Global Cumulative Installed Photovoltaic Capacity, Solar Home Systems and Minigrids

Global Cumulative Installed Photovoltaic Capacity, Solar Home Systems and Minigrids

Loading
Loading Social Plug-ins...
Language: English
Save to myLibrary Download PDF
Go to Page # Page of 33

Description: The Internship was carried out in the Reiner Lemoine Institut, located in Berlin, Germany. It is a relatively new institute dedicated to the research of the Renewable Energy Sources, their aim is to support the processes for long-term conversion of the energy supply to 100% renewable energy sources. Among the research carried out by them there is one about cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity.

They have been the first in the world who have compiled an estimation of the cumulative installed PV capacity by end of 2010 for all countries in the world and therefore they have a good estimate of the cumulative installations per country.

 
Author: Javier Moran (Senior) | Visits: 551 | Page Views: 980
Domain:  High Tech Category: Business 
Upload Date:
Link Back:
Short URL: https://www.wesrch.com/electronics/pdfEL1GP9000AFGH
Loading
Loading...



px *        px *

* Default width and height in pixels. Change it to your required dimensions.

 
Contents:
Global
 Cumulative
 Installed
 
Photovoltaic
 Capacity,
 Solar
 Home
 
Systems
 and
 Mini-­‐grids
 
 
Internship
 at
 the
 Reiner
 Lemoine
 Institut,
 Berlin,
 Germany.
 
September-­‐December
 2011
 
Javier
 Moran,
 S1057103.
 MSc.
 Sustainable
 Energy
 Technology.
 
 
 


 


 
Table
 of
 contents
 
INTRODUCTION
 

2
 

CUMULATIVE
 PV
 INSTALLED
 CAPACITY
 IN
 THE
 WORLD
 

3
 

PHOTOVOLTAIC
 SOLAR
 HOME
 SYSTEMS
 AND
 MINI-­‐GRIDS
 

6
 

INTRODUCTION
 TO
 SOLAR
 HOME
 SYSTEMS
 AND
 MINI-­‐GRIDS
 
SOLAR
 HOME
 SYSTEMS
 (SHS)
 
CHARACTERISTICS
 
ECONOMICS
 
EXPERIENCES
 WITH
 THE
 SYSTEMS
 
PROS
 AND
 CONS
 OF
 SHS
 
ISSUES
 RELATED
 TO
 THE
 PERFORMANCE
 OF
 THE
 SYSTEMS
 
PV
 MINI-­‐GRIDS
 
DEFINITION
 
CHARACTERISTICS
 
ECONOMICS
 
EXPERIENCES
 
PROS
 AND
 CONS
 OF
 MINI-­‐GRIDS
 
ISSUES
 RELATED
 TO
 THE
 PERFORMANCE
 
WHEN
 TO
 CHOOSE
 WHICH?
 CONCLUSION
 
REFERENCES
 

6
 
8
 
9
 
9
 
12
 
15
 
15
 
16
 
16
 
16
 
18
 
20
 
20
 
21
 
21
 
22
 

CONCLUSIONS
 OF
 THE
 INTERNSHIP
 

23
 

ANNEX
 1
 
ANNEX
 2
 
ANNEX
 3
 

 

24
 
27
 
29
 


 

 

 

 

1
 

Introduction

 
The
 Internship
 was
 carried
 out
 in
 the
 Reiner
 Lemoine
 Institut,
 located
 in
 Berlin,
 Germany.
 It
 
is
 a
 relatively
 new
 institute
 dedicated
 to
 the
 research
 of
 the
 Renewable
 Energy
 Sources,
 their
 
aim
  is
  to
  support
  the
  processes
  for
  long-­‐term
  conversion
  of
  the
  energy
  supply
  to
  100%
 
renewable
 energy
 sources.
 

