Nanomodified Polymer Powders and Composites

Nanomodified Polymer Powders and Composites

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Description: Polymer modification is a key global problem for composite materials developments. Given that, many polymers are immiscible and incompatible by nature, polymer modification Is a process of the materials structures changing which can solve this problem. As a result, it is possible to develop new composite materials with unique combination of physical and chemical features.

 
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Contents:
Graft Polymer

Nanomodified Polymer
Powders & Composites

The world`s first industrial scale project based on
the proprietary GRAFT-POLYMER technology

All rights reserved by Graft Polymer

www.graftpolymer.io
Telegram https://t.me/GraftPolymer

Graft Polymer

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1) Polymer modification is a key global problem for composite materials developments.
Given that, many polymers are immiscible and incompatible by nature, polymer modification
Is a process of the materials structures changing which can solve this problem. As a result, it is possible to
develop new composite materials with unique combination of physical and chemical features.
Unfortunately, for the time being market challenges exist, namely:
 Until now, all market players use either old dirty chemical solution methods, gamma rays or dangerous
halogen gases for polymer surface modification.
 Until now many modern plasma polymer modification techniques are at lab or pilot scale only.
 Until now many modification results are very unstable, reversible in time.
2) Graft Polymer technological solution enables not only to overcome all above-mentioned drawbacks of
existing technologies but also to propose the first in the world commercialized unique industrial process
based on SYNERGISM of the proprietary innovative methods.
 We use technological and environmentally safe hot ozone/reactive gases plasma mixtures and solid phase
grafting process.
 Our gas/plasma based technologies are easy scalable, well probed, effective and safe.
 Our modification results are stable and permanent, volumetric (3D) and versatile and strict quality
regulated.
3) Our advantages are obvious the technology “Graft-Polymer” uses economically effective and
environmentally safe nanotechnological methods in industrial scale:
 Hot ozonolysis Gas-chemical Modification.
 Solid Phase Grafting SAM (self-assembled monolayer) and SIP (surface initiated polymerization).
 Composite Hybridization.
4) Practical feasibility of the Graft Polymer project provoke no doubts and is based on:
 Very experienced project team (with excellent engineering and scientific background).
 Solid Intellectual Property (estimated fair value 187 mln USD by “Swiss Appraisal”).
 Safe, Logistically Developed and Predictable Project Location (EU, Slovenia).
 Strong Business model with well-elaborated Financial and Marketing plans.
 Credibility from Investments Funds (provided Seed Fundraising - 1.5 mln Euro).
5) To make additional capitalization for the Project we decided to use ITO (Initial Token Offering) by
emitting token GRAFT with the modern blockchain technology platform OpenLedger ApS.

A total of 20.000.000 (Twenty millions) GRAFT tokens have been issued US dollars or their equivalent in
OPEN.USD are accepted for payment.
The price for 1 Graft token in Round "A" is 1 USD/OPEN.USD
The price for 1 Graft token in Round "B" is equal to 2 USD/OPEN.USD
The price for 1 Graft token in Round "B" is equal to 3 USD/OPEN.USD
OpenLedger ApS blockchain platform:
1. Provides its users with the opportunity to buy GRAFT (tokens), own and trade them anonymously,
and acquire dividends dependent on the results of their work.
2. Secures the transparency of all processes related to ITO GRAFT.
For the purpose of the project, we will create smart contracts and issue tokens, which will facilitate
dividend payment, without disclosing the identity of the token owner.
page 2

Graft Polymer

Contents

1.

Introduction

4

2.

Solution of the Problem

6

3.

Advantages of Graft Polymer unique technologies

7

4.

Alternative ways to solve the tasks of modification

17

5.

Technological Key Success Factors

19

6.

Practical feasibility of the project

20

7.

Market

27

8.

Products & Applications

32

9.

Project Financial Indicators

35

10.

Key Milestones

36

11.

Graft Polymer Holding Structure

37

12.

ITO details / Offer to Investors

38

13.

Strategy

40

14.

Definitions and abbreviations

41

page 3

Graft Polymer

1. Introduction
1.1. Global problem and Market challenges
The development of industry in qualitative and quantitative terms, characteristic for the
beginning of the XXI century, caused the need to expand the range and variety of properties of
polymer materials. It is satisfied both by synthesis of new polymers and by modification of the
properties of known polymers.

Market challenges in the field of composite materials and technologies
 Weight reduction of the product.
 Lowering the cost of the product.
 Synergy of the best properties of composite components.
 Technological and safety of the composite production process.
 Ecological purity of the production process and the composite material itself.
 Industrial scalability of modification technologies.
The need to modify the properties of polymers is due to the fact that the range of practically
available large-tonnage polymers is relatively limited, while the breadth of the use of polymers
requires a fine adjustment of their physics-chemical properties. The modification is carried out in
various ways: by plasticization, by the creation of polymer-polymer mixtures), copolymerization
of available monomers to obtain block copolymers, grafting of other macromolecular chains onto
the main polymer chain, and production of graft copolymers, synthesis of polymer
macromolecules from known industrial monomers of various structure and microstructure, etc.

1.2. The Essence of Polymer Modification
Many polymers are immiscible and incompatible by nature. Polymer modification is a process
of the materials structures changing which can solve this problem. As a result it is possible to
develop new composite materials with unique combination of physical and chemical features.







Impact resistance
Fire retardant
Frost resistance
Abrasive resistance
Chemical resistance
Barrier property and etc.

