Power Optimization In Intel Graphics Technology

Power Optimization In Intel Graphics Technology

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Description: The Transition: Yesterday- Physically big - lots of cooling, Often plugged in; Today- Smaller, thinner, lighter, much less cooling, May have smaller voltage regulators; Power Limits are a first-order consideration when designing today’s computing devices! Strong Desire for More Performance: More compelling experiences, More computation in a smaller package!, High-DPI “retinal” displays = 2-4x more pixels, Range of visual experiences covers 2D, 3D, media, Combined together - All-day computing at higher performance!.

 
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Contents:
Power Optimization in Intel® Graphics
Technology, Gen9
Jason Ross – Principal Engineer, Intel Corporation
Clifton Robin – Senior Architecture Specialist, Intel Corporation
GVCS001
1

Agenda
• Today’s World
• A Little Physics: Why Today’s World Requires New Optimizations
• Optimizing Intel® Graphics Architecture

• What Do the Optimizations Deliver?

2

Today’s
World

3

The Transition
Yesterday

• Physically big - lots of cooling
• Often plugged in

Today

• Smaller, thinner, lighter, much less cooling
• May have smaller voltage regulators

Power Limits are a first-order consideration when
designing today’s computing devices!
4

Strong Desire for More Performance
• More compelling experiences

Augmented
Reality

Media
Analytics

Computational
Photography

• More computation in a smaller package!
• High-DPI “retinal” displays = 2-4x more pixels
• Range of visual experiences covers 2D, 3D, media

• Combined together - All-day computing at higher performance!
5

The Challenge: How Do We Fit Intel® Core™ Processor
Performance into Highly Mobile Fanless Systems?
SoC Power vs Chassis Dimensions
6.0W
Chassis thickness - 10mm

5.5W

8mm

5.0W
4.5W

7mm

4.0W
3.5W

Metal chassis, 41C T_skin, 25C T_ambient

3.0W
10.1 inch

11.6 inch

12.5 inch

13.3 inch

Highly mobile systems can’t dissipate much heat –
so our SoC can’t consume much power
6

A Little
Physics

7

What Determines Power Consumption?
Power Consumption has two main components:
• Dynamic Power
-

Goes up with switching transistor count
 “Cdyn” – dynamic capacitance of the switching transistors

-

Goes up with frequency

-

Goes up even faster with voltage (V2)

• Leakage
-

Goes up with powered transistor count

-

Doesn’t matter what the frequency is

-

Goes up very fast with voltage (V3 or so)

But frequency and voltage are themselves related…
8

Voltage, Frequency and Power
Voltage vs Frequency

Fmax@Vmin

Voltage

Voltage

Vmin region

Voltagescaling region
Frequency

Power vs Frequency

Power

Dynamic Power
Leakage

Fmax@Vmin

Vmin region
Frequency

9

Voltagescaling region

• The voltage vs. frequency curve tends to have an inflection point
- Fmax@Vmin: the fastest the part can operate at Vmin
- Vmin region: frequencies below Fmax@Vmin
- Voltage-scaling region: frequencies above Fmax@Vmin

• The Fmax@Vmin point causes an inflection in the power vs.
frequency curve, too.
• In the Vmin region, power doesn’t fall as fast as frequency
- Dynamic power falls with frequency…
- …but Leakage stays constant

• In the voltage-scaling region, power increases much faster than
frequency
- Voltage is scaling roughly linearly with frequency
- Dynamic power goes up as V2f
- Leakage goes up roughly as V3

Power efficiency is best at Fmax@Vmin

Voltage, Frequency, Power and Size
Power vs Frequency

Power

Dynamic Power
Leakage

Frequency

• In this section, we examined “At this
frequency, how much power do I
consume?”
• In the next section, we’ll swap the question
around to be “With this much available
power, at what frequency can I run?”
• To better illustrate that, we flip the Power
vs Frequency graph diagonally, so Power is
on the horizontal axis and Frequency is on
the vertical axis

10

Voltage, Frequency, Power and Size
• Consider two graphics parts:

Frequency

Frequency vs Power

Fmax@Vmin
1xSize Gfx
1xSize Gfx
2xSize Gfx

Power

Performance

With lots of available power, both parts are in their voltage-scaling
regions, and the big part performs much better than the small part

2.

With less available power, the small part is in its voltage-scaling
region, but the big part is in its
Vmin region; the performance gap between the parts narrows

3.