 
Among
  the
  researches
  carried
  out
  by
  them
  there
  is
  one
  about
  cumulative
  installed
 
photovoltaic
  capacity.
  They
  have
  been
  the
  first
  in
  the
  world
  who
  have
  compiled
  an
 
estimation
  of
  the
  cumulative
  installed
  PV
  capacity
  by
  end
  of
  2010
  for
  all
  countries
  in
  the
 
world
 and
 therefore
 they
 have
 a
 good
 estimate
 of
 the
 cumulative
 installations
 per
 country,
 
nevertheless
  there
  are
  still
  some
  countries
  from
  which
  there
  is
  not
  enough
  data
  and
  they
 
would
 like
 to
 improve
 their
 data
 base,
 after
 gathering
 all
 these
 data
 the
 finalized
 numbers
 of
 
the
 research
 will
 then
 be
 published.
 
 

 
In
  this
  way
  the
  first
  objective
  of
  the
  internship
  was
  to
  obtain
  new
  data
  for
  some
  specific
 
countries
  with
  few
  or
  no
  source
  of
  data
  available,
  the
  second
  objective
  was
  to
  make
  a
 
comparison
 between
 photovoltaic
 solar
 home
 systems
 and
 mini-­‐grids.
 

 
In
 the
 first
 part
 of
 this
 report
 the
 description
 of
 the
 methodology
 and
 results
 of
 the
 database
 
are
 presented.
 After
 that
 the
 complete
 comparison
 between
 solar
 home
 systems
 and
 mini-­‐
grids
  is
  presented,
  this
  was
  a
  literature
  research
  with
  several
  sources
  (papers,
  conference
 
proceedings,
 presentations,
 posters)
 provided
 by
 the
 institute
 and
 also
 a
 web
 search
 for
 new
 
insights
  in
  literature.
  The
  characteristics
  of
  the
  solar
  home
  systems,
  economics,
  results
  of
 
some
  experiences
  and
  some
  issues
  found
  are
  presented
  in
  the
  report,
  for
  the
  case
  of
  the
 
mini-­‐grids
 a
 similar
 approach
 is
 done.
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

2
 

Cumulative PV installed capacity in the
world
The
  first
  task
  was
  to
  read
  documentation
  supplied
  by
  the
  institute
  about
  different
  topics
 
such
  as
  rural
  electrification,
  market
  potential
  of
  PV,
  installed
  capacity
  of
  PV,
  conferences
 
documents,
  etc.
 
  Some
  presentations
  in
  power
  point
  about
  off
  grid
  systems
  were
  also
 
provided.
 
 The
 objective
 was
 to
 obtain
 a
 better
 understanding
 of
 the
 topic.
 
The
  basic
  source
  of
  information
  of
  the
  database
  is
  the
  international
  customs
  database,
 
monitored
 by
 the
 ‘Market
 Analysis
 and
 Research’
 section
 of
 the
 International
 Trade
 Centre
 
(ITC),
  which
  is
  an
  agency
  of
  UN’s
  World
  Trade
  Organization.
  The
  database
  contains
  the
 
customs
 data
 of
 all
 countries
 worldwide
 since
 the
 year
 2001;
 the
 particular
 national
 customs
 
authorities
  give
  this
  data.
  The
  database
  provides
  the
  opportunity
  to
  evaluate
  the
  total
  value
 
of
 imported
 and
 exported
 products
 for
 each
 country
 per
 year.
 Additionally,
 a
 possibility
 of
 
evaluating
  bilateral
  trades
  for
  a
  specific
  product
  is
  given.
  Products
  are
  classified
  in
  several
 
specific
 product
 numbers,
 so-­‐called
 HS
 Codes,
 being
 obligated
 by
 more
 than
 200
 countries,
 
customs
 and
 economic
 unions,
 representing
 more
 than
 98%
 of
 world’s
 trade.
 HS
 Code
 group
 
854140
  represents
  ‘photosensitive
  semiconductors
  devices,
  photovoltaic
  cells
  and
  light
 
emitting
  diodes’.
  More
  specific
  descriptions
  with
  detailed
  determination
  in
  codes
  between
 
light
 emitting
 diodes
 and
 PV
 are
 available
 for
 approximately
 95%
 of
 the
 data.
 Otherwise
 an
 
experienced
  ratio
  of
  80%
  PV
  and
  20%
  light
  emitting
  diodes
  was
  used.
  Data
  have
  been
 
assigned
 for
 193
 countries
 in
 a
 period
 from
 the
 year
 2001
 until
 2010.
 Basis
 of
 the
 calculation
 
of
  PV
  capacities
  per
  country
  is
  the
  following
  assumption:
  ‘import
  A’
  –
  ‘exports
  A’
  +
 
‘production
  A’
  =
  ‘market
  A’.
  The
  production
  volumes
  refer
  to
  the
  publications
  of
  the
 
magazine
  ‘Photon’
  on
  the
  production
  output
  of
  the
  years
  2001
  until
  2010.
  Regarding
  this,
 
attention
  is
  paid
  to
  the
  fact
  that
  approximately
  25%
  of
  annual
  productions
  are
  installed
  in
 
the
  following
  year.
  Since
  data
  are
  including
  monetary
  value
  of
  the
  products,
  a
  conversion
  to
 
PV
  capacities
  is
  necessary.
  For
  this
  purpose
  a
  reliable
  estimation
  of
  PV
  prices
  per
  Wp
  for
 
every
 country
 is
 needed.
 These
 price
 data
 refer
 to
 a
 worldwide
 annual
 average
 PV
 price
 per
 
Wp.
 (Taken
 from
 C.
 Werner,
 A.
 Gerlach,
 P.
 Adelmann,
 Ch.
 Breyer,
 Global
 cumulative
 installed
 
photovoltaic
 capacity
 and
 respective
 international
 trade
 flows,
 26th
 European
 Photovoltaic
 
Solar
 Energy
 Conference,
 5–9
 September
 2011,
 Hamburg,
 Germany)
 
 
Using
 the
 data
 obtained
 with
 the
 methodology
 above
 mentioned
 together
 with
 some
 other
 
numbers
  published
  by
  other
  sources
  (EPIA,
  German
  GTZ,
  Photon
  magazine)
  and
  also
  the
 
opinions
 of
 experts
 the
 preliminary
 estimation
 of
 the
 installed
 PV
 capacity
 was
 done.
 

 
The
 first
 task
 was
 to
 identify
 the
 target
 countries
 for
 a
 deepest
 research
 of
 data;
 the
 
countries
 were
 categorized
 according
 with
 the
 following
 criteria:
 
• By
 the
 number
 of
 sources
 available
 at
 the
 moment
 
 
• The
 size
 of
 the
 installed
 capacity
 from
 the
 highest
 to
 the
 lowest.
 
• The
 deviation
 between
 the
 different
 sources
 in
 the
 cases
 that
 there
 were
 two
 or
 
more.
 
 Big
 differences
 between
 the
 numbers
 provided
 by
 the
 sources
 might
 be
 a
 
problem
 

 
After
 this
 process
 it
 was
 defined
 to
 focus
 in
 33
 countries
 from
 all
 regions
 in
 the
 world
 mainly
 
from
 Africa
 and
 Asia.
 
 

 

3
 


 
Nigeria
 
Angola
 
Rep.
 Congo
 
Madagascar
 
Djibouti
 
Zambia
 
Mauritius
 
Botswana
 
Uganda
 
Cuba
 
Honduras
 
Dominican
 Republic
 
Nicaragua
 
Russia
 
Belarus
 
Estonia
 
Ireland
 

AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
AFR
 
CA
 
CA
 
CA
 
CA
 
CIS
 
CIS
 
EUR
 
EUR
 

Lithuania
 
Romania
 
Guyana
 
Colombia
 
Iran
 
Kuwait
 
Qatar
 
Israel
 
Morocco
 
New
 Zealand
 
New
 Caledonia
 
Pakistan
 
Singapore
 
DPR
 Korea
 
Afghanistan
 
Papua
 New
 Guinea
 

 

EUR
 
EUR
 
LA
 
LA
 
MENA
 
MENA
 
MENA
 
MENA
 
MENA
 
OCE
 
OCE
 
Rest-­‐ASIA
 
Rest-­‐ASIA
 
Rest-­‐ASIA
 
Rest-­‐ASIA
 
Rest-­‐ASIA
 

 

Table 1 Countries of focus for the data search.


