LPTS Display Technology and LCD Production Capacity

LPTS Display Technology and LCD Production Capacity

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Description: Transistor Tech. Comparison (BL Power Consumption):- LTPS realizes high resolution, low power consumption: Since a large aperture ratio enables more use of light power consumption can be lower (or brightness enhanced). Evolution of Productivity (Mother Glass Size): No.

of transistors (FHD) 6.22mn pixels per smart-phone x 320 units = 2bn transistors. Processing accuracy Long side of substrate: approx. 1.8m Processing accuracy: several μm Substrate accuracy = 1ppm.

 
Author: Akio Takimoto Ph.D.   | Visits: 184 | Page Views: 533
Domain:  High Tech Category: Displays 
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Contents:
JDI’s Business and Core
Display Technology

Akio Takimoto, Ph.D.
Division Manager
Research and Development Center
January 22, 2016

Agenda
• Market Trend and JDI’s Business Development
• JDI’s Core Strategy
• Technology Strategy





Core Display Technology: LTPS
Smartphones
Automotive Electronics
Reflective Displays for Wearables/Outdoor Use

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Market Trend and JDI’s Business
Development

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3

Size Forecasts for Target Market
Growth forecasts for the entire target market
(Trillion yen)

New market

6

Signage
Industrial
Automotive
electronics

4

Smartphones

2
0

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Source: JDI’s estimates based on research company data
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4

Create 3 Business Pillars to Provide a Solid Business Base
Mobile business reaching maturity; grow auto business &
nourish new 3rd pillar; move to 30% non-mobile sales ratio
Volume (# of sheets)

Mobile business
Earnings

Volatile demand

ESL reflective
MIP displays (color)

4 th business
(OLED)
3 rd

business

Signage reflective
MIP displays

(Reflective)

Business building

Auto business

e-POP
(reflective)

Margin

Automotive
Digital signage
(reflective)

Stability

Year

Smartphones

Top: High-res HUD
Bttm: Curved displays

2020

Wearables
(reflective)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5

JDI’s Core Strategy

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6

Technology Strategy
LTPS is the basis for various types of displays

Frontplane

LCD

LCD

OLED

Something
new

Backplane

LTPS

LTPS

LTPS

LTPS

Reflective
LCD

OLED

Device X

Backlight
Transmissive
LCD

LTPS: Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display , OLED: Organic LED
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

7

LTPS-LCD Production Capacity
JDI is the lead global supplier of LTPS devices
Ishikawa site

LTPS-LCD capacity as of end-FY16
K sheets / Months (G4.5 equiv.)

Mobara Plant

G6

Ishikawa Plant

G4.5

470
Nomi Plant
Higashiura Plant

G5.5

G3.5

Hakusan Plant
(equipment under delivery)

A

B

C

D

E

F

JDI

G6

JDI produces
all CMOS-LTPS.

Source: JDI estimates based on research firm reports.
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8

JDI’s Technology Growth Strategy
LTPS is the core technology for JDI’s product development
Smartphones, Tablet PCs

Advanced LTPS technology

• High resolution/Low power consumption/In-cell touch
• Design improvement : Mass production of sheet OLED in CY18

Automotive Electronics

Curved & rapid response
displays with LTPS

• High resolution/in-cell touch/curved displays/rapid response time
displays (no delays)

Reflective

LTPS memory technology

(Industrial devices/electronic shelf labels/signage, etc.)
• Ultra low-power consumption display with MIP (Memory-in-Pixel)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

9

Technology Strategy

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10

Basic Principles of Display Technology
An image is shown with
pixels arranged in a matrix
Changing images
numerous times each
second results in picture
motion.

-Pixel
-Sub-pixel

Changing the
brightness of each
sub-pixel
reproduces every
color in a pixel

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11

JDI’s core technology: LTPS
LTPS is used in display panels as TFTs (Thin Film Transistors).

