INDUSTRY 4.0 The New Industrial Revolution

INDUSTRY 4.0 The New Industrial Revolution

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Description: The Big 3: 40% is the share of worldwide manufacturing (a total of EUR 6,577 bn) held by emerging countries. They have doubled their share in the last two decades. As part of traditional industrial economies, Western Europe has lost over 10% of manufacturing value added, from 36% to 25%; 1,350 bn To assume a leading role in Industry 4.0, Europe will have to invest EUR 90 bn a year over the next 15 years a total of EUR 1,350 bn; 20% Traditional industrial policy will not provide enough support for value creation in Europe.

To reach the goal of 20% industrial value added (from 15% today), we propose a new agenda for shaping a vision of Industry 4.0 in Europe.

 
Author: Roland Berger (Fellow) | Visits: 765 | Page Views: 948
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Contents:
BEYOND MAINSTREAM

FRONTRUNNERS

POTENTIALISTS

TRADITIONALISTS

HESITATORS

INDUSTRY 4.0
The new industrial revolution
How Europe will succeed

MARCH 2014

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

THE BIG 3
1

40%

is the share of worldwide manufacturing (a total of EUR 6,577 bn) held by
emerging countries. They have doubled their share in the last two decades.
As part of traditional industrial economies, Western Europe has lost over
10% of manufacturing value added, from 36% to 25%
p. 4

2

1,350 bn

To assume a leading role in Industry 4.0, Europe will have to invest
EUR 90 bn a year over the next 15 years – a total of EUR 1,350 bn
p. 15

3

20%

Traditional industrial policy will not provide enough support for value
creation in Europe. To reach the goal of 20% industrial value added
(from 15% today), we propose a new agenda for shaping a vision of
Industry 4.0 in Europe
p. 19
RB
Industry 4.0
Readiness
Index
p. 16

2

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

Europe's industry has lost ground in
the past two decades. Now the cards
are being reshuffled. There is a chance
that Europe will increase its dwindling
industry share from 15% up to 20% of
the region's value added.
Industry plays a central role in the economy of the European Union, accounting for 15% of value added
(compared to 12% in the US).1) It serves as a key driver
of research, innovation, productivity, job creation and
exports. Industry generates 80% of the EU's innovations and 75% of its exports. Including its effect on
services, industry could be considered the social and
economic engine of Europe. Yet European industry has
lost many manufacturing jobs over the last decade, and
is facing tougher competition from emerging markets.
The ghost of "deindustrialization" currently haunting
European governments and the European Commission
is galvanizing them into action.
European industry is fundamentally diverse: While
the German and Eastern European industrial sector is
gaining market share and seeing productivity grow rapidly, other EU states are on the road to deindustrialization. French and British industry in particular have seen
their market share shrink drastically since 2000, followed
by southern European industrial sectors such as Spain's.
Is this industrial fracture in Europe inevitable?
Couldn't traditional industrialized countries on the
road to deindustrialization focus on high value-added

service activities, leaving Germany and Eastern Europe
to be the industrial powerhouse of Europe? We don't
think so. There is a compelling case for Europe to strengthen and develop its industry in all of its countries.

1. The world's two industrial fractures
The global industrial footprint has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. In the early 1990s, the
world's manufacturing value added stood at EUR
3,451 billion in 1991. Over 60% of that could be attributed to six major industrial nations – the US, Japan,
Germany, Italy, the UK and France. At that time,
emerging countries only produced 21% of the manufacturing value added. A
This gap is even more striking when looking at the
evolution of industrial jobs in different countries. The
number of manufacturing jobs in China and Brazil increased by 39% and 23% respectively, whereas in
Germany this figure decreased by 8%, in France by
20% and in the UK by 29%.
All of the traditional industrialized countries experienced a decline in manufacturing employment due to

1) T his publication refers to EU 28 and uses the European Commission's definition of "industry" as "manufacturing", excluding mining, construction

and energy.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

3

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

three main factors. Firstly, the major productivity gains
achieved in mature economies over the last few decades. Secondly, the loss of market share to newly
emerging competitors. And thirdly, outsourcing of
activities such as logistics, facility management, maintenance and different types of professional services to
the service industry. This outsourcing often resulted in
the relocation of the activity. With this outsourcing
trend now coming to a close, increased productivity
and international competition are the main drivers of
the decrease in industrial employment. But while some
traditional industrialized countries have adapted to
this new situation, others have not.
THE FIRST FRACTURE appeared with the rise of
emerging countries. This incursion was led by BRIC
(Brazil, Russia, India and China), but European countries such as Poland, Romania and the Czech Republic
soon followed. Between 1990 and 2011, manufacturing value added saw robust growth, up to around
EUR 6,577 billion. Over that period, the traditional industrialized countries saw their average manufacturing
value added increase by 17%, while in the emerging
industrial countries it increased by 179%. The emerging countries now represent 40% of the total manufacturing value added worldwide.
A SECOND INDUSTRIAL FRACTURE recently
appeared among the traditional industrialized countries. A few have retained high industrial value added
despite the significant decline in jobs: Germany, Italy
and Switzerland have kept their industrialization rate
(manufacturing value added as a percentage of total
value added) around 20% over the past 10 years. Others, however, saw both industrial employment and value
added fall. This is the case for France, whose rate of industrialization has decreased from 15% in 2001 to 11%
in 2011. Spain and the UK followed the same trend. B
These two fractures cut right across Europe, making the continent's industry extremely diverse. And regarding the future strategy for industrial value creation,
Europe seems to be drifting apart as opposed to moving in one direction.
Traditional industrialized countries such as Germany, Sweden and Austria capture important value added
4

A

FIRST FRACTURE: THE RISE OF THE EMERGING
ECONOMIES AS INDUSTRY PLAYERS
Manufacturing value added1)

