Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Aerospace Applications

Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Aerospace Applications

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Description: Integrated Direct Write Electronics: digital- ManTech Program: Integrated Direct Write Electronics. Simplify fabrication by locating electronics on vehicle exterior (vs.inside wing). Demonstrate printed heaters & thermistor for wing de-icing.

Demonstrate printed conformal antennas. Demonstrate flexible IC to digital converter. Complete TRL/MRL assessment.

Fabricate and test.

 
Author: B.J. Leever, M.F. Durstock, J.D. Berrigan, C.E. Tabor, A.T. Juhl  | Visits: 174 | Page Views: 368
Domain:  High Tech Category: Semiconductors 
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Contents:
Flexible Hybrid Electronics
for Aerospace Applications

B.J. Leever, M.F. Durstock, J.D.
Berrigan, C.E. Tabor, A.T. Juhl

Integrity  Service  Excellence

AFRL/RXAS
Materials & Manufacturing Directorate
Air Force Research Laboratory
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

1

Outline
• AF Motivation for Flexible Hybrid Electronics
• Development Strategy
• Advanced Development Projects
• Gallium Liquid Metal Alloys
• Stretchable & reconfigurable electronics
• Printed Interconnects and Capacitors
• Stretchable & resilient electronics

• Soft Packaging
• Summary & Conclusions
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

2

AFRL: Turning Science Into
Capability
Driven by Service Core Functions*Updated after Print

FY10 Funding
Vectored by Air Force Strategy + S&T Vision/Horizons + Product Center Needs + MAJCOM Needs
6.1
Basic
Research

6.2
Applied
Research

6.3
Advanced
Tech Demo

Initial Operating Capability Timeline
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

3

Air Force Research Laboratory
Technical Competencies
AF Office of
Scientific Research
• Aero-structure power
and control
• Physics and electronic
• Mathematics,
Information, and life
sciences

Aerospace Systems

Directed Energy

Information

• Turbine Engines
• High-Speed/Hypersonics
• Space and Missile Prop
• Aeronautical Sciences
• Structural and Control
Sciences

• Lasers
• Beam Control
• High Power
Microwaves

• Computing
Architecture
• Information
Exploitation
• Command & Control

Munitions
• Damage Mech Science
• Fuze Technology
• Munitions AGN&C
• Energetic Materials
• Terminal Seeker
Sciences
• Munitions System
Effects Science

Sensors
• RF Sensing and
Warfare
• EO Sensing and
Warfare
• Trust in Complex
Systems

Space Vehicles
• Intelligence,
Surveillance &
Reconnaissance
• Responsive Space
• Space Situational
Awareness

Human Performance
• Forecasting
• Training
• Decision Making

Materials and
Manufacturing
• Materials & Processes
• Materials Applications
• Manufacturing
Technology

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

4

What are Flexible Hybrid Electronics?

Electronics Manufacturing
Services
POWER

Manufacturing Convergence
for Application Spaces
Human Monitoring
Systems

Low-temperature
Manufacturing Processes
High-speed Automation
Printed Components

Asset Monitoring
Systems
Thin Si CMOS
Integrated Array
Antenna Systems
Soft Robotics

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

5

How could Flexible Hybrid
Electronics Impact the Air Force?
Man-Machine Interface
Airman performance limits capability in MANY military missions
….and new technologies are needed to sense, assess and augment the
“Airman-in-the-Loop”

Today

Embedded/Conformal Electronics for ISR/EW
Information and tracking in contested environments is foundational
to decision making and force projection
• Communication (conformal apertures)
• Distributed electronics for feedback and structural health
monitoring
• Reconfigurable Electronics

Future
Lewis
• Information Overload
• Missed Intelligence
• Threat/Danger Missed

Integrated & Flexible Power (Mike Durstock)
Energy limits operational capabilities and mission impact for
unmanned vehicles and wearable electronics

Survivable Electronics
Precision effects with smaller, low profile munitions pressing
requirement for current and future platform effectiveness

Issues:
•Cost & Weight
•Scale-up
•Durability
Integrated Power
harvesting, storage,
and management

• Robust electronics in extreme
environments (shock,
vibration, thermal)

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

6

Technology Development Strategy
• Accelerate development and transition of FHE
technologies to Air Force functional materials community
• Phased plan for FHE technology insertions

