LED manufacturing and Automatic Process Control

LED manufacturing and Automatic Process Control

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Description: LED manufacturing and Automatic Process Control - Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing, We shape the Future of Light by advancing solutions for Illumination, Visualization and Sensing. Fault Detection alarm and event management Alarms & events via SECS/GEM total alarm & event count and Pareto ranking, alarm frequency, distribution and duration, classification, assign cause to particular alarm failure mode analysis, regular reporting.

 
Author: Heribert Zull (Fellow) | Visits: 3125 | Page Views: 7673
Domain:  Green Tech Category: Lighting Subcategory: LED 
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Contents:
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing
Heribert Zull

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing Outline
1. The Company at a glance 2. Markets & Products 3. Technologies & Competencies 4. APC today & tomorrow 5. Conclusion

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 2 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Our Vision & Mission
Illumination

Light the Future!
We shape the Future of Light by advancing solutions for
Illumination,
Visualization

Visualization and Sensing
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 3 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Sensing

About OSRAM Opto Semiconductors ... Siemens
... ... Sector industry ... ... ... ...

OSRAM AG

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH
� LED components

General Lighting

� High-power laser diodes � Infrared components

Speciality Lighting
OSRAM Opto Semiconductors is one of the world`s leading manufacturers of opto semiconductor components
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 4 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Production - Two Centers for High Tech
Regensburg Penang

Headquarter / Chip Fab
Fab facts � Chips for visible and infrared LED and lasers � InGaAlP, AlGaAs and InGaN chip technology � Mainly on 4 inch wafers, upcoming 6 inch � Around 1100 employees in chip fab

LED Assembly / Chip Fab
Fab facts � Packaging of visible and IR LED, Laser, Sensor, etc � R&D center for advanced packaging � Chips for visible LED in InGaN technology � Only 4 inch wafers, upcoming 6 inch � Around 4000 employees in assembly and chip fab

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 5 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing Outline
1. The Company at a glance 2. Markets & Products 3. Technologies & Competencies 4. APC today & tomorrow 5. Conclusion

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 6 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Market Growth is Driven by People >7 billion people
>50 billion lamp sockets (up to 3 per retrofit) >1 billion cell phones (~2.5 projector & flash p.pc.) >100 million flat screen TV (~25 backlight 40"p.pc.) >100 million laptops (~2 backlight p.pc.) >70 million passenger cars (~50 headlamp p.pc.)

Highest efficiency, low cost and long life are the focus topics of our R&D

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 7 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

The Key Markets of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors
Automotive Consumer

Forward Lighting

Safety

Mobile

TV / Monitors

Industry

General Lighting

Video Walls

White Goods

Street lighting

Shop lighting

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 8 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

The Key Products
Automotive
-LED -IRED, detectors -Lasers

Consumer
-LED -IRED, detectors -Lasers

� Interior illumination � Front and rear lighting � Infrared sensor and safety applications

� LCD backlighting � Projection with LED or lasers � Mobile phones with IRsensors, LED flash and backlighting

Industry
-LED -IRED, detectors -Lasers

General Lighting
- LED - IRED

� Video walls � Security illumination � Light barriers � White goods � Material processing

� Outdoor lighting: street, architecture � Indoor lighting: office, home, shop � Professional lighting: retrofits

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 9 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

LED is already the most efficient technology.
LED is the fastest developing technology with the highest potential.
170 Light source efficiency [Lumen/Watt] 150
155-170

Solid State Lighting
180...210

Standard light sources
Fluorescent

Metal halide

120

LED

vs.
100
85-100 CFL 1961

2011

2008 2006 2005

50

1938 Mercury 1904 Incandescent 1879 1959 1981 Halogen 35-55

2002

1996 1950 2010 1990 2020

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 10 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Energy Savings with Solid State Lighting
Today: Replacing the existing installations with the best available alternatives would save 30% of the energy going to lighting (according to ELC). Future: Combining LEDs, sensors and embedded software in ambient intelligent lighting networks have the potential to save an additional 40%*. Through the strong increase in efficiency the LED will outperform conventional technologies.
* Results of the Ad-hoc Advisory Group for ,,ICT and Energy Efficiency"; European Commission Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 11 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

180

Lichtausbeute [lm/W] Efficacy [lm/W]

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

LED

Fluoreszenzlampen Halogenlampen Gl� hlampen 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing Outline
1. The Company at a glance 2. Markets 3. Technologies & Competencies 4. APC today & tomorrow 5. Conclusion

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 12 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Technology Competence from the Start
MOVPE
m tu n ua InGaN q quantum al n well ter structure In
electrons holes

y nc e ici TEM eff

Conversion

chip

ne+ io rs phosphor e nv Co

+

y nc e ici ff
premold. LF

n-side

p-side

20 nm

350 400 450 500 550 600 650nm

single chip device

emission spectrum

Chip Design

y nc e ici eff n tio ) c ra chip t ex ( ht InGaAlP high Lig
optical power

InGaAlP thinfilm

y nc e ici eff package power ion e) t ac kag xtr ac e SMT-TOPLED� (p ht Lig micro package

Package Design

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 13 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Complete Development and Manufacturing Know How
LED manufacturing & differencies to Si semiconductor technology
Wafer bow Optical properties Material variety Unique processes Small dies Backside metal

Epitaxie MOVPE

PVD PECVD

Lithography Structuring

Wafer bonding Laser-lift-off

Thinning Separation

testing

electrical (U, I) optical (P0, ) structural visual structural mechanical (US)

Unlike Si technology high value added in the beginning of the LED manufacturing process.
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 14 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing Outline
1. The Company at a glance 2. Markets 3. Technologies & Competencies 4. APC today & tomorrow 5. Conclusion

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 15 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Current CIM and APC infrastructure
SPC DB
EDC Metrology Track In/Out
� tracking in/out � link process data to lot/wafer � process step � tool � recipe selection

MES

Operation GUI

Tool Data Product Data

EI < 100% Lock process adjust process

ut Track In/O

WIP DB Deviation DB

Wafer Scribing & Frame assignment
� assure traceability

Offline Offline Analysis Analysis
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 16 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Equipment & process data offline analysis
Filter Overview Analytic Reporting Analytic chart

Filter Properties Tool Recipe Variables etc.

Reporting Chart Line chart Boxplot

Tabulation

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 17 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Fault Detection � alarm and event management
Alarms & events via SECS/GEM
total alarm & event count and Pareto ranking alarm frequency, distribution and duration classification, assign cause to particular alarm failure mode analysis regular reporting

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 18 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

In-situ measurements & characterization
Optical Emission Spectroscopy OES) endpoint detection (EPD) plasma monitoring plasma clean optimization FDC SEERS (Hercules Sensor) real-time measurement of electron density and collision rate chamber conditioning plasma monitoring FDC Monitoring of epitaxial growth real-time wafer curvature measurement emissivity corrected wafer temperature growth rate analysis
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 19 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Source: Plasmetrex GmbH

MOVPE epitaxy process control
Manual Run-to-Run control
Rapid test metrology cover: PL - thickness measurement XRD � epitaxial layer quality Wavelength & intensity uniformity Forward voltage distribution Reverse breakdown voltage & current � Feedback test results to epi group � If needed, adjust epi parameter for next or next but one epi run
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 20 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

MOVPE process

Light intensity PL thickness

XRD spectrum

FD offline - Plasma etch process analysis
Important parameters are screened daily and influencies are detected immediately by process engineers, e.g. � endpoint curves � He flow (ESC backside cooling) � process time
faulty faulty curve curve

irregularity in epi structure irregularity in epi structure

normal normal curve curve

Feedback results to Epitaxy engineers for failure analysis
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 21 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