1

With even less available power, both parts are in their Vmin regions,
and perform roughly the same!

1x Size Gfx

2x Size Gfx

Power

11

• How much better does the larger part perform?
It depends on the power budget…
1.

Performance vs Power

3 2

- One 2x (twice) the size of the other
- Designed to the same rules, so same Fmax@Vmin frequency
- But because one is twice as large, it consumes twice as much power at
Fmax@Vmin

Optimizing across a wide range of power
budgets demands a scalable architecture!

Demo
The 4.5 Watt
Experience
Gaming

12

Optimizing the
Architecture for
Today’s Needs

13

The Intel® Advantage: 14nm Transistors
Lower Leakage Power

• Transistors get faster at
constant voltage
- Or leakage at constant voltage
gets smaller
- Or both!

• Cdyn per transistor gets
smaller
• Area per transistor gets
smaller
Higher Transistor Performance (switching speed)

14nm lets us pack more performance into a given power budget!
14

Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark* and MobileMark*, are measured using specific computer systems,
components, software, operations and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated
purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products.

Intel® Graphics Technology, Gen9 Scales to Multiple Sizes
GTI

Geometry Pipe

Media
FF

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Sampler

Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Slice Common

Slice

Unslice

Sampler

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice

Slice

GT2
GT3/GT3e
GT4e

GT2: 1 slice
• 24 EUs
• 3 samplers
• New! Faster
pixel backend!
8 pixels/clk,
fill or blend
GT3: 2 slices
• Plus added
Media FF
hardware
New! GT4: 3
slices

Multiple Graphics Sizes, Optimized for Different Power Budgets
15

Split Voltage/Clock Domains – Slice and Unslice

Media
FF

Geometry Pipe

GTI
EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Unslice

Sampler

Sampler

Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice Common

Slice Common

Slice

Slice

Slice

Multiple Usage Cases – Multiple Benefits
16

In some SKUs, the
Unslice can run at a
higher voltage and
faster frequency than
the Slices.
• 3D: provides more
geometry
throughput and
memory
bandwidth to feed
multiple Slices
• Media: can raise
the Media FF
frequency and
voltage without
raising Slice
frequency and
voltage

Autostrip Detection and Creation
Autostrip Detection


Media
FF

Geometry Pipe

GTI
EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Finds and removes
redundant input
vertices
Improves the
triangle cull rate

EU

Sampler

Sampler



Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Slice Common

Tessellator
Autostrip

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice

Slice

Slice

Geometry Pipe Improvements Keep More Slices Fed
17

Creates tessellated
geometry as tristrips (instead of
tri-lists)



Unslice



Improves the
triangle cull rate
and saves EU work
to shade redundant
domain points

Advanced Power Gating

Media
FF

Geometry Pipe

GTI
EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Unslice

Sampler

Sampler

Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice Common

Slice Common

Slice

Slice

Slice

Power Down Hardware When Not In Use
18

Can remove
power from
individual slices,
or from small
groups of EUs
• Saves leakage
power when
specific
hardware isn’t
needed
• Especially
useful for
Media
scenarios

Lossless Render Target (RT) Compression

Media
FF

Geometry Pipe

GTI
EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Unslice

Sampler

Sampler

Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice Common

Slice Common

Slice

Slice

Slice

Save Bandwidth, Save Power
19

Can compress data
(up to 2:1) when
writing many
uncompressed
Render Target (RT)
formats
• Saves bandwidth
when writing RT
data
• Saves bandwidth
when display
engine reads
displayable RT
data
• Saves bandwidth
when texture
sampler reads
intermediate RT
data

Improved 16-Bit Float Support

Media
FF

Geometry Pipe

GTI
EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Unslice

Sampler

Sampler

Subslices

Subslices

Subslices

Slice Common

Media
FF

Sampler

Slice Common

Slice Common

Slice

Slice

Slice

Save Toggles, Save Power
20

EU Instruction Set
enhancements
improve support for
16-bit floating-point
data in shader
programs
• Improves
performance –
can process twice
as many 16-bit
operands per
clock as 32-bit
operands
• Saves power –
doing math on
16-bit operands
toggles fewer
gates than doing
math on 32-bit
operands

SoC-Level Improvements = More Power For Graphics!
Embedded
& External
Displays

1. Aggressive power reduction in the CPU
cores and elsewhere

PCH

x16 PCIe
DMI/OPI

System
Agent

3

PCI Express®
(PCIe)