15

16

17

18

19

20

Conformal Antennas
Critical Pre-requisites:
RPA Demo

21

22

23

AM Design Rules

Human Performance
Rugged Flexible
Electronics

• Improved Conductive
& Dielectric Inks
• Qual. Risk Reduction

Critical Pre-requisites:
• Composite Certification
• Hybrid-Materials Design

Embedded Sensors &
Structural Antennas

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

7

Plasma Spray Direct Write
MesoScribe Technologies
Conformal & Integrated Antennas

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

8

Integrated Direct Write Electronics
ManTech Program: Integrated Direct
Write Electronics
• Simplify fabrication by locating
electronics on vehicle exterior (vs.
inside wing).
• Demonstrate printed heaters &
thermistor for wing de-icing
• Demonstrate printed conformal
antennas
• Demonstrate flexible IC as analog-todigital convertor
• Complete TRL/MRL assessment
• Fabricate and test

PM: Ted Finnessy, AFRL/RXME

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

9

Direct-Write Conformal Antenna on
MQ-9
Need


Additional communications capabilities are
required on the MQ-9.



Conventional approaches to add antennas
often requires new tooling (high cost, long
lead time) and drilling of holes in the carbon
fiber structure.



Fuselage is crowded with apertures for
communications, leading to co-site
interference.

Technical Approach

Phase I Results



Retro-fit existing fleet with conformal
antennas by simply replacing existing servo
covers.



Indoor range data showed VSWR and
directivity comparable with COTS
components.



Design and direct-write Cu antenna onto
servo cover using plasma spray technique.



Cu removal from part required a grinder.



Significant directivity benefit in crosspolarization performance due to location



Minimize co-site interference by installing
onto unique locations Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.
Distribution Statement A: of aircraft.

10

Automotive: Printed Console Electronics
Ford Demo: Ford Focus Console Thermoformed Silver Ink Electronics

Air Force could achieve similar benefits such as
elimination/reduction of wire harnesses in aircraft.
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

11

Moving Beyond Commercially Available
Human Sensors
AF Mission Areas

• COTS products focus on primarily on
motion sensing, with limited cardiac
sensing
• AF needs advanced biosignatures
sensing for cognition, stress, fatigue, etc.
• Consumer products will not survive
challenging AF environments
• AF needs unobtrusive devices with
chemical and mechanical durability

Traditional electronic components and
packaging will not meet Air Force requirements.
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

12

Potential for Human Monitoring
FHE Devices
Flexible Hybrid Oral Biochemistry Sensing System
Sensing lactate as indictor for fatigue.

Numerous FHE materials & manufacturing challenges must be
overcome to enable reliable & durable wearable sensing platforms.
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

13

Flexible Materials & Devices
Research Leader: Dr. Benji Maruyama
Developing critical Materials & Processes to enable flexible hybrid
electronic systems for airman performance monitoring
……..lightweight, flex/stretch, conformal, multifunctional, robust, autonomous

Novel materials
• Inherently strain-resilient
• Wafer thinning
• Liquid metals

AMI
Conformal & integrated
printing approaches

Harvard

• Rapid design cycle
• Enables retrofit
• Tailored materials and
properties

Innovative
packaging schemes
• Flex and performance
• Ensure survivability

Rogers

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

14

Integration & Packaging of Human
Monitoring Components


Flex Battery



NFC



Photovoltaics



Microcontroller



ADC chip



Printed antennas & interconnects

Comm
Power
Logic
Sense A, B, …

Challenges:
Single Layer Graphene Biosensor (G-FET)



Reliable, low-resistance interconnects



Energy dense & flexible batteries



Biosensor platform development



Integration into stretchable form-factor

Exposed 1-layer graphene

16X Mag

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

15

In-House Additive Manufacturing Capabilities
VERSATILE

HIGH RESOLUTION

LOW COST

3D PROTOTYPING

LARGE AREA

CUSTOMIZABLE MOTION
CONTROL STAGE

AEROSOL JET PRINTING

INKJET PRINTING

POLYJET PRINTING

SLOT-DIE COATING

Aerotech Motion Control
Stage

Optomec Aerosol Jet
Deposition System

Microfab JetLab 4xl-A

Objet Connex 3 3D
Printer

nTact nRad Extrusion
Coating System

 Multiple interchangeable
dispensing configurations
 In-Line Multi-Material
dispense point