Polymer Modification is a key for
composite materials` developments
 Synergy of properties
 Fine-tuning (setting) properties
 Designing of a material for a specific application
page 4

Graft Polymer

1.3. The most challenging materials for modification
 Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) > Properties:
 the highest impact resistance of all known materials
 high abrasion resistance
 high chemical resistance
 low coefficient of friction (self-lubrication)
 Fluoropolymers (PTFE, PVDF) > Properties:
 the highest chemical resistance of all known materials
 high temperature resistance
 low coefficient of friction (self-lubrication)
 Fillers (TiC, SiC, Mo2S, etc) > Properties:
 high abrasion resistance (TiC)
 high heat resistance, temperature resistance (SiC)
 low coefficient of friction (Mo2S-self-lubrication)
 Composite Hybrids ( polymer-metal) > Properties:
 Unique Synergism of polymer and metal properties

1.4. Existing industrial scale technologies for modification
of challenging materials
At present, the following technologies are used industrially for the modification of such materials:
1. Standard chemical methods (using strong acids and alkalis)
2. Radiation modification methods (gamma radiolysis, electron beam,)
3. Silane dressing (for fillers)

1.5. The unsolved technological problems of existing commercial
modification technologies*







Material non-proccesed in melt on standard polymer equipment
Inertness of polymers (low values of surface energy)
The need to use non-environmental chemical reagents (strong acids, alkalis, silanes)
Instability (decrease in level) of modification in time
Multistage and complexity of technological processes
High production hazard (explosion hazard, hazardous waste and emissions)

* Reference to Graft Polymer Presentation (slide 7)
page 5

Graft Polymer

2. Solution of the Problem
2.1. Graft Polymer technological concept
Graft Polymer solution enable not only to overcome all above mentioned drawbacks of
existing technologies but to propose the first in the world commercialized unique industrial
process based on SYNERGISM of the proprietary innovative methods.

Hot ozonolysis
Gas-chemical
Modification
SYNERGISM

Solid Phase
Grafting

Composite
Hybridization

The technical result is achieved due to an innovative industrial technological scheme and
parameters of the process of gas-chemical modification and synthesis of graft copolymers. At
the same time, it was possible to improve the safety and environmental friendliness of the
process, significantly expand the range of monomers and polymers used to manufacture graft
copolymers, increase the grafting of the monomer and compatibilize the polymer components.

2.2. What the project brings to the Market?

Problem solving
Until now all market players use either old
dirty chemical solution methods , gamma
rays or dangerous halogen gases for polymer
surface modification.

We use technological and environmentally
safe hot ozone/reactive gases plasma
mixtures and solid phase grafting process.

Until now many modern plasma polymer
modification techniques are at lab or pilot
scale only.

Our gas/plasma based technologies are easy
scalable, well probed, effective and safe.

Until now many modification results are very
unstable, reversible in time.

Our modification results are stable and
permanent , volumetric (3D) and versatile
and strict quality regulated.
page 6

Graft Polymer

3. Advantages of Graft Polymer unique technologies
3.1. Gas-chemical modification (surface treatment)
One of the most promising and modern methods is the modification of polymers by reactive
gases, which allows to change the properties of the surfaces of these materials within wide limits
and significantly expand the areas of their use.
The term "reactive gases" refers to the combination of a chemically active and natural mixture
of air gases that somehow take part in chemical reactions during the modification process. Known
oxidizing gases are used: chlorine, fluorine, ozone.
A whole range of gases, as already present in atmospheric air (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen,
carbon oxides), and specially introduced into the reactive gas medium (nitrogen, ammonia,
gaseous precursors) belongs to the natural mixture.
For example, gaseous precursors based on amines are obtained when monomers are introduced
into the reactor at an appropriate temperature: trimethylamine, propylamine, piperidine,
ethanolamine, etc.
From the point of ecological purity and economic efficiency, it seems most expedient to use
ozone as an oxidizing gas.

3.1.1. The chemical mechanism of modification
Modification of polymers by reactive gases can be represented as a controlled process of
oxidation of the polymer surface layer. This reaction proceeds through a free radical mechanism.
Unstable compounds "ozonides" interacting with the molecular lattice of the polymer form free
radicals and hydroperoxides.
Free radicals in turn interacting with the introduced gases in the gas mixture form functional
polar groups on the surface of the polymer.
The set and chemical nature of the groups is determined by the spectrum of gases employed in the
reaction.
If oxygen is used as an oxidizing gas-ozone and a natural air mixture of gases, oxygencontaining polar groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, alcoholic, peroxy, ethers, esters, etc.)
form on the surface of the polymer.

О3+ gases / reagents

page 7

Graft Polymer

In the case of introducing special gases into the reaction medium, for example: ammonia or
its mixtures with hydrogen or gas amine precursors, nitrogen-containing groups (amino,
amido, imido, imino, etc.) form on the surface.

Chemically active functional groups formed on the surface of the polymer make it
possible to carry out practically any addition reaction (co-polymerization) while peroxide
and nitro radicals cross-linking with the formation of covalent and hydrogen bonds.

3.1.2. Technological algorithm (parameters) of modification
Optimal parameters of gas chemical modification of polymer powders (as functions of time,
temperature, surface area) for various types of materials are determined.
(The exact parameters of the gas-chemical modification, the technological maps, the recipes
for the production of various graft-copolymers refer to the know-how of the Graft-Polymer.)

3.1.3. Properties of modified materials
Functional chemically active groups on the surface lead to the occurrence of high surface
energy. This in turn means that the modified polymer powders are perfectly wetted and
dispersed in polar environments, such as acrylates, urethanes, epoxides, polysulphides and
even in water.
The effectiveness of surface modification (in particular, wettability and solubility
(dispersion) illustrated on the photo:

page 8

Graft Polymer

Excellent dispersibility is necessary to obtain good physical properties of the composite
material. If polymer particles are poorly wetted and do not disperse, this leads to the formation of
a clear interface between media, (not "stitched" dry particles, "cavities", "funnels") and, as a
consequence, poor physical properties of the material lead to premature destruction of the part
(product). Surface modification is necessary to obtain chemically stable bonds (adhesion)
between the particles of the introduced polymeric powder (s) and the polymer resin matrix.
Strong adhesion of the material to the polymer matrix or to various surfaces (metal, concrete,
wood, etc.) is the result of a chemical bond with the functional groups of the modified.