1991
EUR 3,451 bn
Africa 2% Other developed
countries 2%
South America 7%
Asia excl.
Japan 8%
Russia
and Eastern
Europe 4%

Western
Europe 36%

Share
of emerging
economies:
21%

North
America
24%
Japan 18%

2011
EUR 6,577 bn
Africa 1% Other developed
countries 1%
South America 6%
Western
Europe 25%
Asia excl.
Japan 31%

Share
of emerging
economies:
40%
Japan 11%

Russia
and Eastern
Europe 2%

North America 22%

1)  NCTAD data in constant 2005 USD,
U
converted into EUR (2005 exchange rate)
Traditional industrial economies

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

Emerging economies

1

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

in key sectors. But Europe also has several industrialized countries on its eastern side, such as Poland, Romania and the Czech Republic, where industry's role in
the economy has always been strong (over 20% of the
national value added). Their main advantage used to
lie in low-cost manufacturing, and the value added per
job is still lower than in traditional industrialized countries. But recently established plants in these territories are brand new, highly automated, and will enable
the rapid development of high value-added activities.
Meanwhile, France, the UK, Spain and Belgium are facing considerable decline in industrial employment and
value added.
Europe is now at a crossroads. Countries clearly
need some industry. But Europe as a whole has to determine what the new pattern of industrialization
among its member states should be.

2. Why does Europe need industry?
Industry is a core element of the value chain. When
plants move to a new location, they often take with
them expertise and employment in high value-added
sectors: development (product and process design),
sales and marketing. To maintain high-quality services
in an area, an innovative and creative manufacturing
industry is critical. The trend toward deindustrialization
in some European countries puts Europe at risk of losing high-value activities.
Industry is critical to ensure a balanced labor market and skills pyramid. The ratio of skilled jobs is higher
in industry, whereas the production of services is often
characterized by a concentration of highly skilled jobs
(engineering, consulting, information technology, research, etc.) or, conversely, low skilled jobs (tourism,
distribution, etc.). Deindustrialization weakens the European middle class, because it moves the focus away
from mid-salary jobs. The structural change will cause
a mismatch of supply and demand on the labor market. In the long run this polarizes society.
Industry and services are two sides of the same
coin. Although some argue that services may eventually replace manufacturing, this is unlikely as the two

sectors are closely intertwined. Manufacturing creates
value in the service sector (e.g. product-related services such as maintenance, business-related services
such as accounting, or restaurants, hotels, etc.). 40%
of jobs in the European manufacturing sector are service-related, and on average, services make up about
a quarter of all inputs bought by EU industry. On the
flipside, new services, e.g. in the cloud economy, are
changing manufacturing and adding more value in the
sector. Deindustrialization in some European countries
is therefore a cause for concern because it affects
more than just industry – it could impact European
competitiveness as a whole.
An industrial imbalance creates a rift in trade policies. Ultimately the growing gap between European
countries in terms of industrial performance has an
impact on European international trade relationships.
On one side of the gap are countries with a strong industrial sector, which are dependent on exports and
keen on open borders, and on the other side, countries
with a weak industrial sector that are more inclined to
put up barriers to protect themselves.
Innovation, automation and sophisticated processes are at the root of industrial success strategies and
have proven to be critical in maintaining a leading position. Therefore, looking toward the future is critical.
Reindustrialization needs to be much more than simply
rebuilding structures of old-fashioned manufacturing
that vanished some time ago. Imitating the successful
business models of countries such as Germany, Sweden or Austria is not a viable solution for the rest of
Europe either. A successful approach to reindustrialization should take into account the changing environment and align processes, production and products to
the new situation. And Europe's industrial future has to
be envisioned and designed to cross borders.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

5

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

B

EUROPE – A DIVERSE PICTURE
MANY LOSERS, FEW WINNERS

INDUSTRIAL 1) SHARE OF VALUE ADDED
IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
2001

20%
17%

2011

EU 2)
AVERAGE:

15%

SWEDEN
26%
24%

15%
11%

22%

16%

23%

18%

UK
POLAND

15%

CZECH
REPUBLIC

11%
GERMANY
20%

17%
14%

16%

FRANCE

11%

10%

GREECE
SPAIN
ITALY
1) Excluding electricity, mining and quarrying

2) EU 27, 2011

Source: UNCTAD

6

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

The fourth industrial revolution is
already on its way. Revolutions are fast,
disruptive and destructive. And there is
no going back. Industry 4.0 will be an
answer to the challenges lying ahead.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, we have been
experiencing a digital transformation – changes associated with innovation in the field of digital technology
in all aspects of society and economy. Some experts
say that what we have seen so far accounts for a tenth
of what is still ahead. This trend is also affecting the
way goods are manufactured and services are offered.

1. The fourth industrial revolution
and Industry 4.0
Western civilization has already witnessed three industrial revolutions, which could also be described as
disruptive leaps in industrial processes resulting in significantly higher productivity. The first improved efficiency through the use of hydropower, the increasing
use of steam power and the development of machine
tools. The second brought electricity and mass production (assembly lines), and the third and most recent further accelerated automation using electronics
and IT.
The fourth industrial revolution is already on its
way. However, while some areas will see fast and disruptive changes, others will change slowly and steadily
– a more "evolutionary" pace. In either case, there is
no going back. This time, physical objects are being
seamlessly integrated into the information network.
The Internet is combining with intelligent machines,

systems production and processes to form a sophisticated network. The real world is turning into a huge information system.
"Industry 4.0" provides the relevant answers to the
fourth industrial revolution. It has to be differentiated
from smaller concepts such as the "Internet of things",
"maker movement" or "factory 4.0". Industry 4.0 emphasizes the idea of consistent digitization and linking
of all productive units in an economy. Let's take a look
at the key characteristics of the new industrial landscape:
CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND MARKETPLACE. IT systems today are already at the heart of
the production system. In Industry 4.0, those systems
will be far more connected to all sub-systems, processes, internal and external objects, the supplier and
customer networks. Complexity will be much higher
and will require sophisticated marketplace offerings. IT
systems will be built around machines, storage systems and supplies that adhere to a defined standard
and are linked up as cyber-physical systems (CPS).
These can be controlled in real time. The plants and
systems of the future will have clearly defined, similar
interfaces. Using these technologies will make it possible to flexibly replace machines along the value chain.
This enables highly efficient manufacturing in which
production processes can be changed at short notice
and downtime (e.g. at suppliers) can be offset.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

