

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

27

Partner
Nearly every corporate executive interviewed for this report
emphasized the importance of partnerships. Successful
partnerships are two-way streets: while a company has a lot
to offer a partner in terms of its geographic reach, human
capital, technology and distribution infrastructure, it has
much to gain as well. Ensuring inclusive practices, measuring
social impact, designing for low-income customer segments:
these aspects can fall outside the comfort zone of many
corporates, yet such expertise does exist in social
enterprises, civil society organizations and other actors who
have established trusted relationships with underserved
populations and have built business models that effectively
serve these markets.
Partnership, then, is about establishing strong and clearly
defined relationships with other entities that bring in
complementary assets, resources, skills and expertise.
Partnering with the right people decreases the likelihood of
“reinventing the wheel” and repeating mistakes others have

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

previously made. Partners should provide market intelligence
and specialized expertise that don’t exist inside the company
to maximize the chances of designing an appropriate and
scalable solution. The examples below illustrate how select
companies have leveraged partnerships across the four
steps of their social innovation journey.

“We serve over 50 million emerging consumers
today, made possible by partnerships with
microfinance institutions, post offices, retail stores,
and telecom and consumer goods companies.

Martin Hintz
Emerging Consumers Business, Allianz

Purpose

Examples

Step 1:
IDENTIFY

Collaborate with those who understand local social needs: Telenor and UNICEF collaborate globally to
jointly identify opportunities where innovative mobile solutions can help children in all markets where Telenor
operates. For example, UNICEF’s awareness of low birth registrations in Pakistan allowed Telenor to develop a
simple SMS-based solution to report birth counts.
Co-identify opportunities: Veolia set up incubators in France and Mexico to identify and scale start-ups
working on socially innovative ideas in in the water and waste management sectors. The ideas supported are
locally relevant and generate benefits for both Veolia and its long-term clients, such as local municipalities. For
instance, a start-up supported by Veolia in Mexico is working on a technological solution to recover wasted
water, an important contribution in a locality that is affected by water scarcity. Veolia draws on its expertise and
operational capabilities to offer coaching to the start-ups and co-designs business processes through an “open
innovation” approach.

Step 2:
DESIGN

Co-design locally relevant products and services: Merck developed a novel, reliable, easy to use method to
help with the clinical management of HIV patients in partnership with the University of Yaoundé in Cameroon. As
the company had not previously designed a product specifically for Africa, it decided to partner with the
University of Yaoundé as a local expert to jointly develop a product suitable for the African market. The company
took prototype devices to Cameroon over a two-year period, and tested the devices together with its partner
until the system could withstand extreme heat and humidity, was compatible with variable power systems, and
was impeccably easy to use – four product specifications that Merck’s product developers had not had to worry
about before.
Bring together complementary capabilities and resources: Osram’s off-grid lighting project in Kenya was
designed to rely on the respective strengths of the six partners involved. Osram developed the concept and
provided the products and technology; the Global Nature Fund contributed project management and training;
Siemens Stiftung and the European Union provided financial support; and Light for Life and Thames Electrical
led and supported the implementation on-site.
Identify synergies across value chains: Coles’ supermarket chain joined forces with the social enterprise
SecondBite to rescue fresh food that would otherwise have gone to waste and create healthy nutritious meals for
disadvantaged Australians. When SecondBite picks up this food from its 570 supermarkets, Coles saves on
transport costs and landfill disposal fees, while SecondBite benefits from a steady supply of food that it delivers
to an extensive network of community organizations to convert into meals.

Step 3:
LEARN

Leverage experts to measure outcomes: Novartis set up an affordable health programme, Novartis Access,
with the objective of providing 15 patented and generic medicines that treat four non-communicable diseases,
including diabetes and cancer, in low- and middle-income countries. To track improvements in health outcomes
over time, Novartis partnered with Boston University to establish and collect the impact metrics and insights
gathered in the pilot phase to guide future expansion. Pilot countries include Kenya, Ethiopia and Vietnam, with
plans to roll out Novartis Access to 30 countries in the coming years.
Use technology to get feedback: Anglo American forged a number of partnerships to measure its “social
license to operate” among mining communities in Australia and South Africa. Using a measurement model
developed by the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and an SMS-based
technology platform offered by Vodafone, the company surveys local stakeholders to understand levels of trust,
identify underlying causes and measure the impacts of its existing socio-economic development programmes.
Real-time inputs generated through the surveys inform the company’s future decisions and programmes.

