Smart Steel Printed Electronic Devices on Metal

Smart Steel Printed Electronic Devices on Metal

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Description: Applications with Printed electronics on metal:- Active devices on metal foils for large/Medium surface applications:- Encapsulation (and light extraction - OLED): Rigid/flexible/shapeable/Outcoupling, CC and Viewing angle (OLED), protective functional top coat. Modular vacuum pilot line for steel foils in ISO 7 clean room. Modular R2R wet pilot line for steel foils in ISO.

 
Author: Guaino Philippe PhD  | Visits: 481 | Page Views: 725
Domain:  High Tech Category: Semiconductors 
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Contents:
SMART STEEL
PRINTED ELECTRONIC DEVICES ON METAL
Dr. GUAINO Philippe
Senior Project Leader – Specialist

- CRM group presentation
- Printed electronic on steel
- Tools and equipement facilities
- Next generation of steel -> smartsteel

CRM Group
CRM Group is a research centre in metallurgy founded in 1948
Global budget (2013) >30 Mio €
CRM Group integrates the talents and the assets of 230 researchers,PHD’s,
technicians & employees

Enhanced capability to compete through innovation in the world economy

CRM Group – Locations
Sart-Tilman

Sart-Tilman

Ivoz-Ramet

Sart-Tilman

EcoTechnoPôle
Gent

Gent

4

Liège

OPERATIONAL ORGANISATION CRM Group
5 Operational units

16 Technical activities
Metal Processing

Metal Production & Recycling








Raw material processing
Melting & Refining
Recycling & Valorisation

Metal Applications &
Construction solutions

Metal Surface & Coatings




Metallic Coating
Organic Coating
Surface functionalisation

Industrial solutions




Engineering & Thermal technologies
Pilot facilities & Technologies for CCL
Industrial process control &
measurement

Casting, solidification
Process technology
Product metallurgy






Building & Structure
Civil engineering
Metal Working & Assembly
Solutions & In use properties

CRM Group
 CRM Group’s Key R&D Pilot Facilities

Industrial Members

Organic coating line

Continuous hot rolling line

Printed electronic on metal benefit
Metal

Glass

Plastic

Flexibility/ formability



()



Moisture Barrier properties







Heat dissipation !







Robustness !







Extreme condition (heat
resistance, pressure, high
temperature …) !



()



Electrical conductivity







Scalable







Roll to roll







Recycling







Markets & applications
-> Automotive
-> Building & construction
-> Aeronautics (anti-icing)
-> General lighting
-> Public lighting and signage
-> Flexible lighting

Applications with Printed electronics on metal ?
Lighting
OLED – LED sources
integration

Steel Printed circuit
board
(metal core PCB)

RFID printed
antennas

Heater foils
by printed
resistor

for Wireless
communication

Coating / patterning
by printing technologies in R2R
Sensors
Humidity / Gas /
Organic compounds

Energy harvesting
Energy conversion by
printed piezoelectric
thermoelectric
8

Active devices on metal foils for large/Medium surface
applications
Encapsulation (and light extraction - OLED)
- Rigid/flexible/shapeable/Outcoupling
- CC and Viewing angle (OLED)
- protective functional top coat
(Transparent) top electrode
Active layer stack
30 µm
100 nm

Advanced metal foils
- printed circuit board
- Interconnection

Challenges
- Large surface area
- Rough surface
- Dust / contaminations
- Leakage current
- Interfaces permeability (Material diffusion)
- Process ntegration: R2R , Temperature

Anode and cathode sandwich separated by
a thin sensitive stack :
- 100 nm -> OLED / OPV
- 2 µm -> thin film (PV, heater )
- 30 µm -> DBD, interconnection …

Cathode
Anode

Advanced metallic substrates
(smooth dielectric, conductive electrode, large surface, Back/front side interconnection)
Electrodes for devices

dielectric and planarisarion
Steel foils
dielectric layer

Interconnection

requirements

Back sides Connectors

layer

Protective layer

Rigid or flexible substrates

stainless steel, thin plated steel, cupper foils…

Substrate cleaning

combination of chemical, plasma and vacuum treatment

Dielectric film & Yield

Leakage current and short, pinholes free, thermal
managment, working and process temperature

Planarization and optical mirror film

reflectivity, cavity, defects free

Anode (or cathode)

High conductive electrode

Patterning /Printable (ML) system

design, layout => Electronic circuit

Interconnection (back front )

Flexible PCB on steel

Mechanical alteration and failures

Cracks, moduli ratio (soft/hard layer), optoelectronic
function alterity (lifetime)