7

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

SMART ROBOTS AND MACHINES. Robots already
replaced human workers in the last revolution. The
number of multipurpose industrial robots developed by
players in the Industry 4.0 supplier segment and used
in European manufacturing has almost doubled since
2004. In countries such as the Czech Republic or Hungary, the rise is even more impressive. In the future
they will become intelligent, which means able to
adapt, communicate and interact. This will enable further productivity leaps for companies, having a profound change on cost structures, skills landscape and
production sites. Smart robots will not only replace
humans in simply structured workflows within closed
areas. In Industry 4.0, robots and humans will work
hand in hand, so to speak, on interlinking tasks and
using smart sensored human-machine interfaces. The
use of robots is widening to include various functions:
production, logistics, office management (to distribute
documents). These can be controlled remotely. If a
problem occurs, the worker will receive a message on
his mobile phone, with link to a web cam, so he can
see the problems and give instructions to let the production continue until he comes back the next day.
Thus, the plant is operating 24 hours/day while workers are only there during the day. No more night shifts,
and productivity skyrockets.
BIG DATA. Data is often referred to as the raw
material of the 21st century. Indeed, the amount
of data available to businesses is expected to double
every 1.2 years. A plant of the future will be producing
a huge amount of data that needs to be saved, processed and analyzed. The means employed to do this
will significantly change. In France, 63% of plant managers consider cyber security to be crucial to their
competitiveness. Innovative methods to handle big
data and to tap the potential of cloud computing will
create new ways to leverage information.
NEW QUALITY OF CONNECTIVITY. While at the
beginning of the 21st century connectivity was a feature of only the digital world, in Industry 4.0 the digital
and real worlds are connected. Machines, workpieces,
systems and human beings will constantly exchange
digital information via Internet protocol. This means
8

INDUSTRY 4.0 DATA SPOTLIGHTS I
Top and bottom positions1), 2012
Industrial robots
(per 1,000
employees)

Mobile connections to the
Internet for
business use
(% of enterprises)

Employment in
technology and
knowledgeintensive sectors
(% of total
employment)

Germany

Finland

Finland

273

44

8

Portugal

France, Italy

Portugal

35

20

3

1) Analysis of the 15 EU countries with the highest GDP
Source: IFR, Eurostat

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

physical things will be linked to their data footprint.
Production with interconnected machines becomes
very smooth: one machine is immediately informed
when the part is produced in another machine, as well
as the conveyor or the logistic supply robot. Machines
automatically adapt to the production steps of each
part to manufacture, coordinating almost as in a ballet
to automatically adjust the production unit to the series to be manufactured. Even the product may communicate when it is produced – via an Internet of things
– and ask for a conveyor to be picked up, or send an
e-mail to the ordering system to say "I am finished and
ready to be delivered". Plants are also interconnected in
order to smoothly adjust production schedules among
them and optimize capacity in a much better way.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND DECENTRALIZ ATION. Climate change and scarcity of resources are
megatrends that will affect all Industry 4.0 players.
These megatrends leverage energy decentralization for
plants, triggering the need for the use of carbon-neutral technologies in manufacturing. Using renewable
energies will be more financially attractive for companies. In the future, there may be many production sites
that generate their own power, which will in turn have
implications for infrastructure providers. In addition to
renewable energy, decentralized nuclear power – e.g.
small-size plants – is being studied as a way to supply
big electro-intensive plants, thus providing double-digit energy savings.
VIRTUAL INDUSTRIALIZATION. There is nothing
more difficult than launching a new plant or a new
product in an existing plant: hours of adaptations, trials, pre-series testing requiring a high-caliber launch
team and numerous unexpected cost overruns. A day
lost through a standstill of production means a huge
revenue loss for many businesses. Industry 4.0 will use
virtual plants and products to prepare the physical
production. Every process is first simulated and verified virtually; only once the final solution is ready is the
physical mapping done – meaning all software, parameters, numerical matrixes are uploaded into the physical machines controlling the production. Some initial
trials have made it possible to set up an automotive

part production unit in three days – as opposed to the
three months it requires today. Virtual plants can be
designed and easily visualized in 3D, as well as how
the workers and machines will interact.
C FACTORY 4.0 gives an overview of the firm as
an interconnected global system on a microeconomic
level. Our graph depicts the key factors: outside the
factory we see a 4.0 supplier network, resources of the
future, new customer demands and the means to meet
them. Inside the factory, we envision new production
technologies, new materials and new ways of storing,
processing and sharing data.