ISP

2

2ch DDR

IMC

Display

3. Memory-side eDRAM

LLC

1

Core

Core
LLC
LLC

Core

Core
LLC

GT 2/3/4

21

2. More Intel SpeedStep® technology
domains: System Agent and EDRAM I/O

4. Double throughput of LLC miss handling

4
2
3

eDRAM

What
Does It
All
Deliver?
DEMO

22

Summary and Next Steps
• The small form factors and small power budgets which define today’s world of
computing require different ways of thinking about architectural optimization
• Intel continues to innovate to get the most performance out of the least power
• The 6th Generation Intel® Core™ Processor family delivers great user experiences
in today’s small form factors!

• Consider the size and weight of the system you want to build – then pick the
right Intel Core Processor or Intel Core M Processor with the right size graphics
for your system

23

Intel® Processor Graphics
These details and more available in our
architecture whitepapers:
https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intelgraphics-developers-guides

Read our whitepapers!

24

Other Technical Graphics Sessions
Session ID




Title

Day

Time

Room

SPCS003

Technology Insight: Next Generation Intel® Processor Graphics
Architecture, Code Name Skylake

Tues

1:15 – 2:15

Level 3
Room 3016

GVCS001

Power Optimization in Intel® Graphics Technology, Gen9

Wed

9:30 – 10:30

Level 2
Room 2008

GVCS002

Enhancing 4K Media Experience in Power Optimized Intel®
Graphics, Gen9

Wed

11:00 – 12:00

Level 2
Room 2008

GVCS003

Display Stack Power Optimizations for Intel® Graphics, Gen9

Wed

5:15 – 6:15

Level 2
Room 2007

GVCS004

3D Optimization for Intel® Graphics, Gen9

Thurs

9:30 – 10:30

Level 2
Room 2007

GVCS005

Virtualized and Remote Intel® Processor Graphics for Your Data
Center

Thurs

10:45 – 11:45

Level 2
Room 2007

GVCS006

Scaling Energy Efficient Media Performance on Intel® Processor
Graphics

Thurs

1:00 – 2:00

Level 2
Room 2007

 = DONE
25

Visual Experience Pavilion Drawing
Bring your pre-stamped passport
card to the Visual Experience
Pavilion to be entered into our
daily drawing!

PAVILION DRAWING TIMES




26

Tuesday, Aug. 18th – 6:00 p.m.
Wednesday, Aug. 19th – 6:30 p.m.
Thursday, Aug. 20th – 12:30 p.m.

Increase your chances of winning!
Visit two (2) pavilion demos and
get additional ticket(s)!

PRIZES EACH DAY

1 Intel® NUC
2
ZenPad S 8 Tablets
1 Intel® Edison Kit for Arduino*
ASUS*

MUST BE PRESENT TO WIN @ the Intel Visual Experience Pavilion

Visual Experience Pavilion Demos
Booth
Number

Graphics Demo

220

221

Small Form Factor Intel® Iris™ Gaming

222

Virtualized and Remote Intel® Processor Graphics

223

4K Raw Image Video Processing on Intel® HD Graphics, Gen9

224

4K Multi-Display on Intel® HD Graphics, Gen9

225

Wireless Display Gaming with Intel® Quick Sync Video Fixed Function

226

27

Intel® Iris™ Mobile Gaming

4K HEVC Playback on Intel® Graphics, Gen9

Additional Sources of Information
A PDF of this presentation is available from our
Technical Session Catalog: www.intel.com/idfsessionsSF.
Additional Online information:
-

Intel Processor Graphics: Architecture Whitepapers & Developer Guides
The New Intel® Microarchitecture
About Intel® Processor Graphics Technology
Open source Linux documentation of Gen Graphics and Compute Architecture
Intel® OpenCL™ SDK
Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developers Manual
Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d): Enhancing Intel platforms for efficient
virtualization of I/O devices
- Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O - Architecture Specification
- http://ark.intel.com/