The electron-scanned microphotographs clearly show the behavior of the composite material
(polyurethane with polyethylene powder) under the rupture test with unmodified PE particles and with
modified ones. In an unmodified material, the adhesion to the matrix is so weak that the PE particles
practically "pour" out of the matrix when the sample breaks. In contrast, the modified PE particles are so
strongly chemically bonded that they even tear in half before the matrix itself and do not "pour" out of the
polyurethane.

3.1.4. Temperature ozonolysis
Leads to creation of metastable (excited) oxigen atoms, in the process of these
atoms decomposition reveals energy - 102 500 cal, as chemoluminescence (in blue
spectra) corresponded to wave length of 2780А

Micro scans (AFM) illustrated the process of functional groups
appearance during gas chemical modification

page 9

Graft Polymer

3.1.4.Technological scheme of gas-chemical modification

Gas Preparation Cabinet
О3+ gases / reagents

Atmospheric air

О2
Polymer Powder

Exhaust

Polymer raw
powder/granule
Gas-chemical modification
module “Graft-Polymer”

Modified
polymer powder

Exhaust Gas
filtration

Paints, coating
Engineering
plastic additives

Powder Pulverizing Module

Thus, the gas-chemical modification leads to the created functional chemically active groups
on the surface of the material, which in turn can promote the grafting reactions (chemical
grafting of polymer chains to the surface of the material) and the formation of nanosized
monolayers, which is a key element in the technology of nanostructure synthesis.
By this method based on the chemical interaction of functional groups on the surface of the
material with pairs of externally supplied reactants can be formed film (nanolayer) reaction
products.
The molecular layering method has much in common with the synthesis of Self-Assembled
Monolayers (SAM) or the so-called "grafting to" method, and Surface Initiative
Polymerization (SIP) - the "grafting from" method.

page 10

Graft Polymer
3.2. Solid Phase Synthesis of graft-copolymers


Synthesis is pursued in a special reactor-complex “Graft-Polymer” at the
temperatures below polymers melting points.



Possibility of producing various polymers with very high grafting rate
(i.e. graft-copolymers concentrates).



Strict control of material quality (for instance: rheological characteristics).



Low content of non-reacted monomers after grafting.



Possibility of functionalization of non-extrudable or non-melting polymers.



Wide spectrum of grafting monomers.



Possibility of using various additives at any stages of the process.

page 11

Graft Polymer

3.2.1. Grafting technology stages:
1) Gas-chemical polymer surface modification for creation of chemically active
functional groups (the so called «grafted sites»).
2) Immobilization of initiator for monomer polymerization on the
surface of preliminary modified polymer with the method of «grafting to» or
SAM (self-assembled monolayer).

3) Surface initiated polymerization (SIP - surface initiated polymerization)
with the method of «grafting from» with is a method of control radical
polymerization ATRP, RAFT, NMP.

A feature of the nanotechnology of gas-chemical modification and grafting (chemical
grafting of polymer chains to the surface of a material) is the widespread use of selfassembly processes, self-assembly and surface-initiated synthesis that can lead to the
formation of the necessary ordered structures (nanostructures) that exhibit the required
practically important (functional) properties.
What is especially important in this process is that the functional chemically active
groups are already "immobilized" (anchored) on the surface in the upper polymer layer.
This is an undeniable advantage, especially when carrying out the graft polymerization
reactions.

page 12

Graft Polymer

Immobilization of polymerization initiator
with the method of SAM («grafting to»)
Using method of self-assembling ( SAM-self-assembling monolayer) or so called «grafting to» , it is
possible to deposit from gas phase on the preliminary modified polymer surface various nano-structures:
 Nano-sized thin films of various chemical nature : hydrophilic, hydrophobic or metal complexes.
 Initiators of polymerization of various types, for example: cationic, anionic, stable free
radicals-nitroxides.

In our process , for initiating of living radical polymerization, for grafting efficiency, we deposit
with SAM method nitro-radicals. ( FTIR Spectra of NO groups within 1340-1370 см-1. )

page 13

Graft Polymer

Surface initiated polymerization SIP («grafting from»)
Thus, the immobilization of polymerization initiators of various types on the surface of a
pre-nanomodified material is necessary and effectively contributes to grafting reactions
(chemical grafting of polymer chains to the surface of the material) using the Surface Initiated
Polymerization (SIP) method "grafting from".
The surface-initiated polymerization method has undeniable advantages in comparison with
the standard graft polymerization process based on chemical or physical sorption methods.
This opens up wide opportunities for successful implementation of various strictly controlled
mechanisms of grafting polymerization (grafting): ATRP, RAFT, NMP.

Why do we use SIP? - The main advantages of the process:

 High density grafting (polymeric "brush").
 Controlled surface energy and surface chemistry.
 A wide choice of methods of initiation: free radical, ATRP, RAFT, cationic, anionic, with the
help of stable free radicals (nitroxides), etc.
 The ability to synthesize innovative materials (graft and block copolymers, hybrids,
nanotechnology).

page 14

Graft Polymer

3.2.2.Technological scheme of Solid Phase Grafting

Полимерный
порошок

Reactor “Graft-Polymer”

For further production of polymer alloys

Graft-copolymers

In recent years, a new concept of controlled radical processes is actively developing in the
chemistry of high molecular compounds with the use of stable radicals to control the growth of the
polymer chain.
This direction, called pseudo-living radical polymerization (or more accurately - radical
polymerization in the regime of "live" chains), significantly expands the possibilities of radical
polymerization.
In particular, it opens up broad prospects for the synthesis of polymers with a relatively narrow
molecular weight distribution, as well as the implementation of macromolecular design under
conditions of radical initiation as a whole.
The undoubted advantage of this approach is the fact that the polymer chain grows
fragmentarily, thereby controlling the lifetime of the growing radical.
This causes specific features of both the polymerization kinetics in general and the properties of
the polymer formed, in particular:
 The number of polymer chains and active sites remains constant at any depth of conversion;
 There is no gel effect, so undesirable when carrying out polymer synthesis in industrial
conditions;
 Beginning with small degrees of transformation, there is a continuous increase in the molecular
weight (MM) of the polymer, the number average molecular weight (Mn) increasing linearly with
conversion;
 A narrow polydispersity of the polymer is observed at any degree of transformation;
 The isolated polymerization products themselves are macroinitiators;
 The introduction of a new portion of the monomer leads to further polymerization and growth of
the MM polymer;
 With sequential addition of two or more monomers, block copolymers are formed.
page 15

Graft Polymer
3.3. Hybridization of polymer composite powders
This technology based on the method of mechano-chemical synthesis.