2. Industry 4.0: What is changing for
companies?
We are describing the big picture of a profoundly transformed industry landscape. Will it be a threat or an
opportunity? Both, as it turns out. Manufacturing companies in the traditional sense will surely remain in the
market. But established players will undoubtedly
change their organizations, processes and capabilities
in whole or in part during the industrial revolution. And
there will be new competitors with radically new industrial business models. New transforming technologies
such as the Internet or mobile phones have not been
successful just because they were new, but because
they were also followed by a societal transformation.
The Internet as a technology did not invent social networks, but social networks developed thanks to the
Internet, and also enabled it to develop further. The
same thing will happen with Industry 4.0, by bringing
new functionalities that will change the rules of the
game for the industry players.
The development will proceed at different rates in
different industries. Here we have tried to identify
some cross-industry implications:
OUTPUT: PERSONALIZED, LOCAL PRODUCTION AND MASS CUSTOMIZATION. Industry 4.0
brings more freedom and flexibility into the production
process. So it will become possible to create products
tailored to segment-by-one customer needs at relatively low marginal cost. Also distribution processes for

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

9

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

C

FACTORY 4.0
THE FULLY CONNECTED WAY OF
MAKING THINGS
Industry 4.0 is based on new and
radically changed processes in
manufacturing companies: Factory
4.0. In this concept, data is gathered
from suppliers, customers and the
company itself and evaluated before
being linked up with real production.
The latter is increasingly using new
technologies such as sensors, 3D
printing and next-generation robots.
The result: production processes are
fine-tuned, adjusted or set up
differently in real time.

Suppliers

CYBER
SECURITY
>  tronger protection
S
for Internet-based
manufacturing
> Technology products
with longer life
cycles

CLOUD
COMPUTING

SENSORS
> Zero default/deviation
> Reactivity
> Traceability
> Predictability

3D PRINTING/
ADDITIVE
MANUFACTURING
> Scrap elimination
> Mass customization
> Rapid prototyping

ADVANCED
MATERIALS
> Smart value-added products
> Technical differentiation
> Connectivity

LOGISTICS 4.0
>  ully integrated
F
supply chain
> Interconnected
systems
> Perfect coordination

Plant of the future
10

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

RESOURCES
OF THE FUTURE
(WIND, ALTERNATIVE/
NON - CONVENTIONAL, SOLAR,
GEOTHERMIC)
>  lean and renewable
C
energy everywhere
> Energy storage
>  lternative raw
A
materials

BIG DATA
>  aking sense
M
out of complexity
> Creativity
> Collaborative
manufacturing

MASS CUSTOMIZATION

ADVANCED
MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS

>  ustomer and marketing intimacy
C
> Flexibility
>  erfect match of customer's
P
needs with mass production
efficiency
> On-demand manufacturing

> Cyber-physical systems (CPS)
>  umerical command
N
– Full automation
– Totally interconnected systems
– Machine-to-machine communication

AUTONOMOUS
VEHICLE
> Flow optimization
> Increased security
> Lower costs

Customers

ROBOT
>  eal-time autonomy/
R
productivity
>  ull transparency (contextualF
ization, comprehensiveness,
collaborative robot) on data
reporting

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

INTERNET OF THINGS
> Object tagging
> nternet-to-object communication
I
via low-power radio
>  eal-time data capture
R
> Optimized stocks
> Reduced waste

11

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

spare parts or not too complex customer goods might
get easier, if nothing but data has to be transferred
while the physical production can be done locally. This
becomes visible in the broadening of 3D printer usage:
The market for 3D printers and related services rose to
EUR 1.6 billion in 2012, and is estimated to rise to
about EUR 4.4 billion annually by 2017. This approach
can become a game changer if you think about producing in a high- or a low-cost country. A 3D printing
plant can become economically viable and competitive in a high-cost country, by being less sensitive to
labor cost while still providing the proximity necessary
for affordable personalization.
PROCESS: NE T WORKED MANUFACTURING
AND CLUSTER DYNAMICS. Businesses will operate
in dispersed locations, drawing on skills spread across
their empires. Groups of suppliers concentrated in
small areas help ideas flow more freely. One of the opportunities lies in a phenomenon called "industrial democracy", meaning that the blurring frontiers between
the information and physical worlds may lower entry
barriers for smaller or more specialized companies. In
some areas, the distribution of power between multinationals and SMEs or very focused market players
may shift. The challenge for business lies in the assumption that the complexity of production and supply
networks will grow significantly. This type of approach
could lead to "mobile manufacturing units": small and
autonomous manufacturing cells that could be shipped
in some countries to locally develop production for the
local market without building a full plant. This type of
game changer could modify the approach of industrial
foreign direct investment with regards to emerging
markets and localization needs.
BUSINESS MODELS: FR AGMENTATION OF
THE VALUE CHAIN. In a complex and intertwined
manufacturing network, the roles of designers, physical product suppliers and the interfaces with the customer (contractor) will change. The first step is the
fragmentation of the value chain. We have seen this
before in monolithic industries like music or the media:
After fragmentation, countless small entrants have
lower barriers to entry. As business leaders rethink and
12

restructure their value chains new challenges in regard
to cost and profit ownership arise. Where will the high
margins be in the future? In the design, in process
handling or in customer data expertise? New business
models could also be created if the "long tail" philosophy that was brought up by the Internet can be extrapolated to the Internet of things.
COMPE TITION: CONVERGING FRONTIERS.
Traditional industry boundaries are becoming blurred,
as are the boundaries between industrial and non-industrial applications. Going forward, the focus will be
on industrial working methods, including the reproducibility not only of identical products but also of services. Services can be mass-produced too. High-quality digital (outsourced) services and a fail-safe,
comprehensive digital infrastructure are becoming the
fundamental prerequisites for successful Industry 4.0.
And there will be even closer dovetailing between IT/
telecommunications firms and traditional manufacturing companies. The former might in some cases become the new industry leaders. The most recent examples: Facebook is aquiring a stake in the drones
business and Internet giant Google is entering the biotech sector and researching new methods of combating age-related diseases. In Industry 4.0, the supplier
hierarchies/pecking orders are likely to change. Today,
physical machine and tooling suppliers harvest the
biggest margins with their industry clients. But in a cyber-physical system world, these suppliers will lose
importance. Instead, suppliers of sensors, IT and software might take their place in Industry 4.0, while machine and tooling companies shift down to tier 2.
SKILLS: INTERDISCIPLINARY THINKING IS
KEY. The dominant technologies of Industry 4.0 will be
IT, electronics and robotics. But it will also embrace
other knowledge areas such as biotech and nanotech.
It is to be expected that businesses in Industry 4.0
need both enhanced social and technical skills. There
will be a shift toward design thinking instead of production thinking. Corporate cultures with continuous
training and development in the workplace and lifelong
learning are becoming a core competency. A lot of collaborative and cross-cultural competencies will be re-

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

INDUSTRY 4.0 DATA SPOTLIGHTS II
Top and bottom positions1), 2012
Patent
applications
(per 1,000
population)

Exports
of goods
(% of GDP)

Value added
per employee
(EUR '000)

Germany

Netherlands

Denmark

59

69

88

quired to be able to work in network environments sustainably. On the technical side: connecting the network
will mean a lot of standardization. Therefore, the technical competency profile will be rather T-shaped and
interdisciplinary than specialized. Analytics specialists, engineers and programmers will have to be able
to think across business models, production processes, machine technology and data-related procedures.
New job titles will emerge such as data scientist and
cyber safety guards.
GLOBALIZATION: LIGHT FOOTPRINT. The organization of the future will concentrate on selected
hotspots, rather than a comprehensive global presence. There will be open production sites ("makerspaces") and clusters. Firms will not necessarily have
to sustain huge production sites to operate cost-efficiently. Sometimes it will be cheaper to transfer data
and produce locally on a small scale. Organizations will
be set up in a much more decentralized and flexible way.

3. How much does Europe have to
invest?

Portugal

UK

Poland

0.6

19

21

1) Analysis of the 15 EU countries with the highest GDP
Source: World Bank, UNCTAD

Industry 4.0 is an opportunity to change the economic
rules of the industry, especially to overcome the deindustrialization trends faced by some European countries. In the current industry setup, there are ways to
maintain Europe's competitive edge compared to low
labor cost countries: selecting high added-value products or activities, having modern and automated production units with critical size and implementing
manufacturing excellence practices. With Industry 4.0
the demand for highly qualified services will increase
activities to support this more complex industry.
From an economic point of view, if industry wants
to offer incentives to investors it has to go about it in a
different way due to its risk profile. We assume investors expect a return on capital employed (ROCE) of
15% as an average for European industry. In the box
"Traditional Industry" on the horizontal axis (see figure
on page 14), we find countries achieving this with activities that require low capital intensity and low valueadded products. The countries here with low labor costs

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

13

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

are leveraging a labor-intensive workforce and more
manual processes. Those are rare in Europe. Nevertheless, this box contains France, Spain and the UK. Due to
underinvestment over the years, their industrial assets
have progressively lost their value. At the same time, labor costs are high. Therefore, profitability is declining
and competitiveness is decreasing. D
In the box "Industry 4.0", we find countries with stateof-the-art production processes. They are more competitive (due to automation and scale effects) and can afford higher margins, which pay off their capital needs.
The graph on the right shows the positioning of Europe in general as well as France and Germany in
2012. Germany is positioned with an even higher ROCE
than 15%. Therefore, the profit generated will help the
country to invest its employed capital in the future industry technologies. By contrast, France currently earns
much lower margins from its industry, preventing it from
investing and thus eroding the capital employed.
If the European economy can achieve a strong position within Industry 4.0, divestment is no longer a
threat. Industry 4.0 requires investments. But Industry
4.0 also substantially increases capital productivity,
as mentioned above with the potential benefits (mass
customization, networked manufacturing, etc.) which
optimize the way capital is leveraged. Europe's economy will be able to move upward along this curve –
meaning firms that invest more capital will be more
profitable.
Europe has to act now. In 2012, the EU Commission set the goal of boosting manufacturing's share of
GDP in Europe from 15% to 20% by 2020. This objective is quite challenging, because advanced manufacturing economies such as Germany, Poland and Austria
will not be able to boost their shares much more. Even
in China, manufacturing only accounts for 30% of the
economy – and this figure is declining. Against this
backdrop, reaching the 20% goal in Europe would
mean that countries such as the UK and France, which
for decades have been shutting down their industries
and are now at around the 10% mark, would have to
reestablish manufacturing on a huge scale in less than
seven years.
14

D

INDUSTRY 4.0 WILL INCREASE PROFITABILIT Y
AND CAPITAL INTENSIT Y
Dimensions of economic impact
PROFITABILIT Y 1)

INDUSTRY 4.0
High
Return expected
by investors
(ROCE)3) = 15%
Europe
2030
Germany
2012

TRADITIONAL
INDUSTRY
Europe
2012

France
2012

Low
Low

CAPITAL INTENSIT Y 2)

1)  BIT as % of value added;
E
margin: Low = below 5%, High = above 20%
2)  apital employed/value-added;
C
margin: Low = below 0.5, High = above 1.3
3) ROCE = profitability x capital intensity

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

High

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

This target is certainly not achievable considering
today's situation (Industry 3.0). Instead, it can only be
achieved by taking part in the fourth industrial revolution. Reaching 20% means that Europe has to create
EUR 500 billion in value added and 6 million jobs (provided current GDP growth and inflation remain the
same). These figures look huge, as this amount is
about double the size of the French industry. However,
looking at the bigger picture and including all valueadded services generated by Industry 4.0, the objective could be achieved by 2030. More concretely, it
doesn't mean that a product currently manufactured in
China will be manufactured by a European worker: it
will be manufactured by a European robot or machine,
which is programmed by a European engineer. Opportunities for new jobs could be: working in engineering
centers, IT centers, virtual laboratories, big data centers, or in a control tower of a plant network, but probably not inside a plant.
2 How much investment does Industry 4.0 require? As shown below, the calculation of the objective
in terms of ROCE and profit helps in evaluating the investment amount. Currently, the industrial investment
level in Europe is EUR 30 billion lower than the level of
depreciation, meaning that assets are slowly losing
value. Therefore, in order to achieve the goal by 2030,
European firms must keep investing about EUR 90 billion per year to generate the necessary additional value added. This would add up to EUR 1,350 billion over
the next 15 years. This amount is not so large at the
European level, and is far below numerous investment
activities of European politics, such as the bailout programs for indebted member states.
E