SURFACE COATING METHODS
(background for PE)
Solution state

Gaseous state

DBD

IBAD
(PE)CVD

Chemical
solution
Depostion

Molten or semi molten
state

Sol gel
Laser

PVD

Electrochemical
depostion

Plasma assisted

Low
pressure

Thermal
spray

Atmospheric
pressure
Dip/ spin coating
Bar / Roll coaters
Slot Die coaters
Spray
…

Lab scale to industrial line
(background for PE in R2R)
Lab

Pilot
Line







Metals: Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, Zn, …
Inorg. Compounds: TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, TiN, CrN, Al203
Org. Compounds: SiOxCyHz, DLC/a-CHx,
Metal & oxide solvent solution: silver conductive ink
Hybrids: metal-inorganic, inorganic-organic, …

Industrial
line

Printed electronic process on steel (lab scale)
Inkjet

Jetlab II precision
200 X 200 mm²

µ < 0,05 Pa.S (water)

20 - 60 µm

Flexography/gravure

Test solution Coatema
(Flexo / Doctor blade / Slot die)

0,1< µ < 5 Pa.S (oil/ peint)

40 – 100 µm
Resolution / Size feature

Screen printing

Semi automatic
CMS XANA 100/140

Viscosity µ > 5 Pa.S (paste)

> 60 µm

Modular vacuum pilot line for steel foils in ISO 7 clean room

Ion beam
preparation

250 mm width
t < 0.4 mm
L = 1000 m for 0.1 mm

3 Rotative
magnetrons
Cooling
Stage

Cooling
Stage

Forward / Reverse mode
2 mm/min to 5 m/min
Managed with supervision system

PECVD

Cleaning
Cooling
Heating - 25°C – 650°C

Modular R2R wet pilot line for steel foils in ISO
7 clean room

Slot die

3 rolls

Winding

Guiding unwind-rewind

50 µm –0.4 mm : Tension 2500N

Speed 0.5-20m/min

Heating - cooling

Oven with own filtered air system

Web Temperature 20 – 300°C

5 m length : 3 sections regulated

Cooling top roll

Drilling, Laser ablation & interconnection
Interconnection

 Laser source (within partnerships) :
 Laser nano (𝝀 532nm)
 femtoseconde (fs) (𝝀 1030nm) 20W IR
 F-Thêta lens 100mm
 Scanner head 3D
 Laser drilling => interconnection
 « selective » laser ablation => Layer patterning

laser ablation

Drilling
Cupper / Stainless
and low carbon steel

Ex: Al layer on advanced stainlesssteel

500 µm

=> integration in R2R wet process

300 µm
width

10 µm
width

Option for Dielectric based steel substrate at CRM
-

Combination of multilayer system : inorganic thin film / organic coating
 (Porosity (PVD) Vs Dielectric, current leakage )
Dielectric formulation
 Adherence/ T°C stability/ viscosity for process deposition…
Epoxy based

Polyimide based

Ceramic based

Organic (particles)
Inorganic (PVD)
Al2O3, TiO2…

T stability for working and process

as a SMD electronics components (LED,
sensors, resistors …)
-> Inkjet/screen printer -> circuit board integration on advanced steel.

Surface Lighting

Light extractions through light
diffusing dots

Circuit board steel bend and
formed - Roofing steel
Edge lighting

Printed DBD devices
(Dielectric Barrier Discharge)

Printed heater foils

Plasma

Printed resistors
Protective layer

Conductive
tracks

Protective film

resistors
Dielectric layer (high T)

Dielectric (ceramic based)

Steel foils

steel foils

~ 270°C

10x10cm²
heater foil

T°C mapping
(IR camera)
of working heater foil

Paschen’s law

10x10cm²
Printed DBD foil

Working
BDB discharge
(400V@300mBar)

OLED on steel : Global Context

OLED applications
Lighting

Display

Signage

Samsung
Galaxy

Automotive

Curved
screen

Osram

Blackbody
Kido

New Samsung
OLED TV

OLED device operation on metal foils
Anode

p- HTL

EBL

EML

h

- Inverted / non inverted devices
- Monochromatic and white colors

HBL

é

n-ETL

é

é

é
O

EF
O
e >

EF

Example of advanced metallic substrates with stainless steel
400 nm

Bared foil

0 nm

50 nm

0 nm
Advanced
steel
substrates

Ra 3.3 nm
Z range: 25 nm

Ra 110 nm
Z range: 1645 nm

150mm
Leakage Current

Rt > 95% in visible range
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Reflectivity (%)

