Energy Efficiency: What Nanoscale sciences and engineering can offer

Energy Efficiency: What Nanoscale sciences and engineering can offer

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Description: Energy the World from Nanoscale, Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Its Applications, Institute of Nano MicroEnergy, Engineering a nanoscale heat engine, World Energy Consumption and Production, Future Energy Perspective, Ordered Smart energy, Sustainable Cycle Economy, System Energy Efficiency Theory.

 
Author: Zhiyu “Jerry” Hu (Fellow) | Visits: 2110 | Page Views: 6416
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Environmental Subcategory: Nanotechnology 
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Contents:
Energy the World from Nanoscale
Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Its Applications

Zhiyu "Jerry" Hu
Institute of NanoMicroEnergy Shanghai University P. R. China

WMMS2011, April 26-28 2011, Ras Al Khaimah
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

1

Outlines

� � � � �

Current situation and efforts Where is the problem Starting a nano-fire Engineering a nanoscale heat engine Summary

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

2

World Energy Consumption and Production

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Source Energy Watch Group, Oil Report 2007

3

Future Energy Perspective

Sustainable Cycle Economy
Transfer the linear produce and apply styles to whole lifecycle

Ordered Smart energy
Integrate information with energy Form the intelligence energy grid Achieve intelligent recycle product and apply

Energy Conservation & Emission Reduction
Total Energy Solution for Districts Energy distribution energy service

Use fossil energy cleanly and highly efficiently
Use coal-based energy cleanly

Renewable energy development
Solar energy

Innovate energy - Make energy and environment symbiosis harmoniously

China building an environmentally-friendly society
To build a resource-conserving ,environmentally-friendly society starting from the 11th 5-year strategy to develop cycle economy to enhance natural environment protection

Transformation of China's economy growth mode
Transformation from "high consumption, high emission, low efficiency" to "low consumption, Low emission, high Efficiency"
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

4

Building a Sustainable Society
Clean Energy Investment 2004-2010

Chinese government's national policy (2005)
40~50% carbon reduction by 2020 (from 2005) Making everyone responsible Energy efficiency improvement >10% per year Renewable energy: 15%(2020); 20%(2030)

(Top 10 in 2009)

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Source: PEW report

5

Green Needs "Green"

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7

How to Power Our Future
What kinds of energy after oil and gas?

How to utilize energy in the future? 1. Improving Energy Efficiency Greatly 2. Renewable Sources 3. Total Intelligent Energy Network

Coal
� More resources � The total national coal reserve is 5.57 trillion tons

Solar
� General and enormous � No geographical restrictions � Equivalent of 130 trillion tons of standard coal every year � Abundance

� �

120,000 TW produced by Sun per hour. 13 TW produced by Humans per year.
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System Energy Efficiency Theory

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ENN Eco Technology Park General Layout

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ENN Energy Eco-City General Layout � Energy Generation Stage

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Nanotech in Energy

WMMS2011, Evonik, Bayer, FHG-ISE, (Design: VDI TZ GmbH; Photo credits: Siemens, BASF,Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28 Rewitec, GKSS, Magnetec, FH Wiesbaden)

12

Future and Growth Trend
Source: Cientifica 2007

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13

Change Energy Conversion Method

Source: IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010
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Drawbacks of Burning

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

History of Heat Engines
� 1930s

� 1900s

� 1700s
hot

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Too Much Energy is lost in Heat

= 75% heat loss
Yang, J and Caillat T. MRS Bulletin, V31, p224-229, March, 2006

Burning is not our goal but effective energy conversion is

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Drawbacks of High Temperature Burning - Low Fuel Efficiency

i.e. for ICE 5% efficiency improvement means > 25% fuel saving
Demirdoven & Deutch, Science, V305, p974, 2004
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19

Why We Have to Burn

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Fire and Hume Ecology
Human discovered fire rather than invented it
Fire naturally exists Humans first learned to control and use fire about 500,000 years ago Our entire civilization is based on our knowledge of using fire

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21

Wisdom from Smart Minds
What gets us into trouble is not what we don't know. It's what we know for sure that just ain't so. - Mark Twain

Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them.
- Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Energy Conversion
Human Engineering and Nature

1 mm = 106 nm 1 mm2 = 1012 nm2 1 mm3 = 1018 nm3

Scale Temperature Pressure Efficiency Energy Source

> mm > 200 0C >> 1 atm. 10 - 50%
Chemical Energy

~ nm < 100 0C @ 1 atm. 30 - 80%
Chemical Energy

Starting a Fire/Combustion

Minimum combustion size � critical volume requirement
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Energy Releasing Speed Matters A Lot
Very fast but uncontrollable Slow and controllable

� Key word is `Controllability'
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Room Temperature Catalytic Combustion

25 mm
Localized heating offers:

Self-heated Pt particles in methanol vapor

� Precise control of heat flow / Absolute location / Ultrahigh thermal gradient 10,000K/mm

Nanocatalytic Spontaneous Ignition and Self-supporting Room-temperature Combustion

fire isn't hot?

Energy & Fuels, 2005. 19(3): p. 855-858.

� No conventional ignition � Exothermic heating occurs on nanocatalytic particle's surface only � No bulk high temperature burning - Fuel vapor / air mixture is at room-temperature

WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Gas Chromatography Exhausted Gas Analysis

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Change the Way We are Burning

Room Temperature Catalytic Combustion
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Principle of Nanoscale Heat Engine
Engine-A Engine-B

An engine 10 cm on a side Power density

An engine 1 cm on a side

P 1 V L

P 1 m L

NanoEPower � Direct-Fuel Solid-State Power Generator

31

Size: 15mm X 16.5mm x 0.5mm Active Element: 4,500 units Weight: ~ 0.25 g
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Chemical � Thermal � Electricity

Thermionic

Vineis et al, Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 3970�3980
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32

Thermal Conductivity at Nanoscale

Phonon scattering at interface reduces thermal conduction
Chen, G. et. al. Materials Science and Engineering A292:155-161, 2000

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Vineis et al, Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 3970�3980
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

34

Ragone Energy Plot with Realistic Fuel Storage
Lighter /Smaller
Higher end design

NanoePower

Lower end design

Lighter

Hydrogen 1.97 KWh/kg Methanol 5.55 KWh/kg

35

Source: ITI Energy
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Ragone Energy Plot with Realistic Storage
NanoePower

Lighter

Smaller

36

Source: Flipsen, Journal Power Source, 2005
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

Application Outlook
Non-IEC cars

TTW Efficiency (%)

Hybrid cars IEC cars

Mile / Gallon
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37

MacroEnergy and NanoEnergy

NanoEnergy
� Small and scalable � Low pollution � Work under low energy source -Small temperature difference -Low working temperature -Low energy density � High efficiency - Scaling laws
WMMS2011, Ras Al Khaimah, 20110426_28

38


There are a lot of room for improving energy efficiency from energy generation to energy consumption. Traditional macroscale energy systems are facing many principle difficulties. By taking advantages offering by the scaling laws, nano/ micro-scale heat engine offer many advantages. Linear thinking is due to change. "The will to do, the soul to dare."

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