E

THE GAP THAT NEEDS TO BE BRIDGED1)
Industry share as a % of total value added
5%

20%

2011

Gap

Target
2030

Industrial
employees
(million)

25

6

31

Industrial
value added
(EUR bn)

1,500

500

2,000

15%
Other 5.5%

France 1.9%
Italy 2.3%
Germany 5.3%

HOW MUCH EUROPE NEEDS TO INVEST
Capital in EUR bn1)

2,900

x 19 years
Yearly amounts
~1,700

230 30

260
Depreciations

90

Investment in
Industry
4.0

Renewal
investment
Net capital 2011
employed

60

Total
investment

Preservation
investment

Target
2030

1) Constant depreciation assumed
Source: UNCTAD; Eurostat; Roland Berger

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

15

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

F

READINESS CHECK FOR EU
OUR ANALYSIS REVEALS FOUR DIFFERENT CLUSTERS

The RB Industry 4.0 Readiness Index is represented on the vertical axis. We calculated it as follows: first we bundled
production process sophistication, degree of automation, workforce readiness and innovation intensity into a category
we called "industrial excellence". Then we combined high value added, industry openness, innovation network and
Internet sophistication into a category we labeled "value network". Each category was measured using a 5-point scale,
with "5" indicating that a country is excellently prepared for the Industry 4.0 landscape. The combination of these two
categories determines a country's position in the RB 4.0 Readiness Index. The horizontal axis represents the traditional
industry measure – the manufacturing share.
RB Industry 4.0
Readiness Index1)2)
5
Germany
Finland

Belgium

Sweden

Denmark

Ireland

FRONTRUNNERS
Netherlands

4

POTENTIALISTS
Austria
UK
France

3

TRADITIONALISTS
Italy

Slovakia
Slovenia

Spain
Estonia

2

Czech
Republic

Hungary

Lithuania

Portugal
Poland

HESITATORS

Croatia
Bulgaria

1
1

2

3

4

5

Manufacturing share (% of GDP; index)1)
1) 1 = low, 5 = high

16

2) Adjusted for outliers Cyprus, Latvia, Luxemburg, Romania, Greece

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

3. Is Europe ready? The RB Industry
4.0 Readiness Index

4. A look at best practices of
Industry 4.0

We have shown that industrial (r)evolution will change
the game for industrial users, infrastructure suppliers
and technology providers. New aspects need to be
considered: how open is the economy? Will it be able
to adapt to converging industries? How excellent are
innovation networks? How qualified, flexible and interdisciplinary are employees in order to trigger Industry
4.0 within their companies?
To gain some initial insight into these questions, we
created an "RB INDUSTRY 4.0 READINESS INDEX"
for the EU's key industrial countries.
The matrix roughly divides the European economies into four major groups. The Frontrunners are characterized by a large industrial base and very modern,
forward-looking business conditions and technologies
(Sweden, Austria and Germany). Ireland is a special
case: several big pharmaceutical producers contribute
to the country's relatively small GDP, which makes
them manufacturing champions. Ireland also has a
large IT service sector (readiness).
The Traditionalists are found mainly in Eastern Europe. They still thrive on their sound industrial base,
but few of them have thus far launched initiatives to
take industry into the next era. The third group, the
Hesitators – a mixture of southern and eastern European countries – lacks a reliable industrial base. Many of
them suffer from severe fiscal problems and are therefore not able to make their economies future-proof.
The Potentialists are an interesting cluster. Their
industrial base has been weakening over the past few
years. Here we find countries such as France and the
UK, which looked somewhat desperate in our analysis
on pages 4 and 14. That may be true when looking at
all the historical data. But in the corporate sector, we
find indications of a modern and innovative mindset.
They just have to find the right way to tap their potential.

We have identified three groups of players: Industry
4.0 technology suppliers, infrastructure providers and
industrial users. Technology suppliers such as Siemens, Kuka or Dassault provide key production technologies like collaborative robots or telemaintenance
systems. Infrastructure providers such as telecoms or
SAP deal with supporting structures and services – for
example cloud computing, big data storage and processing. Industrial users are traditional global manufacturing firms such as VW or BASF. They use technologies like rapid prototyping or energy-smart buildings
to optimize their production processes.
Those groups of players are essential for making
Industry 4.0 happen. As they move into Industry 4.0,
companies have to be able to respond more quickly
and flexibly to customer demand and fast-changing
customer specifications. This change is clearly visible
in logistics, for example. But companies in mechanical
engineering, medical engineering and engine production are also taking their first successful steps toward
setting up intelligent production processes and customized products.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

17

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

PIONEERS OF INDUSTRY 4.0

HOW THE NEW MANUFACTURING LOGIC IS GAINING GROUND

Several enterprises have developed innovative ideas to shift the activities of their business units to Industry 4.0.
Many others are expected to follow. Below are some examples from different countries that show how they turn
production into a smarter, more virtual, more connected and more decentralized system.

TRUMPF
German toolmaker Trumpf, an Industry 4.0 supplier
and worldwide market leader of laser systems, has put
the first "social machines" to work. Each component is
"smart" and knows what work has already been carried
out on it. Because the production facility already
knows its capacity utilization and communicates with
other facilities, production options are automatically
optimized. Customers can receive pictures of the machines in real time during the production process and
have the chance to provide feedback very early on,
which can help to build even better machines.
SIEMENS
German manufacturing giant Siemens, an industrial
user, is implementing an Industry 4.0 solution in medical engineering. For years, artificial knee and hip joints
were standardized products, with engineers needing
several days to customize them for patients. Now, new
software and steering solutions enable Siemens to
produce an implant within 3 to 4 hours.
18

ROLLS-ROYCE
British aero-engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce, an industrial user as well, is gearing up to use 3D printing
technology to produce components for its jet engines.
Some of these parts have very long lead times due to
the tooling process involved, and it can take 18
months to fill an order. 3D printing would shorten this
process considerably, and also make it possible to
manufacture more lightweight parts.
DASSAULT SYSTÈMES
French software provider Dassault Systèmes is pushing the integration of product development and production. This initiative's core is a 3D platform designed
as a common work environment for the company,
where designers and engineers can, for instance, simulate new products jointly and in real time. The connected 3D environment can also be used via cloud
computing.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

3

Europe is in better shape to embrace
the new industrial world than many
people think. Our roadmap for Europe
lays the groundwork for an Industry 4.0
environment. Here's how companies and
politicians can contribute.
The target for Europe to reach 20% manufacturing
share of GDP for its industry is sending the message
that Europe's future depends on manufacturing. This
vision of a new industrial Europe is precisely the right
one. We think that in the future, quickly switching over
to Industry 4.0 will be a major competitive advantage
for an economy over its global competitors. Europe as
a whole is in better shape to embrace the new industrial
world than many people think. Besides its solid industrial base, many countries are in a good position (equipment, knowledge, expertise, networks) for converting to
Industry 4.0, as our RB Readiness Index shows.
European companies have a chance to develop a
competitive edge here. The US has deindustrialized to
a great extent and moved toward a service and hightech economy. China has invested a lot in Industry 3.0.
The country is busy rebalancing the economy towards
more sustainable growth. But it is heading toward Industry 4.0 as well: The Chinese government recently
formed the China 3D Printing Technology Industry Alliance. Japan is probably the most advanced country in
this field, especially in robotics and automation. A pilot
plant operated by a mechanical engineering company
in Yokohama employs humanoid robots with 80% of
the productivity of a human worker. The fact that the
company has not laid off staff members is a clear sign

that Japan is moving toward automation in response to
the rapid aging of its population – 40 million people
fewer in 2050. However, it is important for all European
players – governments and industry alike – to set off for
the new era at the same time.
G THE "NEW" INDUSTRY IS A KIND OF ECOSYSTEM. It will be difficult to manage the process
centrally, but there will be reinforcing effects if the right
levers are applied by the players in the system. Therefore it is crucial to communicate the idea that players
in the corporate sector (technology suppliers, infrastructure providers and industrial users) and European
governments will profit the most if their Industry 4.0
initiatives go hand in hand.
As shown in the chart below, Industry 4.0 will be
adopted if all parties are focused on a common objective: policy makers and politicians, public and private
experts, industry associations and large group infrastructure providers and of course end users. As opposed to industry in the last century, it is not possible
to make a 4.0 industrial policy, in the sense that governments or the EU would decide what to do in this
field, which technology to use, how much money to
spend and who will be the future champions. This topdown era is over because complexity is too high, innovations come from bottom-up approaches, markets

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

19

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

G

NEW INDUSTRY 4.0 ROADMAP
Industry 4.0 will be implemented in three steps involving all players

STEP

ACTION

PLAYER

1. SET CONDITIONS FOR
THE 4.0 ECOSYSTEM

Promote Industry 4.0
as a European idea

European and state policy makers

2. BOOST INDUSTRY
4.0 OFFERING

Accelerate innovation

Public and private partners, forming collaborative networks and/or innovation clusters

Develop future champions

Equipment and infrastructure industry
players and associations

Establish a dynamic digital
environment

Infrastructure providers and financing

Progressively transition to 4.0

Industrial users (pharmaceuticals,
automotive, aerospace, manufacturing, etc.)

3. PROMOTE
FAST ADOPTION AS
COMPETITIVE LEVER

are risky, uncertain and volatile, and the winners of
today can easily become the losers of tomorrow.
Therefore, to put the 4.0 industrial ecosystem in place,
all parties need to align and move in the same direction, but with an open approach, promoting entrepreneurship, risk taking, innovation and agility.

1. Set the conditions for the 4.0
ecosystem
A shared vision for policy makers and governments is
needed. Industry 4.0 must be understood by governments and policy makers, and promoted as a priority
for Europe. A political and economic agenda that focuses on old industrialized policies will not work for
20

Europe's "new" industry. Depending on the country,
this type of policy includes strong protectionism, subsidies for business champions and industry-friendly
tendering policies, to name just a few. In Industry 4.0
we try to think more systemic. European and government policy makers' role is to establish the framework,
basically: transform the idea of Industry 4.0 into a European idea. This requires a common understanding
of European industrial policies. Industry 4.0 must be
prioritized and coordinated. To do that successfully,
Europe needs a roadmap equipped with incentives
and actions to support communication of the vision of
Europe as an Industry 4.0 hotspot. Legislation should
create an "infrastructure" for promoting entrepreneurship.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