The preliminary surface treated polymer particles is dispersed in a high speed air flow and
processed by a mechanical impact force.
Development of new materials or high improvement of conventional materials can be
achieved by surface modification of particles or making powder composites.
Fixing or filming process by fine particles on the core particles is processed in a very short
time, e.g. 3 minutes.
This technology is applied in various application fields with infinite combinations of powder
materials.

Applications:
• Cast polyurethanes
• Epoxy
• Polyethers
• Acrylic
• Polysulphides
• Rubbers
• Pains
• Coatings

Technological scheme polymer hybrid powder synthesis

M odified
polymer powders

+

Chemical
reagents

Gas-chemical modification
module “Graft-Polymer”

Hybrid polymer powder

M echanochemical reactor

page 16

Graft Polymer

4. Alternative ways to solve the tasks of modification
We consider it necessary to explain right away that any modification of the surface of the
polymer, and even more so, synthesis of graft and block copolymers, is undoubtedly related to
nanotechnology, since structural changes in the surface chemistry and morphology of materials,
as a rule at nano and micro levels, take place in these processes. It is quite another matter when we
consider the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the processes and results of
modification, the environmental factors of processes, the cost of technological stages and raw
materials.
"Wet" chemical methods for surface treatment of polymers.
The first options for preparing polymer surfaces were wet chemical methods. The simplest, wet
chemical method is to wipe the surface with a solvent, although this method is usually ineffective,
since weak boundary layers are often quickly recovered after treatment. Wiping with a solvent
does not increase the surface energy and does not change the morphology of the surface.
The application of primers is a method of surface preparation, often used to increase the surface
energy of polymers. When using primers, a coating is applied to the surface, which usually has a
higher surface energy and which is compatible with the polymer to which it is applied. Chemical
and morphological modifications of polymeric surfaces can also be obtained by treatment with
aggressive chemicals.

Plasma treatment
Plasma is an ionized gas with practically the same density of negative and positive charges.
The reactions that occur in the plasma are basically free radicals and occur as a result of the
interaction of materials or ions and electrons in the plasma with the surface.
Plasma treatment is very rarely used on an industrial scale, but the periodic literature is
oversaturated with examples related to studies of the effect of plasma treatment. Functionally,
plasma treatment differs from corona treatment and flame treatment in that plasma plants operate
at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.
This difference is also the main reason for explaining why plasma is not widely used to
improve adhesion. The cost of the processing at a pressure below atmospheric is very high.
In addition, the operation of the plant in conditions of incomplete vacuum naturally requires a
periodicity of the process, which also reduces the efficiency of this operation in terms of its
cost.
The process of synthesis of graft and block copolymers with standard industrial extrusion
methods is also strikingly different from the Graft-Polymer technology.
The technology "Graft-Polymer" uses nanotechnological methods: SAM and SIP, and the process
takes place in the reactor. Technological waste associated with the features of the extrusion process
is completely absent.
The ecological character of the process, the stability of the functional groups, the density of
grafting, the level of grafting using Graft-Polymer technology exceeds all known industrial
methods.
The development of this direction in the world will allow the production of new generation
composite materials for the most important industries that have properties that meet a variety of
modern requirements.
page 17

Graft Polymer

4.1. Comparative table of commercial efficiency of standard processes of chemical
modification and modification by reactive gases of a surface powder of a High
Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)
Chemical modification ("wet")

Surface modification by
technology Graft-Polymer

 Oxidation of the polymer surface is carried out by  Oxidation of the surface of the polymer takes
etching the switch chromic acid. The acid solution
place with reactive gases in the Graft-Polymer
is prepared surface as a mixture using potassium
reactor, namely the ozone-air mixture. Synthesis
dichromate (K2Cr2O7), sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
of the gas-oxidizer occurs from atmospheric air.
and distilled water in a ratio of 7: 150: 12 (mass).
The productivity of the ozone generator is 250~ 3 $ / kg;
500g O3 / h, with an ozone concentration of 9%,
the temperature of the gas mixture is from 60 to
 Next, the UHMWPE powder is placed in the
150 * C. ~ 0,5 $ / kg;
solution at room temperature for 30 minutes;
 In the reaction medium, special ammonium Then the chemically treated powder is washed
based gases and / or gaseous precursors (based
with hydrochloric acid, distilled water and
on amines, silanes, acrylates) are not more than
acetone (step by step sequentially). ~ 1,5 $ / kg;
0.5% w ~ 0.15 $ / kg;
 Next, the powder is dried in a vacuum oven for 12  The process time is 30 minutes. At the end of the
hours and stored in a gas inert atmosphere of
process, the material is cooled to room
nitrogen. ~ 2 $ / kg;
temperature, and the residual gas reagents are
removed from the reactor by a vacuum pump.
 Since there are traces of chlorine in the
modification, it is recommended additionally also  Ozone is easily decomposed in the gas destructor
washing with hydrochloric acid. ~ 0,5 $ / kg
by the catalytic powder at the reactor outlet.
The mechanism of modification consists in the
acceptor reaction of the hydrogen atom (H) from the
polymer chain and its recombination with oxygencontaining polar groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl) from
the chemical reagent.
Main stages:
Preparation of the etching mixture;
Chemical treatment of powder in solution; Drying
with evacuation.
Additional washing.
The process time is 12-16 hours. Disadvantages:
The presence of aggressive chemical reagents,
drains, long and dirty technological processes of
evaporation and drying, washing. Weak control of
the modification level.

The mechanism of modification consists in
applying the process of temperature ozonolysis of
the polymer surface in the environment of inert and
special gases / gaseous precursors with the
formation of functional groups of different nature
(depending on the gases involved in the reaction).
Main stages:
The powder is treated with a gas mixture in the
reactor for 30 minutes. (Including cooling and
vacuuming).
Advantages:
Strict control of the level of modification,
uniformity and volumetric modification,
environmental friendliness and purity of processes
(lack of chemical agents), speed and productivity of
the process.

Cost : ~6,5 $/кg

Сost : ~ 0,65$/кg
page 18

Graft Polymer

5. Technological Key Success Factors

page 19

Graft Polymer

6. Practical feasibility of the project





Our products are superior by technical specification and cost effectiveness.
We have utilized our own IP’s to create the best world polymer modification technologies.
Enables the ability of polymer to combine with immiscible and incompatible polymers and fillers.
Technological flexibility of the production process enables us create a wide spectrum of material with
unique features and produce advanced polymers with individualized & patented characteristics.

Intellectual
Property

Projects
Experience
Project Team

Project
Location

 Innovative polymer technologies
based on internally developed
technologies by Graft Polymer
R&D team.
 Products quality exceed key
characteristics of the market
leaders of the
worlds best
analogs.
 Planned internal R&D center for
the
development
and
commercialization
of
new
products.

Strategy

Strong
Business
Model

 Increasing market demand for new
polymer technologies.
 Offtake agreements in place and a
strong global pipeline in demand.

page 20

 Low cost of production
when
compared to the worlds best analogs.
 Project location and operations
within the EU with advanced
infrastructure
and
strategic
geographical location.
 Government incentives to encourage
foreign investment
 The possibility of industrial scaling
of novel processes and technologies,
in addition to expanding product
lines.

Graft Polymer

6.1. Key Leaders of the Project
The most important advantage of the proposed project is availability
of a professional team, experienced in commercialization of similar
productions plants and accumulated knowledge (know-how) about
specific nuances and parameters of the technological processes.

Victor Bolduev
Managing Director, CTO

Sergey Mashukov
COO

• Over 20 years of business experience.
• Founder
of “Graft-Polymer” an
engineering company which is engaged in
the
research
and
industrial
commercialization of its own innovative
technologies on polymer modification with
the purpose of creating composite materials
with unique combinations of features.
Author of 5 patents in the field of polymer
modification.
• Successfully commercialized
several
industrial projects and developed and
introduced to the market many polymer
products

• Over 18 years of experience in the
industry sector, noted analysis and
operations expert.
• Owner and Co-founder of “Siberian
Bushing” - currently employs 200
workers.
• Sergey has designed and implemented
polyurethanes products via his company.
• Vast experience in organic growth
development , relying on internal
resources.

page 21

Graft Polymer

6.1. Key Leaders of the Project

The most important advantage of the proposed project is availability
of a professional team, experienced in commercialization of similar
productions plants and accumulated knowledge (know-how) about
specific nuances and parameters of the technological processes.

he
nd



nter
y



ented

th
l

Alexander Zelenetski
Project Science Advisor

Strategy

Anatoly Chalikh
Project Science Advisor



• Doctor of Chemistry of Science,
Professor , more than 40 years
experience in polymer science
• Head of Laboratory of Solid Phase
Synthesis in Institute of Synthetic
Polymer Materials RAS,
• Author of many patents for polymer
modification and scientific publications
in the field of solid phase chemical
reactions and grafting.

Doctor of Chemistry of Science,
Professor , more than 35 years
experience in polymer science
Head of Laboratory of Structure &
Morphology researches Institute of
Physics-Chemistry and
Electrochemistry RAS,
Laureate of two State Rewards in
Chemistry Science and author of
many patents and publications in
polymer science.

page 22

Graft Polymer

6.2. Intellectual Property / Level of Technologies Commercialization

The basis of this project is a
patent protected technological
methods and industrial proprietary
equipment’s (gas-chemical
modification module) elaborated
by “Graft-Polymer”.
Gas-chemical modification
technology was first
commercialized in industrial
projects Thailand (2002) and
Russia (2008 and 2012)

E X P E R T O P I N I O N № 1 7 -2 0 4 4 8
T h e V a llu a t iio n O b jj e ct : u s e r iig h t f o r a k n o w -h o w :
T h e V a u a t o n O b e ct : u s e r g h t f o r a k n o w -h o w :
S o lliid P h a s e G r a f t iin g T e ch n o llo g y ;
S o d P h a s e G r a f t n g T e ch n o o g y ;
T e ch n o llo g y o f M e llt -P r o c e s s iib lle U llt r a H iig h
T e ch n o o g y o f M e t -P r o c e s s b e U t r a H g h
M o lle cu lla r W e iig h t P E p r o d u ct iio n ;
M o e cu a r W e g h t P E p r o d u ct o n ;
S u r f a ce -m o d iif iie d p o lly m e r p a r t iic lle s ( h o t o z o n o lly s iis
S u r f a ce -m o d f e d p o y m e r p a r t c e s ( h o t o z o n o y s s
( p lla s m a ) m o d iif iica t iio n ) ;
( p a s m a ) m o d f ca t o n ) ;
S e llf -R e iin f o r c e d P o lly m e r s F llo w – II n d u c e d
S e f -R e n f o r c e d P o y m e r s F o w – n d u c e d
Cr y s t a lllliiz a t iio n ;
Cr y s t a z a t o n ;
P o lly m e r A llllo y s ( c o m p a t iib iilliis e d ) ;
P o y m e r A o y s ( co m p a t b s e d ) ;
T h e r m o r e v e r s iib lle Cr o s s -lliin k iin g .
T h e r m o r e v e r s b e Cr o s s - n k n g .
T h e Clliie n t : V iict o r B o lld u e v , II n d iiv iid u a ll E n t r e p r e n e u r
T h e C e n t : V ct o r B o d u e v , n d v d u a E n t r e p r e n e u r

The last evaluation (2017) of
the key project person`s IP
made by SWISS Appraisal is
189 million USD

T h e E x p e r t : S w iis s A p p r a iis a ll R u s s iia L L C
T h e Ex p e r t : Sw ss A p p r a sa R u ss a L L C
T h e V a llu a t iio n D a t e : 0 1 . 0 3 . 2 0 1 7
T h e V a u a t o n D a t e : 0 1 .0 3 .2 0 1 7
T h e E x p e r t O p iin iio n D a t e : 1 4 . 0 3 . 2 0 1 7
T h e E x p e r t O p n o n D a t e : 1 4 .0 3 .2 0 1 7
R u s s iia , M o s c o w
R u s s a , M o s co w

1

Strategy

page 23

Graft Polymer

6.2. Intellectual Property / Level of Technologies Commercialization
Example of the technology commercialization

Project: «OK Rubber (Thai) Co.Ltd» ( 2002)
Production of thermoplastic elastomers
TPV “ASTREL” on the basis of surface
modified rubber powders and plastics.

Project: «Metaclay-ROSNANO» (2012)
Bryansk region, Russia.
Production of functionalized polymers and
anicorrosion polymer coatings for gas-oil
pipe. Developments of project key products
(Меtаlen 1018, Меtаlen-APE, PE-21.)

page 24

Strategy

Graft Polymer

6.3. Graft Polymer Business Concept
Project
Manufacturing NANOMODIFIED POLYMER POWDERS & COMPOSITES based on
economically effective and environmentally safe proprietary technologies to satisfy the
multi-field market applications

Mission & Vision
…is to be the pioneer in the field of polymer modification technologies, being dynamic and

innovative company to provide superior quality products for market demand at affordable
prices.

Essence of the Project:
Organization of production of functionalized nanomodified polymer & composite
powders for satisfying of high demand markets of thermoplastics, thermosets, rubbers,
coatings and paints.
Production plant consists of 4 technological lines to produce the following polymer
products:

 1 line - Grafted UHMWPE powders (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene)
Technology - Gas-chemical modification + Solid Phase Grafting
 1 line - Grafted Fluoropolymer (PTFE, PVDF) powders
Technology - Gas-chemical modification + Solid Phase Grafting
 1 line - Grafted Fillers (TiC, SiC, fibres etc)
Technology - Gas-chemical modification + Solid Phase Grafting

 1 line - Composite powders (polymer powders + fillers TiC, SiC, etc)
Technology - Gas-chemical modification + Solid Phase Grafting +
Hybridization
 R&D Laboratory center

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Graft Polymer

6.3.1 Business Model Canvas

There is no such thing as “Impossible” in any aspect of this word!
Graft Polymer’s Motto 

INNOVATION, DEDICATION & COMPETENCE

Being a dynamic and innovative company enables us to satisfy any demand with the provision of
superior quality products at competitive prices. That provides a positive impact across the whole
polymer industry.

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Graft Polymer

7. Market
7.1. Polymer Nanocomposite Market Analysis, Market Size, Application Analysis,
Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies And Forecasts, 2015 to 2022
Polymer nanocomposite market is expected to witness substantial growth owing to growth in enduse applications including aerospace engineering, automotive industry, construction, renewable power
generation, military and food. Automotive industry is expected to be a key driver for polymer
nanocomposites due to rising demand of light weight automotive parts owing to its high strength and
light weight properties resulting in superior performance and reduced carbon emissions. In addition,
stringent government regulations related to automotive emission standards is expected to augment the
polymer nanocomposite market over the forecast period. Furthermore, growing awareness regarding
automotive safety among consumers is expected to propel market growth. Global acceptance of
polymer nanocomposites in semiconductor manufacturing owing to its superior characteristics
including compactness, light weight structure, and electrical conductivity is expected to propel the
market over next seven years.
Overall world market consumption of modified polymer powders
– 1.3 billion tons a year Annual growth rate (AAGR) - 8% a year
Coating
12%

4%

34%

14%

Paints
Cast PU

11%

Epoxy
25%
Adhesives
Other

Polymer nanocomposite contains nanoparticles or nanofillers dispersed in polymer matrix. Polymer
nanocomposite market is segmented based on product type including carbon nanotube, nanofiber, nanoclay
and inorganic particle reinforced composites. Furthermore, polymer nanocomposites market is segmented
based on end-use including packaging, automotive, electronics & semiconductor, food & beverage,
aerospace & defense, energy, coatings and other industrial applications. Automotive market accounts for
largest market share among polymer nanocomposites owing to its widespread use in manufacturing of
automotive parts such as power train, suspension and braking systems, exhaust systems and catalytic
converters, lubrication, tires and body parts. Enhanced mechanical, thermal barrier, electrical chemical
properties of polymer nanocomposites including increased tensile strength, heat deflection temperature
provides an edge over conventional nanocomposites. Food & beverage contributed a significant share to
polymer nanocomposite application due to increasing use in food packaging material as well as
conservation of flavor in drinks and beverages. Defense application includes use of polymer
nanocomposites in the manufacturing of electrically conductive fabrics, sensors, electromagnetic shielding,
microwave absorption, ballistic protection, fire retardation and corrosion protection. Aerospace industry
also contributed a significant share to polymer nanocomposite application owing to increased use in
manufacturing of laminates, sandwich structures, anti-lightening and anti-radar protectors.
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Graft Polymer

7. Market
7.1. Polymer Nanocomposite Market Analysis, Market Size, Application Analysis,
Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies And Forecasts, 2015 to 2022
Bio medical application of polymer nanocomposites includes biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic
bio separation, nanomedicine. In addition, various chemical compositions of natural and synthetic
biodegradable polymers with organic or inorganic fillers are used in applications including tissue
engineering and bone reconstruction. Renewable power generation application of polymer nanocomposites
includes use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) tiles for power generation and CNT conductors for reducing
transmission losses. However, high processing cost required for polymer nanocomposites production is
expected to pose a major challenge for market growth over the forecast period. In addition, water resistance
of polymer nanocomposite in wet environmental condition, degradation rates under various conditions,
change in mechanical properties during storage, potential for microbial growth and release of harmful
compounds into packaged food products is expected to pose a major challenge for market growth over the
forecast period.

Asia pacific accounted for largest market share for poly nanocomposite application owing to widespread use
in various industries including packaging, automotive, electronics & semiconductor, aerospace, defense and
coatings. Presence of emerging economies including India and China is helping the polymer nanocomposites
market to grow in the region. Growing electrical and electronics market in South East Asia particularly in South
Korea, Japan and China is expected to boost the poly nanocomposite market over the forecast period. European
market accounted for second largest market share owing to increasing demand in automotive industries to replace
the other conventional composites that reduces the weight of vehicles and increases efficiency. In addition,
packaging industry is expected to boost the market in the region owing to its superior material and preservation
characteristics. Middle East polymer nanocomposites market is expected to witness a significant growth owing to
increasing use in packaging industry including food & beverages packaging over the forecast period. Africa is
expected to grow at a significant rate owing to rising use of poly nanocomposites in coatings industry particularly
in Nigeria and South Africa. Furthermore, growing infrastructure in the region is expected to propel market
growth.
Major players in the poly nanocomposite market include 3D System, Foster Corporation, Industrial Nanotech,
Hybrid Plastics Inc., Inframat Corporation, InMat Inc., Nanocor Incorporated, Crown Plastics Co., Inc., AVEKA,
Inc., Nanotech Industrial, SiM Composites, NanoMate Fastener, Nanolab, Inc., Noble Polymers LLC, Grand
page 28
Rapids and Natural Nano, Inc.

Graft Polymer

7. Market
7.2. Characteristics of the global market of similar products / services

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Graft Polymer

7. Market
7.3 Competitors study

page 30

Graft Polymer

7. Market
7.4. Monetization Strategy

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Graft Polymer

8. Products & Applications
8.1. Grafted polymer powders (UHMWPE, PTFE, PVDF)
GRAFTALEN ™ brand materials, which are surface-modified functional polymer powders and composites,
which are used as modifying additives in thermosets, thermoplastics, rubbers, paints, coatings, composite
materials, etc.
Modified powders GRAFTALEN ™ change the properties of final materials and products:
• Increase abrasion resistance (Mar, Scrub, Rub, Scratch)
• Increase impact resistance
• Improve the surface profile
• Coefficient of friction (increase or decrease)
• Modulus of rigidity (increase or decrease)
• Reduce the level of transmission of solvents (water)
• Improve sliding (paints and coatings)
• Increase flexibility
• Improve compatibilization
• Increase adhesion to metals, glass, concrete, etc.

8.2. Composite Powders ( Metal-Polymer Hybrids)
Surface modification of polymer particles creates chemically active functional groups on the surface of
the polymer, which in turn can be used to attach metal powders to the surface of the polymer. An example of
such a hybrid composite material is GRAFTALEN ™ TiC, which is a composite powder of ultra-molecular
polyethylene UHMW PE and titanium carbide TiC.•

Figure 1 illustrates such a composite (GRAFTALEN ™ TiC) titanium carbide particles TiC

Particle powder GRAFTALEN™ -UH
Composite GRAFTALEN ™ TiC powder can be used to significantly increase the wear resistance of
thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Depending on the size of the modified particles, such a material may
contain up to 85% (by weight) of titanium carbide TiC. It should be noted that TiC particles have a rounded
morphology, which ensures minimal abrasiveness for the opposite surface. This distinguishes TiC from other
metal carbides used as abrasives. This property of GRAFTALEN ™ TiC makes it an ideal composite additive for
applications in dynamic parts of machinery and machines (bushings, rings, gaskets, pistons, etc.).
TiC is chemically bonded to the polymer by means of a surface modification and a bifunctional, reactive,
specially selected compatibilizer.
TiC is only second to diamond in terms of abrasion resistance. It has a relatively low density, so introducing it
into the polymer does not significantly increase the viscosity of the polymer system. Can be introduced into
almost all types of polymers from polar polyurethanes to nonpolar fluoropolymers. As a result of the use of
composite powders with TiC, the abrasion resistance of the polymer is sharply increased.

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Graft Polymer

8. Products & Applications
8.3. Compatibilizers (Adhesion agents)
The compatibilizers are the additives used to increase the adhesion between two incompatible polymers.
Their action is based on a decrease in the interfacial tension at the polymer / polymer interface during the
mixing process. Adhesive agents are used to increase the adhesion between the polymer matrix and the filler,
to ensure the wettability and dispersity of the fillers (fiberglass, minerals, flame retardants, and others). The
compatibilizers and adhesion agents are reactive or non-reactive. Three categories of compatibilizers can be
distinguished: - block copolymers; - non-reactive polar copolymers; - reactive functional copolymers

8.4. Comparison with analogs
The average estimated selling price of products (for example, modified powders of ultramolecular polyethylene UHMWPE) GRAFTALEN ™ - UH is 1.5-2 times lower - $ 15 per
kilogram project output compared to an average price of $ 30 per kilogram of imported
INHANCE-UH products Fluoro-Seal Inc. (USA), and the modified fluoropolymer powder
PTFE GRAFTALEN ™ - PTFE is almost 30 times!
Cheaper than imported analog Microdispers ™ from Polycsience Inc. (USA) at the cost of
the product of the project is $35 per kilogram, and the imported powder is $ 1000 per
kilogram, which will allow replacing foreign analogues successfully.
The commercialization of the project results will have a significant impact on the growth
of the competitiveness of consumer products - first of all, companies producing injection
molding polyurethanes, epoxides, polyesters, structural adhesives, paints and coatings,
composite materials for the cable and pipe industry, packaging.
In particular, as a result of the use of modified materials in the production of these
industries, the performance characteristics of the final products will be significantly
improved.
The introduction of 5% to 30% of the nanomodified functional or hybrid composite
powder is an important new means of modifying the chemical and physical properties of the
final product.
page 33