 Fine features (≥ 10 µm)
 Thin layers (≥ 100 nm)
 Excellent accuracy &
repeatability

 Inherently clog resistant

 Good balance between
cost and performance

 Solid 3D structures

 Drop-on-Demand
microdispensing

 Rigid and flexible
materials

 ~10 µm minimum line
width

 Up to 82 material
characteristics in one print

 UV-curable polymers

 20 nm to 100 µm Coating
Thickness
 Scalable
 Selected area coating
capable

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

16

Gallium Liquid Metal Alloys (GaLMAs)
Led by Chris Tabor in collaboration with Michael Dickey (NCSU)

Liquid Metal encapsulated in Elastomer
3D Electronics
Flexible

Stretchable

Room Temperature
Liquid Electronics
Gallium Alloy Properties

Reconfigurable

MP < 0C
Viscosity ≈ Water
Vapor pressure ≈ 0
Electrically conductive
Non-Toxic
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

17

On Going Progress
Acid/Base Reactions with the Surface Oxide
Concern: The spontaneous formation of the surface oxide causes residue
of oxide and metal to remain in channels during fluid evacuation.

Image Courtesy of NC State Univ.; Dickey Group

React with the Oxide
Ga2O3 + 6HCl → 2GaCl3 + 3H2O
Mechanically Rigid,
Continuous Surface

Modify the Oxide

Individual Hydrated
Metal Chlorides
- H2O

HCl

H
O

H
O

H
O

H HH
O OO

Oxide
Metal

Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

18

GaLMA Printing and Processing
Additive Manufacturing with Liquid Metals
There are a variety of
approaches being explored
to accurately print and
define GaLMA structures

Aerosol Jet Printing
GaLMA Inks

Filament Extrusion of GaLMAs

Freestanding
3-D Liquid
Electronics

Cook et al. in prep.
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

19

Soft Electronics for Survivability
Traditional Rigid PCBs

Embedded Devices in Soft Matrix

Mass
Force Duration

AFRL, RW

AFRL, RW/RX

Opportunities for Additive Manufacturing Solutions:
Passive Devices: Printed conductors & dielectrics with
device architectures insensitive to strain
Techniques: Inkjet, Aerosol, Filamentary
AFRL/RXAS

Packaging: Islands of varying modulus and conductivity
Technique: Filamentary
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

20

Developing Printed Electronic Components

1. Printer Design
Motion system
Motion controller
Interface software

Scripting language
Deposition system
Imaging

Alignment tools
Computer


3. Ink Design

2. Printing Technique
Path planning
Loading protocol
Cleaning protocols
Alignment techniques
Stop-start compensation


4. Printed
Electronic
Component

Particulates
Reactive elements
Rheological modifiers
Solvents
Binders
Surface energy modifier
Stabilizers


Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

21

Inks Under Investigation for Filamentary
Deposition
Metal Fillers






Dielectric and Polymer Matrix

Ag (Particles, Flakes, Wires)
Ni Nanostrands
ASI Carbon
eGaIn (Liquid Metal)







Material

Conductivity
(S·cm-1)

Strain to
Failure

Bulk Cu

6.0·105

0.55

Bulk Ag

6.3·105

0.6

Silicone (SE1700)

-

355

Ag in TPU

1.7·104

TBD

Ag in PMMA

8.0·102

TBD

Ag in SE1700

6.1·103

TBD

Ag in PVDF-HFP

2·104

TBD

Dupont (PE872)

4·103

TBD

PMMA
Polystyrene
PVDF-HFP (various blends)
Silicone
Polyurethane

Close-up view of 3D printer setup (left) and optical image of
layered PVDF-HFP filaments (right). Scale: 100 μm

Quantification of relationship between Ag loading, matrix and mechanical
properties currently underway.
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

22

Flex Printer

PDMS

• Aerotech gantry and controller
• Air bearing XY with 4 independent Z-axis
• Rotation axis option
• Multiple zoom camera
• Various tools can be attached as needed
Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited. Case # 88ABW-2016-1256.

23

Polymers for Flex Cap Printing



Thin films (