2. Boost Industry 4.0 offering and
assume leadership
Developing leaders in Industry 4.0 solutions requires
three success factors:
ACCELER ATE INNOVATION. Industry 4.0 encompasses a broad set of technologies with a huge
field for innovation and creative solutions. Pioneering
business models will create new opportunities for adding value, but those will depend on breakthrough innovations for technology and the ability to bring them
to market. This is an area where public and private
partners have to collaborate closely. Pan-European
collaborative networks or innovation clusters can be
set up between countries, universities, research institutes and businesses, combining public and private
research. Companies must regularly review their
strategic alignment, which will result in new methods
of entering new stages of the value chain. Based
on this review, they can identify missing links inside
and outside the company, foster elaboration of technology roadmaps across Europe and set up research
communities.
Consistent investment in R&D programs is also
crucial. Companies should identify cross-border partners (corporate and science) and collaborate with
them on research projects. Supported by pan-European initiatives, innovative start-ups will profit from the
new opportunities. The role of those Industry 4.0 innovation clusters would be to design best practices
of Industry 4.0 solutions, technology concepts, develop technology roadmaps and enhance start-up
development.
DE VELOP FUTURE CHAMPIONS. There are
many European companies that are very well positioned as leaders in the various fields of Industry 4.0.
However, technology is evolving rapidly. The danger is
not keeping up with technologies required to offer integrated solutions. A champion in machine-tooling that
does not build up Internet-of-things technologies will
not be able to develop the new machine generation.
Therefore, players must develop a technology strategy
and close the gaps. Sometimes this will only be possi-

ble through mergers and acquisitions. We expect significant consolidation among the Industry 4.0 players.
Sometimes the partners in a collaboration will come
as a surprise: who would have thought that Google
would buy Nest (thermostatic sensors for home appliances)? Like Google-Nest, many traditional players
that produce tangible products will move into intangible new technology fields and buy software start-ups
or Internet companies. Or vice versa, with engineering
and CAD/CAM firms buying machine equipment firms.
This type of move will reshuffle industry segmentation
which is organized by physical sectors (machine &
tooling, electrical equipment, software, engineering
services).
It might be helpful to organize new Industry 4.0 associations to support the development of a strong offering. Last but not least, we need some pragmatism in
the field of antitrust policies. European companies
have to gain a strong competitive position in comparison to the US and Asia. It may be wise to let some
strong players emerge and consolidate based on a robust European market.
ESTABLISH A DYNAMIC DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT. The digital aspect has become mission-critical
for many products and services. Therefore, Europe's
"new" industry needs a competitive environment that
fosters dynamic telecommunications and Internet usage. Infrastructure providers can contribute in this
field, not only by providing structures for power and
telecommunications supply, but also by developing
standards for data transfer and security procedures.
Key fields to consider include cyber security, energy,
telecommunications and the cloud. Pan-European
digital infrastructure initiatives will be needed, to be
managed by industry players or associations.
But Europe also needs a service infrastructure. It's
not only digital services that are suffering from fragmented and nationally focused offerings in Europe, but
also the key areas of energy, transportation and financing. This roadmap must be supported by a specific financing plan. This might include incentives for industrial users to invest in the transition to Industry 4.0
or funding for infrastructure development.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

21

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

Besides infrastructure, this dynamic digital environment also needs to foster new talent. Unsufficient education policies and a lack of mobility in some countries mean Europe cannot fully capitalize on its skills
pool. The new competency fields required by Industry
4.0 need to be embedded in education. This includes
fields such as software programming, data analysis or
scientific computing.

3. Promote fast adoption as a competitive lever
There are two ways to move into Industry 4.0: transforming existing (legacy) plants or making greenfield
investments. Both require a strong change management approach. Industry 4.0 will probably penetrate
the quickest through greenfield investments, coming
either from new business opportunities. Also repatriation of manufacturing from developing countries to Europe could be a trend in Industry 4.0. But it will require
a different setup. Fostering relocation of activities is a
good lever to enhance transition to 4.0, create value
added in Europe and develop qualified jobs. This may
require investment programs or incentives.
The other approach is to progressively adapt the
legacy manufacturing footprint. Transforming a legacy
plant into a modern 4.0 factory has a significant social
impact and requires a competency shift and new ways
of working and manufacturing. Numerous actions are
possible, but have to take social aspects into account.
For instance, the French Robotics Association has
launched its "Robocaliser" program. Since French
unions still perceive robotization as a job killer, the
program promotes the idea of using robots as a way to
avoid delocalization.
Companies should consider seizing the opportunity
to use 4.0 technologies by developing tailored manufacturing strategies that best leverage the new technologies. Industrial users that share European Industry
4.0 knowledge and build best practice communities
will be key to a successful transition. This is a good
opportunity to establish 4.0 tech shows in all end-user
industries because the overall solutions will be ex22

tremely specific: 4.0 in the automotive industry won't
be the same approach as in the railway or aviation sectors, simply because the production factors are fundamentally different. Companies will also have to allocate special investment for the transition, for example,
by setting up phased programs to facilitate site reconfiguration. It will also be necessary to build up new
skills, possibly by initiating special recruiting actions
and training programs. Companies may want to consider incentivizing the launch of pilots as well.

Conclusion
The next industrial revolution lies directly ahead, and
will likely prove to be a source of huge opportunities for
European countries. Moving toward Industry 4.0 fits
quite well with the European model: it makes it possible to preserve a sustainable industry, develop qualified employees, support energy transition and adapt to
large-scale customization. It will also allow Europe to
compete successfully with other regions in the world
and promote the emergence of future European champions. But speed is of the essence – the time to move
forward and capture this opportunity is now.

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
INDUSTRY 4.0

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Publisher
ROLAND BERGER
STRATEGY CONSULTANTS GMBH
Operations Strategy Competence Center
(OpS CC)
Mies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 6
80807 Munich
GERMANY
+49 89 9230-0
www.rolandberger.com

Editors
ANNE DUJIN
DR. CORNELIA GEISSLER
DIRK HORSTKÖTTER

The authors welcome
your questions, comments
and suggestions
MAX BLANCHET
Global Head OpS CC, Partner
+33 1 53670-907
max.blanchet@rolandberger.com
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