 

The
 way
 of
 obtaining
 data
 was
 mainly
 a
 web
 search
 for
 information
 with
 the
 help
 of
 search
 
engines
 such
 as
 Google,
 Yahoo
 and
 Exalead.
 In
 the
 case
 of
 scientific
 papers
 the
 search
 was
 
done
 with
 Google
 scholar
 and
 Scopus.
 Not
 all
 the
 papers
 were
 available
 with
 my
 account
 of
 
the
 University
 of
 Twente.
 
 

 
There
 was
 not
 much
 information
 regarding
 the
 PV
 installations
 for
 most
 of
 the
 countries
 in
 
the
  list,
  among
  the
  websites
  consulted
  there
  are
  websites
  of
  the
  ministry
  of
  energy
  for
  such
 
countries,
 companies
 that
 supply
 electricity,
 organizations
 or
 universities
 doing
 research
 or
 
projects
 in
 solar
 energy,
 solar
 energy
 associations
 of
 the
 countries,
 development
 banks,
 rural
 
electrification
  agencies,
  some
  examples
  are
  the
  World
  Bank,
  Asian
  Development
  Bank,
 
USAID,
 REN21,
 World
 Energy
 Council,
 British
 Petroleum.
 Most
 of
 the
 sites
 mentioned
 above
 
had
  data
  only
  for
  the
  biggest
  markets
  and
  leaders
  in
  the
  field.
  The
  magazine
  Photon
  was
 
checked
 due
 to
 they
 provided
 with
 new
 data
 for
 new
 markets
 in
 every
 edition.
 

 
After
 finding
 almost
 no
 data
 available
 in
 the
 web,
 different
 organizations
 around
 the
 world
 
were
  contacted
  by
  means
  of
  an
  e-­‐mail
  asking
  for
  information
  about
  the
  topic,
  the
 
preliminary
 paper
 was
 attached
 to
 the
 e-­‐mail
 and
 they
 were
 asked
 to
 comment
 whether
 our
 
data
 was
 close
 to
 reality
 or
 not.
 Reminder
 e-­‐mail
 was
 sent
 in
 case
 of
 no
 reply.
 In
 the
 case
 of
 a
 
phone
  number
  in
  the
  webpage
  the
  organizations
  were
  reached
  by
  phone,
  sometimes
  the
 
phone
 numbers
 were
 wrong.
 

 
After
  contacting
  the
  organizations
  only
  few
  numbers
  were
  obtained.
  This
  new
  data
  was
 
added
 to
 the
 database
 in
 order
 to
 improve
 the
 estimations.
 

 

 

 

 

 

4
 


 
New
 Data
 obtained
 from
 e-­‐mails
 to
 the
 organizations
 and
 Photon
 magazine:
 

 
Benin
 0.5
 MWp
 
Estonia
 
 
Photon
 Magazine11/2011:
 0.02MWp
 
Sustainable
 Energy
 Division
 of
 Energy
 Department
 of
 Estonia:
 0
 MW
 (detailed
 information
 in
 
the
 mail
 received)
 
Photovoltaic
 Barometer-­‐Eurobserv’er,
 April
 2011:
 0.08
 MWp
 
Romania
 
 
Photon
 Magazine11/2011:
 1.3
 MWp
 
ISES
 Romania:
 1.5
 MW
 (detailed
 information
 in
 the
 mail
 received)
 
Photovoltaic
 Barometer-­‐Eurobserv’er,
 April
 2011:
 1.94
 MWp
 
Israel
 
Solar
 Research
 Unit
 of
 The
 Weizmann
 Inst.
 of
 Science:
 52
 MWp
 (detailed
 information
 in
 the
 
mail
 received)
 
Statistical
 review
 of
 world
 energy
 full
 report
 2011,
 British
 Petroleum:
 61
 MWp
 
Colombia
 
 
Photon
 magazine
 09/2011:
 9
 MWp
 
El
 Salvador
 
Photon
 Magazine
 08/2011:
 0.3
 MWp
 
Uruguay
 
Photon
 Magazine
 05/2011-­‐