M.I.M. junction
Rt
Rd
Rs

0

500
1000 1500 2000
Longueur d'ondes (nm)

Electrical short free
2500

µA (dc)@10Volts

First Prototype large area lighting sources on
stainless steel – Achievements 2011

60 x 60 cm ² panel

2011

3.5V; 16Cd/A

From
monochromatic
to white OLED

3.5V; 73Cd/A

>25 Cd/A / 22-26 Lm/W
proof of
principle

2006

Sheapable OLED on Cupper and stainless steel
Pole Mecatech project (wallonia region): 2013 -2016
Concept
- Curved p-i-n OLED devices on cupper foil.
- Circuit board integration on advanced steel.
- Light extraction Improvement: encapsulation covers and substrate texturation.

Curved devices assembly

OLED on Cu foils

OLED on SS

Substrate texturation
With : AGC, CE+T , CSL , CRM Group, CE+T, LASEA, MateriaNova, TAIPRO, UCL,UNAMUR, SOLVAY

Low cost Efficient Oleds for lighting
H2020 – ICT 29 (2015 – 2018)

Context : Develop a low cost & efficient OLED on low carbon steel foil (highly challenging)

GOALS OF LEO PROJECT
Wet anode integration
on LCS substrate

Integration of
Cu-based Emitter

Large area devices
(new SoA)
&
Large Demonstrators

Numerous news
technological
components

LEO
SoA
Dry

Technology

Structure A:

Dry/Wet hybrid Technology
Structure WA:

Surface LCS preparation
(Polyimide – epoxy)
&
PVD anode integration

Cheaper, greener and
more efficient OLED

Structure WAW:

Integrated back side
OLED connections
on LCS substrate

Enhanced light
extraction cathode
&
Photo-patternable
sol-gel hard-coat

Advanced metallic substrates with low carbon steel
Dielectric coating solution
Epoxy /LCS
Rms (sq)= 0.39 nm

Polyimide /LCS
Rms (sq)= 0.33 nm

Up to
Yield
Of
100 %

I leakage < 50 pA /cm²

Anode (PVD – bilayer ) solution
SEM

Anode (bilayer)
Dielectric

Steel (140 µm)

Anode on glass
Anode on Diel/LCS

Current
(mA)
10
10


(Ohm/sq)
4.76 10-1
4.74 10-1

STATUS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL BUILDING BLOCKS
Substrate : Low Carbon steel / epoxy with PVD Ag anodes
Dry process

Large OLED lighting
on steel has started

Dry & wet process
Current density (mA/cm2)

Same operating voltage

glass

glass
LCS
Polymide
based
dielectric

LCS

Epoxy
based
dielectric

180 mm

But still High leakage current
And pinholes

CNR-ISMN
Voltage (V)

But life time is still an issue

Size

From dry

to

(First proof of concept in bottom
emitting OLEDs at lab scale).

Vacuum/wet hybrid techno
Green OLED: 38 Cd/A@ 2000 Cd/m²

Back side interconnection with printing circuit board on low carbon steel
 Example of layout

 Interconnection layout
Front side

 Devices

Back side

 Interconnected devices substrate
Front

Back

Pilot line
white RGB, dry, 25cm²

Partners

DEM 2
full colours RGB, hybrid, 1*1cm²

DEM 1’

m free transparent cathode RGB, dry, >500cm² plain
white
rectangular
d thin film encapsulation
TRL5
mitted tailored outcoupling

DEM 2’
White RGB, hybrid, >40cm²

hode
on
pling

Rare Earth free RGB
M21
materials for hybrid
processing 1’’
DEM

Indium free transparent cathode
DEM 1
Hard thin film encapsulation white RGB, dry, 25cm²
Top emitted tailored outcoupling
DEM 2’’

Life Cycle Analysis

warm / cold white, dry, >500cm²,
M24
macropixel
TRL 5
High Energy Efficacy

Dry – tandem
Hybrid

DEM 2’’
ibility, TRL 5)

DEM2’

Processing

e Cycle Analysis

High materials utilization
Large area processing
Reduced CAPEX
cost top
Hybrid emission on metal foils
M30
0
20cm
10cm
Full colours OLEDs
ocessing

metal foils
s

full colours RGB, hybrid, 25cm²,
macropixel
High efficiencyTRL5
&

improved lifetime
DEM 1’
0

10cm

20cm

Hybrid – single

white RGB, dry, >500cm² p
rectangular
TRL5
sis

High
ate efficiency &
d improved lifetime
backcting

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION