Appendices to the AR4 SYR

Appendices to the AR4 SYR

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Contents:
Appendices to the AR4 SYR � subject to final copy-edit

Page 1 of 21

Appendices
A.1. A.2. A.3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 A.4. 4.1 4.2 A.5. 5.1 5.2 A.6. User guide and access to more detailed information................................................................. 1 Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Acronyms, chemical symbols, scientific units, country groupings ........................................... 16 Acronyms and chemical symbols ........................................................................................ 16 Scientific units ...................................................................................................................... 17 Country groupings ............................................................................................................... 18 List of authors........................................................................................................................... 19 Core Writing Team members............................................................................................... 19 Extended Writing Team member......................................................................................... 20 List of reviewers and Review Editors ....................................................................................... 20 Reviewers ............................................................................................................................ 20 Review Editors ..................................................................................................................... 20 Index......................................................................................................................................... 21

A.1. User guide and access to more detailed information
As defined in the IPCC Procedures, the SYR synthesises and integrates material contained within IPCC Assessment Reports and Special Reports. The scope of the SYR of the Fourth Assessment Report includes material contained in the three Working Group contributions to the AR4, and it draws on information contained in other IPCC Reports as required. The SYR is based exclusively on assessments by the IPCC Working Groups, it does not refer to or assess the primary scientific literature itself. The SYR is largely self-contained but provides only a very condensed summary of the much richer information contained in the underlying Working Group reports. Users may wish to access relevant material at the required level of detail in the following manner: � The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of the SYR provides the most condensed summary of our current understanding of scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of climate change. All references in curly brackets in this Summary for Policymakers refer to numbered sections of the longer report of the SYR. The Introduction and six Topics of the longer report of the SYR provide more detailed and more comprehensive information than the SYR SPM. References in curly backets in the longer report of the SYR point to chapter sections, Summaries for Policymakers and Technical Summaries of the three underlying Working Group reports of the AR4, and in some instances to other topic sections of the SYR itself. References to the IPCC Third Assessment Report in 2001 (TAR) are identified by adding "TAR" in front of the cited report. Users who wish to gain a better understanding of scientific details or access the primary scientific literature on which the SYR is based, should refer to chapter sections of the underlying Working Group reports that are cited in the longer report of the SYR. The individual chapters of the Working Group reports provide comprehensive references to the primary scientific literature on which IPCC assessments are based, and also offer the most detailed region- and sector-specific information.





A comprehensive glossary, list of acronyms, abbreviations and scientific units, and an index are provided below to facilitate use of this report by as wide an audience as possible.

A.2. Glossary
This Glossary is based on the glossaries published in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Additional work has been undertaken on additions, consistency and shortening of definitions to make this glossary more suitable to a wider audience. Editor: Co-editors: Alfons P. M. Baede (Netherlands) Paul van der Linden (United Kingdom), Aviel Verbruggen (Belgium)