Step 4:
SCALE

Adapt partnerships as you scale: From 1997 to 2015, Cisco grew from 37 networking academies in the United
States to 9,500 academies in over 170 countries. In addition to leveraging the power of the internet, Cisco relied
heavily on partnerships to grow rapidly. The company works with governments, educational institutions and
community-based organizations around the world that are responsible for finding classroom space and
teachers, attracting students and purchasing laboratory supplies for the classroom. As it grew, the number of its
partners across the world grew. Providing opportunities for academy partners and instructors to connect,
collaborate and learn from each other has been critical to the programme’s growth and sustainability, while
partnerships with non-traditional institutions such as prisons have also provided new opportunities for IT skills
development for underserved populations.
Partner with peers on shared interests: Many companies share the same interests or are exposed to similar
business risks. Nestlé and M&S, for example, both identified addressing the looming cocoa shortage as a
strategic priority. By becoming members of the industry coalition “World Cocoa Foundation,” both companies
can collaborate with others to foster a sustainable cocoa economy by improving production practices across the
industry.

Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

29

Conclusion

Corporate executives interviewed for this report span a
diverse set of experiences: while some of them enjoy the
strong support of the chief executive officer and board and
thus “have the wind at their back”, many others face an uphill
battle to secure resources and visibility. While the long-term
opportunities are enormous, social innovation opportunities
are not yet comparable to traditional business opportunities
in the short term, and most of the case studies profiled in this
report are still relatively nascent.
Yet without exception, interview subjects reported a range of
strong business benefits as a return on investment –
everything from increased employee retention and
productivity to more trusted relationships with governments
in key markets, to brand exposure in future customer
segments. In light of the preferences of the millennial
generation and the growing expectations among other
stakeholders for the private sector to become more deeply
involved in solving pressing social challenges, the business
case for embracing social innovation will only get stronger.
This report has focused on opportunities for companies to
engage in social innovation. While individual firms will be the
key lever in implementing initiatives, other stakeholders could
help social innovation to achieve real scale. Governments
can create the right incentives, including through fiscal and
public policy or by offering catalytic funding to help new
entrants take initial steps. Networks can bring together
companies and other social innovators, invest in their
knowledge and capacities and promote a common language
and collective action. Investors can play an important role by
taking a longer-term view and asking questions of their
boards.
This report also offers a menu of social innovation
opportunities for companies to consider based on their
specific industry dynamics, risks and corporate assets. It is
hoped that the range of examples offer stimulating food for
thought and the detailed case studies in the “how” section
provide practical guidance and suggestions on where to get
started and how to achieve success at scale.

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

Contributors

World Economic Forum Project Team
Manju George, Global Leadership Fellow, World Economic
Forum; Community Lead, Schwab Foundation for Social
Entrepreneurship, Switzerland
Katherine Milligan, Head, Schwab Foundation for Social
Entrepreneurship, Switzerland
Samuel Brown, Community Specialist, Schwab Foundation
for Social Entrepreneurship, Switzerland
Jennifer Blanke, Chief Economist, Member of the Executive
Committee, World Economic Forum

Project Advisers
Elena Blüggel, Project Manager (on secondment to the
World Economic Forum), Oliver Wyman, Germany

Nicholas O’Donohoe, Senior Adviser, Blended Finance, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation, United Kingdom
Alvaro Rodriguez Arregui, Co-Founder and Managing
Partner, Ignia Partners, Mexico
Mark Ruiz, President and Co-Founder, Hapinoy, Philippines
Sivakumar Surampudi, Group Head, Agri and Information
Technology Businesses, ITC Limited, India
Maarten van Herpen, Head, Philips Africa Innovation Hub,
Royal Philips, Netherlands
Andrew Wales, Director, Corporate Affairs, Europe,
SABMiller, UK
Perry Yeatman, Chief Executive Officer, Yeatman Global
Partners, USA

Simon Cooper, Partner, Financial Services and Head, Social
Impact Practice, Oliver Wyman, UK

Interviewees

Members of the World Economic Forum Global
Agenda Council on Social Innovation

Danny Bartlett, Head, Communications and Events,
Telefónica Open Future & Wayra, Telefónica, UK

Chris Burgess, Head, Corporate Responsibility, VimpelCom,
Netherlands

Ysmael Baysa, Chief Financial Officer, Jollibee, Philippines

Steve Davis, President and Chief Executive Officer, PATH,
USA
Luella Chavez D’Angelo, Vice Chancellor for Enterprise
Development, University of Colorado South Denver, USA
Ashifi Gogo, Chief Executive Officer, Sproxil, USA
Hinnerk Hansen, Global Managing Director, Impact Hub,
Austria
Nicolas Hazard, President, Le Comptoir de l’Innovation,
France
Julie T. Katzman, Executive Vice-President, Inter-American
Development Bank, Washington DC
Zia Khan, Vice-President, Initiatives and Strategy, Rockefeller
Foundation, USA
Katherine Klein, Vice-Dean, Wharton Social Impact Initiative,
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Johanna Mair, Professor of Organization, Strategy and
Leadership, Hertie School of Governance, Germany

Shama Amalean, Founder, Circle of Impact, USA

Kingsley Chan, Managing Director, Morgan Stanley Private
Equity Asia, Hong Kong
Majella Clarke, Manager, Customer Care, Coles, Australia
Gary Cohen, Executive Vice-President, Global Health and
Development, Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA
Suzanne DiBianca, President, Salesforce Foundation, USA
Diane Eshleman, Managing Director and Global Head,
Citizenship and Reputation, Barclays, United Kingdom;
Mark Thain, Director, Social Innovation, Barclays, USA
Jorge Fernandes, Vice-President, Innovation Program Office,
Royal DSM, Netherlands
Martin Hintz, Emerging Consumers Business, Allianz,
Germany
Charlie Hough, Vice-President and Global Head, Strategy,
Corporate Responsibility, Novartis, USA
Leslie Johnston, Executive Director, C&A Foundation
Switzerland; Jeffrey Hogue, Chief Sustainability Officer, C&A
Global, Belgium
Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

31

Kelwyn Looi, Manager, Office of the Chief Education Adviser,
Pearson, UK; Lindsay Eichler, Manager, Office of the Chief
Education Adviser, Pearson, UK
Eric Lesueur, Senior Vice-President and Chief Executive
Officer, 2EI, Veolia, France
Stefan Maard, Co-Founder and Originator, DIVA, Denmark
Gerhard Mair, Manager, Sustainability and Lead, Off-Grid
Project Africa; Christina Schmoee, Head, Corporate
Sustainability Office, Osram, Germany
Kathy Mulvany, Vice-President, Corporate Affairs, Cisco,
USA
Jim Mulry, Clinical Development Manager, Life science
business, Merck, USA; Maria Schaad, Senior Manager,
Corporate Responsibility, Merck, Germany
Paul Musser, Vice-President, International Development,
MasterCard, USA; Ryan Erenhouse, Vice-President, Thought
Leadership, MasterCard, USA
Louise Nicholls, Head, Responsible Sourcing, Packaging
and Plan A, Marks and Spencer, UK
Patty O’Hayer, Head of Communications & Government
Affairs, Reckitt Benckiser, UK
Mai Oldgard, Senior Vice-President and Head, Sustainability;
Ola Jo Tandre, Director and Head, Social Responsibility,
Telenor Group, Norway
Kleantha Pillay, Head, Market Development, Platinum, Anglo
American, South Africa; Laura Brooks, Head, Social
Performance, Anglo American, UK
Julia Rebholz, Head, Centrica Ignite, and Director,
Sustainability, Centrica, UK
Edgar Tung, Head, Corporate Communications, Esquel,
People’s Republic of China
Janet Voute, Vice-President and Global Head, Public Affairs,
Nestlé, Switzerland
Anka Wittenberg, Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer SAP,
Germany; Jose Velasco, Vice-President P&I, SAP, USA
Jorge Yzusqui, Chief Executive Officer, Innova Schools, Peru;
Jonathan Golergant Niego, Member of the Board of
Directors, Intercorp, Peru
Ulrik Zabel Brandt, Manager, Global Public Affairs, Novo
Nordisk, Denmark

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Social Innovation - A Guide to Achieving Corporate and Societal Value

SCHWAB FOUNDATION FOR
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

The Schwab Foundation for
Social Entrepreneurship
provides unparalleled platforms
at the regional and global level to
highlight and advance leading
models of sustainable social
innovation. It identifies a select
community of social
entrepreneurs and engages it in
shaping global, regional and
industry agendas that improve
the state of the world in close
collaboration with the other
stakeholders of the World
Economic Forum.

The World Economic Forum,
committed to improving the
state of the world, is the
International Organization for
Public-Private Cooperation.
The Forum engages the
foremost political, business and
other leaders of society to shape
global, regional and industry
agendas.

World Economic Forum
91–93 route de la Capite
CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva
Switzerland
Tel.: +41 (0) 22 869 1212
Fax: +41 (0) 22 786 2744
contact@weforum.org
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