Graft Polymer

8. Products & Applications
8.4. Analysis of target market segments

page 34

Graft Polymer

9. Project Financial Indicators
Simple payback period
Net Present Value (NPV)
Discounted Payback Period (PBP)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Profitability Index (PI)

2,04
31.100.730
2,17
101,3%
3,61

FINANCIAL RATIOS
Return on assets
Return on equity
Return on fixed assets
Gross margin
Current ratio
Net working capital
Solvency ratio
Gearing ratio

Basic sales forecast

page 35

2017
27,2%
29,2%
41,3%
14,3%
5,16
9.065.367
0,93
14,13

Graft Polymer

10. Key Milestones

10.1 Project Road Map

page 36

Graft Polymer

11. Graft Polymer Holding Structure

Explanations:
1. Graft Polymer UK is a parent company that has attracted seed investment of 1.500.000 USD from
venture funds.
2. The founders (Board Directors) of the company include the majority shareholders of Graft Polymer
Inc.
3. Includes:
 Graft Polymer SI (Slovenia) - operating factory and R&D Lab center.
 Graft Polymer Asia Pacific - sales office in Hong Kong.
 Graft Polymer RU (Russia) - sales office - Graft Polymer Inc. (Co-investor in general projects and
holder of some intellectual property).
4. Graft Polymer holding have a solid IP (know-how valuation amounts to 189.564.000 USD. (by
“SWISS Appraisal”).
5. Cash and customer equipment will be transferred to the operation factory - Graft Polymer EU
(Slovenia).
Graft Polymer Inc:
 registered in the British Virgin Islands (BVI) legally owns and receives income from its
production sites;
 store data on shareholders in a distributed protected registry on the basis of the OpenLedger ApS
DEX platform.
page 37

Graft Polymer

12. ITO details / Offer to Investors
Terms and Definitions
Token ticker

GRAFT

Company

«Graft Polymer Inc.»

Token definition

Token Graft is a digital way of registering shares in the company's
electronic blockcnain-register, on the Openledger ApS platform.*
One GRAFT token is equal to one share of the company.

Token quantity

A total of 20.000.000 (Twenty millions) GRAFT tokens have been issued,
additional emission is excluded.

Exchange Currency

US dollars or their equivalent in OPEN.USD* are accepted for payment.

Token Price

100% of Graft tokens are distributed by the shareholders meeting, as:
1)

The price for 1 Graft token in Round "A" is 1 USD / OPEN.USD

2)

The price for 1 Graft token in Round "B" is equal to 2* USD /
OPEN.USD.

3)

The price for 1 Graft token in Round “C" is equal to 3* USD /
OPEN.USD.

Token right of
ownership

The responsibility for the receipt and storage of private keys from the
account blockage lies with the company's shareholder.

Responsibility of
shareholder

The storage of Graft token on the personal account of the company's
shareholder implies the passage of KYC *.

Responsibility of the
company

The company operates under the laws of the British Virgin Islands (BVI).

* - Notes

KYC - Know your customer.
OPEN.USD is a "user-issued assets" (UIA) secured by one-to-one
collateral in US dollars, issued by the OpenLedger ApS.
OpenLedger ApS - blockchain registry platform
https://bitshares.openledger.info
Approximate value of the token on round “B“ and “C”.

page 38

Graft Polymer

13. Strategy

page 40

Graft Polymer

14. Definitions and abbreviations
Grafting is a method of polymer modification.
"Grafting to" is a method of graphing based on physical or chemical sorption methods.
"Grafting from" - surface-initiated polymerization.
Surface energy is the energy concentrated at the phase boundary, which is excessive in comparison
with the energy in the volume.
Сompatibilizer is a substance used to increase the adhesion between two incompatible polymers.
Their action is based on a decrease in the interfacial tension at the polymer / polymer interface
during the mixing process.
A graft copolymer is a graft copolymer, a particular type of branched polymer, in which the side
chain is structurally different from the main chain.
Block-copolymer -polymer consisting of blocks of various monomers or polymers.
SAM - (self assembling monolayer) - self-assembling monolayer (grafting method).
SIP - (surface initiated polymerization) –surface -initiated polymerization (grafting method).
The initiator is a chemical substance capable of reacting with a monomer to initiate the growth of a
molecular chain.
ATRP - (atom transfer radical polymerization) -graphing method, based on free-radical
polymerization with atomic transfer.
RAFT - (reversible addition fragmentation termination) - a method of graphing, based on reversible
chain transfer by the principle of addition-fragmentation.
NMP - (nitroxide mediated polymerization) - graphing method, based on polymerization with
nitroxide radicals.
PTFE - polytetrafluoroethylene
PVDF - polyvinylidene fluoride
TiC - titanium carbide
SiC - cremnium carbide
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field of fundamental and applied science and technology
that deals with a combination of theoretical justification, practical methods of research, analysis and
synthesis, as well as methods for the production and application of products with a given atomic
structure through controlled manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.
Nanocomposite is a multicomponent material consisting of a plastic polymer
Bases (matrix) and nanofillers (particle size up to 100 nm).
Mechanochemistry - chemical transformations of substances under mechanical influences: in
processes.
Mechanical processing (in mills, disintegrators, rollers, extruders, etc.), Plastic deformation,
friction, impact compression, ultrasound, etc.
Polymerization - the process of formation of a high-molecular substance (polymer) by multiple
attachment of molecules of a low-molecular substance (monomer, oligomer) to active centers in a
growing polymer molecule.
Dispersing - fine grinding of solids and liquids in the environment, leading to the formation of
disperse systems; Powders, suspensions, emulsions.
Extrusion - the method and process of obtaining products from polymeric materials (rubber
compounds, plastics, starch-containing and protein-containing mixtures) by forcing the melt
material through the forming hole in the extruder.
Extruder - machine for softening (plasticizing) materials and shaping them by punching through a
profiling tool (so-called extrusion head), cross-section which corresponds to the configuration of the
product.
page 41

Graft Polymer

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