Appendices to the AR4 SYR � subject to final copy-edit

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The italics used have the following meaning: Glossary word reference Glossary secondary reference (i.e. terms which are either contained in a glossary of the IPCC Working Group contributions to the AR4, or defined within the text of an entry of this glossary). A. Abrupt climate change The nonlinearity of the climate system may lead to abrupt climate change, sometimes called rapid climate change, abrupt events or even surprises. The term abrupt often refers to time scales faster than the typical time scale of the responsible forcing. However, not all abrupt climate changes need be externally forced. Some possible abrupt events that have been proposed include a dramatic reorganization of the thermohaline circulation, rapid deglaciation and massive melting of permafrost or increases in soil respiration leading to fast changes in the carbon cycle. Others may be truly unexpected, resulting from a strong, rapidly changing, forcing of a non-linear system. Absorption, scattering and emission of radiation Electromagnetic radiation may interact with matter, be it in the form of the atoms and molecules of a gas (e.g. the gases in the atmosphere) or in the form of particulate, solid or liquid, matter (e.g. aerosols), in various ways. Matter itself emits radiation in accordance with its composition and temperature. Radiation may be absorbed by matter, whereby the absorbed energy may be transferred or re-emitted. Finally, radiation may also be deflected from its original path (scattered) as a result of interaction with matter. Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) The pilot phase for Joint Implementation, as defined in Article 4.2(a) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that allows for project activity among developed countries (and their companies) and between developed and developing countries (and their companies). AIJ is intended to allow parties to the UNFCCC to gain experience in jointly implemented projects. There is no credit for AIJ during the pilot phase. A decision remains on the future of AIJ projects and how they may relate to the Kyoto Mechanisms. As a simple form of tradable permits, AIJ and other market-based schemes represent potential mechanisms for stimulating additional resource flows for reducing emissions. See also Clean Development Mechanism, and Emissions Trading. Adaptation Initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects. Various types of adaptation exist, e.g. anticipatory and reactive, private and public, and autonomous and planned. Examples are raising river or coastal dikes, the substitution of more temperature-shock resistant plants for sensitive ones, etc. Adaptation benefits The avoided damage costs or the accrued benefits following the adoption and implementation of adaptation measures. Adaptation costs Costs of planning, preparing for, facilitating, and implementing adaptation measures, including transition costs. Adaptive capacity The whole of capabilities, resources and institutions of a country or region to implement effective adaptation measures.

Aerosols A collection of airborne solid or liquid particles, with a typical size between 0.01 and 10 micrometer (a millionth of a meter) that reside in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Aerosols may influence climate in several ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly through acting as cloud condensation nuclei or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. Afforestation Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests (for at least 50 years). For a discussion of the term forest and related terms such as afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation see the IPCC Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC, 2000). See also the Report on Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types (IPCC, 2003) Aggregate impacts Total impacts integrated across sectors and/or regions. The aggregation of impacts requires knowledge of (or assumptions about) the relative importance of impacts in different sectors and regions. Measures of aggregate impacts include, for example, the total number of people affected, or the total economic costs. Albedo The fraction of solar radiation reflected by a surface or object, often expressed as a percentage. Snow-covered surfaces have a high albedo, the surface albedo of soils ranges from high to low, and vegetation-covered surfaces and oceans have a low albedo. The Earth's planetary albedo varies mainly through varying cloudiness, snow, ice, leaf area and land cover changes. Albedo feedback A climate feedback involving changes in the Earth's albedo. It usually refers to changes in the cryosphere which has an albedo much larger (~0.8) than the average planetary albedo (~0.3). In a warming climate, it is anticipated that the cryosphere would shrink, the Earth's overall albedo would decrease and more solar energy would be absorbed to warm the Earth still further. Algal bloom A reproductive explosion of algae in a lake, river, or ocean. Alpine The biogeographic zone made up of slopes above the tree line, characterized by the presence of rosette-forming herbaceous plants and low shrubby slow-growing woody plants. Annex I countries The group of countries included in Annex I (as amended in 1998) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including all the OECD countries in the year 1990 and countries with economies in transition. Under Articles 4.2 (a) and 4.2 (b) of the Convention, Annex I countries committed themselves specifically to the aim of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. By default, the other countries are referred to as Non-Annex I countries. For a list of Annex I countries, see http://unfccc.int; for a list of OECD countries, see http://www.oecd.org.

Appendices to the AR4 SYR � subject to final copy-edit
Annex II countries The group of countries included in Annex II to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including all OECD countries in the year 1990. Under Article 4.2 (g) of the Convention, these countries are expected to provide financial resources to assist developing countries to comply with their obligations, such as preparing national reports. Annex II countries are also expected to promote the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries. For a list of Annex II countries, see http://unfccc.int; for a list of OECD countries, see http://www.oecd.org. Annex B countries The countries included in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol that have agreed to a target for their greenhouse-gas emissions, including all the Annex I countries (as amended in 1998) except for Turkey and Belarus. For a list of Annex I countries, see http://unfccc.int. See Kyoto Protocol Anthropogenic Resulting from or produced by human beings. Anthropogenic emissions Emissions of greenhouse gases, greenhouse gas precursors, and aerosols associated with human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, land-use changes, livestock, fertilization, etc. Arid region A land region of low rainfall, where low is widely accepted to be
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