28

Legal Notices and Disclaimers
Intel technologies’ features and benefits depend on system configuration and may require enabled hardware, software or service activation. Learn more at intel.com,
or from the OEM or retailer.
No computer system can be absolutely secure.
Tests document performance of components on a particular test, in specific systems. Differences in hardware, software, or configuration will affect actual
performance. Consult other sources of information to evaluate performance as you consider your purchase. For more complete information about performance and
benchmark results, visit http://www.intel.com/performance.
Cost reduction scenarios described are intended as examples of how a given Intel-based product, in the specified circumstances and configurations, may affect future
costs and provide cost savings. Circumstances will vary. Intel does not guarantee any costs or cost reduction.
This document contains information on products, services and/or processes in development. All information provided here is subject to change without notice.
Contact your Intel representative to obtain the latest forecast, schedule, specifications and roadmaps.
Statements in this document that refer to Intel’s plans and expectations for the quarter, the year, and the future, are forward-looking statements that involve a
number of risks and uncertainties. A detailed discussion of the factors that could affect Intel’s results and plans is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the annual
report on Form 10-K.
The products described may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current
characterized errata are available on request.
No license (express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise) to any intellectual property rights is granted by this document.
Intel does not control or audit third-party benchmark data or the web sites referenced in this document. You should visit the referenced web site and confirm whether
referenced data are accurate.
Intel, Core, and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries.

*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
© 2015 Intel Corporation.

29

Risk Factors

The above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the second quarter, the year and the future are forwardlooking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Words such as "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks,"
"estimates," "may," "will," "should" and their variations identify forward-looking statements. Statements that refer to or are based on projections, uncertain
events or assumptions also identify forward-looking statements. Many factors could affect Intel's actual results, and variances from Intel's current
expectations regarding such factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. Intel
presently considers the following to be important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the company's expectations. Demand for
Intel's products is highly variable and could differ from expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions; consumer
confidence or income levels; the introduction, availability and market acceptance of Intel's products, products used together with Intel products and
competitors' products; competitive and pricing pressures, including actions taken by competitors; supply constraints and other disruptions affecting
customers; changes in customer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Intel's gross margin
percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on capacity utilization; variations in inventory valuation, including variations related to the
timing of qualifying products for sale; changes in revenue levels; segment product mix; the timing and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated
costs; excess or obsolete inventory; changes in unit costs; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; and product manufacturing
quality/yields. Variations in gross margin may also be caused by the timing of Intel product introductions and related expenses, including marketing
expenses, and Intel's ability to respond quickly to technological developments and to introduce new products or incorporate new features into existing
products, which may result in restructuring and asset impairment charges. Intel's results could be affected by adverse economic, social, political and
physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where Intel, its customers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural
disasters, infrastructure disruptions, health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Results may also be affected by the formal or informal
imposition by countries of new or revised export and/or import and doing-business regulations, which could be changed without prior notice. Intel
operates in highly competitive industries and its operations have high costs that are either fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term. The amount, timing
and execution of Intel's stock repurchase program could be affected by changes in Intel's priorities for the use of cash, such as operational spending,
capital spending, acquisitions, and as a result of changes to Intel's cash flows or changes in tax laws. Product defects or errata (deviations from published
specifications) may adversely impact our expenses, revenues and reputation. Intel's results could be affected by litigation or regulatory matters involving
intellectual property, stockholder, consumer, antitrust, disclosure and other issues. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or an
injunction prohibiting Intel from manufacturing or selling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, impacting Intel's ability to design
its products, or requiring other remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. Intel's results may be affected by the timing of closing of
acquisitions, divestitures and other significant transactions. A detailed discussion of these and other factors that could affect Intel's results is included in
Intel's SEC filings, including the company's most recent reports on Form 10-Q, Form 10-K and earnings release.
Rev. 4/14/15
30

Backup

31

Configuration Information for
What a Difference a Year Makes
• Intel® Core™ M-5Y70 Processor (up to 2.60GHz, 4T/2C, 4M Cache) On Intel Reference Platform. BIOS:
v80.1 Graphics: Intel® HD Graphics (driver v. 15.36.3650) Memory: 4 GB (2x2GB) Dual Channel LPDDR31600 SDD: Intel® 160GB OS: Windows* 8.1 Update RTM
• Prior generation: Intel Core i5-4302Y (up to 2.30GHz, 4T/2C, 3M Cache) on Intel Reference Platform. 4.5W
Thermal Design Power. BIOS:WTM 137 Graphics : Intel® HD Graphics (driver v. 15.36.3650) Memory: 4 GB
(2x2GB) Dual Channel LPDDR3-1600 SDD: Intel® 160GB OS: Windows 8.1 Update RTM. System Power
Management Policy: Balance Wireless: On and connected. Battery size assumption: 35WHr.

32