LTPS TFTs on glass substrate

LTPS TFTs on film substrate
(For sheet display)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

12

LTPS and Devices
LTPS is a basic technology for various devices

Frontplane

LCD

LCD

OLED

Something
new

Backplane

LTPS

LTPS

LTPS

LTPS

OLED

Device X

Backlight
Transmissive Reflective LCD
LCD

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

13

Structure of Transmissive LCD and TFT
Display uses multiple TFTs.
LTPS, one TFT solution type, is JDI’s core technology.
Color filter

TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT TFT

TFF TFT
TFT

Substrate

Liquid
crystal

TFT substrate

TFT

TFT
TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT

Drive circuit
Backlight unit

Cross-sectional view

LED

TFT TFT

TFT

Display area
(pixels)

TFT TFT

TFT TFF

Border
(Drive circuit)

Expanded overhead view
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14

Reflective LCD Structure and TFT
TFT TFT TFT

TFT TFT

Reflected
light

Color filter(R/G/B)

TFT TFT TFT

Common electrode

TFT TFT

Polarizer

TFT TFT TFT

Substrate

Liquid
crystal

Substrate

Reflective electrode,
Memory circuit

Cross-sectional view

Drive circuit

Color filter
Liquid crystal

Expanded
overhead
view

Reflective
electrode

Substrate

TFT TFT TFT
TFT TFT TFT TFT

SRAM memory circuit

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15

OLED Structure and TFT
TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT
TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT

Organic light emitting
layer (R/G/B)

TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT

TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT
TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT
TFT

TFT

TFT

Substrate
TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT
TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT TFT

Substrate

TFT

TFT

Electrode,
TFT

Cross-sectional view

Drive circuit

Display area
(pixels)

TFT

TFT

TFT

Border
(drive circuit)

Expanded overhead view

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

16

Transistor Technology Comparison
LTPS has higher electron mobility than other TFT
technologies
Voltage and Electrical
Current Characteristics

1E-04
1E-05

Mobility & Architecture
Mobility, μ
cm2/Vs

LTPS

1E-06

Technology / Architecture

1E-07

1000

Id (A/μm)

1E-08

a-Si

1E-09
1E-10

100

1E-11
1E-12

Crystal Si (Ref.)
LTPS

10

1E-13
1E-14

1

1E-15
1E-16

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

Vg (V)

TFT

CMOS

TFT

a-Si

TFT

TFT

TFT

15

NMOS

a-Si

0.1

TFT

LTPS TFT functions in small sizes.
LTPS
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

17

Transistor Tech. Comparison (BL Power Consumption)
LTPS realizes high resolution, low power consumption

Aperture ratio (%)

80
5” Full-HD
(443ppi)

70
60
50

a-Si

40

LTPS

TFT

TFT

TFT

30

Pixel

20
200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Resolution (ppi)

→ Since a large aperture ratio enables more
use of light power consumption can be lower
(or brightness enhanced).

Relative to
the area
of 1 pixel,

TFT

Ratio of the area
light passes
through

=”Aperture

ratio”

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

18

Transistor Tech. Comparison (Border)
LTPS realizes narrow border
LTPS enables small-size TFT & fabrication
of smaller gate circuits
1.6
1.4

a-Si

Border width
(mm)

1.2

5” Full-HD
(443ppi)

1.0
0.8

Gate
circuit

Display
area

Border width

LTPS

0.6

0.4
0.2
200

400

600

Resolution (ppi)

800

Bigger display, impressive design quality

Narrow
border

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

19

Evolution of Productivity (Mother Glass Size)
G6 Glass Substrate
1500X1850mm
320 smartphone panels
G5.5 1300X1500mm

■No. of transistors (FHD)
6.22mn pixels per smartphone x 320 units
= 2bn transistors

■Processing accuracy
G4.5
730X920mm

Long side of substrate :
approx. 1.8m
Processing accuracy :
several μm

Substrate accuracy = 1ppm

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20

JDI’s Technology Growth Strategy
LTPS is the core technology for JDI’s product development
Smartphones, Tablet PCs

Advanced LTPS technology

• High resolution/Low power consumption/In-cell touch
• Design improvement : Mass production of sheet OLED in CY18

Automotive Electronics

Curved & rapid response
displays with LTPS

• High resolution/in-cell touch/curved displays/rapid response time
displays (no delays)

Reflective

LTPS memory technology

(Industrial devices/electronic shelf labels/signage, etc.)
• Ultra low-power consumption display with MIP (Memory-in-Pixel)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21

High Resolution ・・・ LTPS

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22

Resolution (Ergonomic Evaluation)

Resolution (ppi)

Up to 800ppi recognizable(Visual range 22cm)

800ppi

Human eye can not
detect the pixels.

Limits of pixel
detection by eye

Making characters legible
requires high resolution

700ppi

530ppi

22cm

465ppi

163ppi

326ppi

403 ppi
403ppi

400ppi

498 ppi
498ppi

163 ppi

350ppi

326 ppi

cpd : cycles per degree (spatial frequency)

Sight distance (cm)

・Character height*:
Main text: 3mm (9 points)
Footnotes: 2mm (6 points)
*Standard text height of Japanese paperback
Conditions
・Viewing distance: 25cm
・Viewing angle: normal to the display
・Subjects: 5 females and 17 males
・Luminance: 200 cd/m2 (L* = 100%)

Y. Hisatake et.al., P-145, SID 2012)
651 ppi
651ppi

LTPS can support >800ppi displays
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23

Smartphone Display Trends

Rapid evolution of display size, no. of pixels, resolution, etc.
2012 Oct. MP start (Full-HD)

Display technology Transmissive IPS, LTPS TFT
Screen size
Number of pixels

5.0-inch (12.6cm) diagonal
1080 x 1920

Development (4K2K

*1)

Display technology Transmissive IPS, LTPS TFT
Screen size
Number of pixels

5.5-inch (13.9cm) diagonal
2160 x 3840 *1

Pixel density

443 ppi

Pixel density

806 ppi *2

Contrast ratio

1000:1

Contrast ratio

1000:1

NTSC ratio

71%

NTSC ratio

93%

Luminance

500 cd/m2

Luminance

500cd/m2

Dimensions

64.3mm (W) x 118.8mm (H) x 1.4mm (D)

Dimensions

69.8mm (W) x 128.9mm (H) x 1.9mm (D)

Side border

1.2mm

Side border

0.9mm

*1 : 2160x3840 with sub pixel rendering (Image resolution based on ICDM standard)
*2 : Vertical

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

24

Application Product of High Resolution Technology for Smartphone

8K4K Display for professional use
Specifications
Screen size

17.3 inch

Resolution format

7,680 x RGB x
4,320

Pixel density

510 ppi

Luminance

250 cd/m2

Contrast ratio

2,000:1

Color gamut

70%

Frame rate

120Hz

LCD drive system

IPS-NEO

Joint development
with NHK

Image: Courtesy of NHK

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

25

Low Power Consumption
・・・ Low Frequency Drive

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26

Advanced LTPS Low Frequency Drive
Advanced LTPS : LTPS technology which reduces current leakage
FY2015

FY2016

FY2017
MP

MP

30Hz

60Hz

Drive frequency

LTPS (Gen.1)

Circuit power
consumption (mW)

250
200

FY2018

15~5Hz

advanced LTPS (Gen.2) advanced LTPS (Gen.3)

WQHD

200
140

150

80

100
50
0

Gen.1

Gen.2

Circuit electricity

Gen.3

Power ∝ f x V2

Flicker (15Hz)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

27

In-cell touch Technology

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28

In-cell touch LCD
Advantages: thin, high sensitivity, low cost
Sensor electrodes (Tx & Rx) are formed in LCD cells and controlled
by an LTPS circuit.
Rx

Side view

Bird’s-eye view

Polarizer
Color filter substrate

Liquid
crystal
TFT substrate

Tx

LTPS circuit
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

29

Advantage of “Pixel Eyes”
“Pixel Eyes” has advantages over other in-cell touch technology
& can support next-generation touch interfaces.

Other type in-cell touch

Cover glass

Cover glass
Color filter sub.
TFT substrate

Rx
Tx

Color filter substrate
Rx/Tx
TFT substrate

 High immunity to external noise
thanks to the shield layer on
color filter glass.

 Vulnerable to external noise
because the sensor electrodes
are electrically floating.

 Lower touch power in sleep
mode

 Higher touch power in sleep
mode

 Touch FPC required

 Touch FPC not required
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30

“Pixel Eyes” continues to evolve
Gen. 2

Narrow boarder
Real Black
Water tracking
Multi-touch
Stylus pen input
Brush Writing

Gen. 3

Next generation UI
Curved
Frameless
Low power by new driving method
Edge display
Hovering

Gen. 4

Sensing
function
and more . . .

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

31

OLED Technology

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

32

LCD vs OLED Structure and Display Principles
LCD
Display
principles

OLED

【Transmission type・voltage
driving】

【Light emission type・current
driving】

LCD uses the light modulating
properties of liquid crystal.

Excitation formation by
electron-hole recombination

Structure
Light

AC

Polarizer
Substrate
Transparent
electrode
Liquid crystal

Light
DC

Electron
- - -
+ + +
Hole

Organic compound
(multi layer)
Light
emitting

Anode
(reflective )
Substrate

Backlight

Front plane Liquid crystal

Cathode
(transparent)

Organic light emitting diode

Back plane

TFT (LTPS)

TFT (LTPS)

Substrate

Mainly glass

Glass, film

Backlight

Required for transmissive LCD

Unnecessary
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

33

LCD vs OLED

■ LCD suitable for high pixel density; OLED suitable for flexibility
■ Advanced LTPS technology realizes low-power OLED

LCD

Advanced
LTPS

LTPS

Fair

(600ppi)

Excellent

(350ppi)

Poor

(need backlight)

Excellent
Excellent
(Easy substrate sheeting )

Narrow Border

Excellent

Fair

In cell touch
technology

Excellent

Reliability

Excellent

Fair

Cost

Excellent

Fair

Design “Flexible”

Fair

Advanced
LTPS

LTPS

Excellent

Pixel density
Power consumption

OLED

Good

Fair

(currently on cell or film method)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

34

Prototype OLEDs using flexible film substrate

Notebook type

Bangle type
With touch function

Projection type
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35

JDI’s Technology Growth Strategy
LTPS is the core technology for JDI’s product development
Smartphones, Tablet PCs

Advanced LTPS technology

• High resolution/Low power consumption/In-cell touch
• Design improvement : Mass production of sheet OLED in CY18

Automotive Electronics

Curved & rapid response
displays with LTPS

• High resolution/in-cell touch/curved displays/rapid response time
displays (no delays)

Reflective

LTPS memory technology

(Industrial devices/electronic shelf labels/signage, etc.)
• Ultra low-power consumption display with MIP (Memory-in-Pixel)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

36

LCDs for Automobiles Market Trends
■ A variety of display types in automobiles
Rearview Mirror

HUD
Side Mirror

Side Mirror

Passenger Display

Cluster
CID

■ Automotive market needs for low-power consumption and narrow
borders will drive the technology shift toward LTPS.
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

37

Curved panel technology for
automobile

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

38

Curved or non-rectangular shape automotive displays

Integrate in-cell gate drive circuits using LTPS technology
Easier to make curved or non-rectangular shapes

Concave

Convex

S-Dr

S-Dr

S-Dr

S-Dr

G
D
r

LTPS
S-Dr

S-Dr

Non-rectangular
shape

G
D
r

a-Si

S-Dr

S shape

LTPS
S-Dr

Driver IC location only on one side → Easier to make curved or non-rectangular shapes
Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

39

Quick response system technology
for digital mirrors

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

40

Digital Mirrors
■ LTPS technology supports a higher frame frequency
(60Hz → 240Hz) to eliminate blurring & increase safety
Conventional

Prototype

Image
Blurring
LC response
speed

20ms

8ms

Frame frequency

60Hz

240Hz

100ms

4ms

Signal delay
from camera to
display

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

41

JDI’s Technology Growth Strategy
LTPS is the core technology for JDI’s product development
Smartphones, Tablet PCs

Advanced LTPS technology

• High resolution/Low power consumption/In-cell touch
• Design improvement : Mass production of sheet OLED in CY18

Automotive Electronics

Curved & rapid response
displays with LTPS

• High resolution/in-cell touch/curved displays/rapid response time
displays (no delays)

Reflective

LTPS memory technology

(Industrial devices/electronic shelf labels/signage, etc.)
• Ultra low-power consumption display with MIP (Memory-in-Pixel)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

42

Ultra-low power consumption Reflective LCD

Reflected
light

Liquid
crystal

Reflective
Pixel
electrode

SRAM






Each pixel has build-in-memory
(SRAM)
Data writing to memory for each
frame unnecessary as each pixel
holds data.
Uses LTPS-CMOS technology

Power consumption

■ Backlight power consumption unnecessary
■ Memory in Pixel (MIP) saves more power
100%

Backlight

No backlight
Approx.
20%

MIP
Approx. Less
than 0.5%*

Data
writing

Monitor video

Transmissive
LCD

Still image

Reflective
LCD

*JDI estimates

Power consumption of reflective LCD and MIP

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

43

Outdoor Visibility (Photo)
Photos of same outdoor menu illuminated by 50,000 lux
Reflective color LCD

Transmissive color LCD

25-inch
FHD

Brightness:
270cd/m2

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

44

Reflective Color LCD Applications
Special-purpose PC
monitors/readers

Wearable devices
1.34

0.99


1.2”

6~25”

Industrial devices

1.39”

Digital signage

2~4”

ESL*・POP
25”~
4”~

2~3”

1

2

*ESL: Electronic shelf label

3

4

5

6

7

20 30 (inch)

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

45

Just between you and the world

Copyright © 2016 Japan Display Inc. All Rights Reserved.

46