FD offline - Plasma etch process analysis
Important parameters are screened daily and influencies are detected immediately by process engineers, e.g. � endpoint curves � He flow (ESC backside cooling) maintenance maintenance intervention intervention � process time

He-flow in best order after maintenance intervention
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 22 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

FD offline � Chlorine based ICP etch process
SEERS (Hercules Sensor)
data collection phase for a multi step InGaAlP etch collision rate shows clear deviation for two wafer remaining lot itself is stable not observable at tool parameter no pure temperature effect because generally not only first wafer are affected basic cause is still under investigation
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 23 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Chlorine based InGaAlP etch Chlorine based InGaAlP etch

FD offline - Plasma deposition process analysis
SiN PECVD deposition
� silane based SiN � DC bias voltage for each deposition step

� irregular steps in DC Bias Voltage � affected wafer show hot spot (thicker SiN film) at wafer edge
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 24 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

FD offline - Plasma deposition process analysis
SiN PECVD deposition
hot spots result in thicker deposition and change of RI random effect around edge of affected wafers hit rate per lot: 0-20%

Failure mode
correlation of DC Bias and SiN film thickness platen top anodisation wear on pin holes and wafer recess

5000 4500 4000 3500

0 -40 -80 -120 -160 -200 -240

Measures

change of platen top 3000 durability improvement program launched (optimization of plasma clean & anodisation)
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 25 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Inline inspection and fabwide defect analysis
State of the art Inline Inspection Tool 3rd party Fabwide Yield Monitoring and Failure Analysis Software Spatial Pattern Recognition ,,Process Sentinel" Automated Defect Classification
Yield Monitoring and Failure Analysis Software � Defect Monitoring over whole production line � Including Spatial Pattern Recognition, Automated Defect Classification � Results of Inline Inspection, Ultrasonic Measurement, Prober, EoL-Visual Inspection are included
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 26 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Inline Inspection Inspection Tool

Defect Analysis Automated Defect Classification

Chipfine Data
Various Manufacturer

Fabwide Defect Analysis

AVI Prober etc.

Pattern Recognition
(Process Sentinel)

User, automated Reports, Alarms, notifications

Evaluation of Inline Inspection Tool and Analysis Software

Inline inspection and fabwide defect analysis
Inspection Data Analysis
� Analyze Defect monitoring maps � Quantification of yield impact in yield pareto � Feedback results to Process Engineers � Identify process and equipment causing the defects � Identified defects could be further analyzed by SEM, FIB etc.
Example: Activate/deactivate layer in wafer map Identify first occurrence of defect pattern Determined fault: scratches due to wafer handling failure
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 27 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

All VI failure bins All VI failure bins

Near future CIM and APC infrastructure
SPC DB
EDC
I ck Tra ut /O n

MES
� tracking in/out � link process data to lot/wafer

Operation GUI

Metrology

Tool Data Product Data
Offline Analysis

EI 100%

Lock process

� process step

adjust process
/Out ck In Tra

APC software WIP DB R2R

� tool � recipe selection � remote control � operator certification

Deviation DB Global extractor

Wafer Scribing & Frame assignment
� assure traceability

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 28 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

APC moving forward
Today APC
Advanced Process Control

Tomorrow APC
Advanced Process Control

FDC
Fault Detection and Classification

FDC
Fault Detection and Classification

FD
Fault Detection

FC
Fault Classification

FD
Fault Detection

FC
Fault Classification

FP
Fault Prediction

B2B Control
Manual Batch-toBatch Control

SPC
Statistical Process Control

R2R Control
Automated Run-to-run Control

SPC
Statistical Process Control

Metrology (stand-alone) and Sensors
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 29 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Metrology (stand-alone, integrated, virtual) and Sensors

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing Outline
1. The Company at a glance 2. Markets 3. Technologies & Competencies 4. APC today & tomorrow 5. Conclusion

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 30 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Conclusion
LED as fastest developing lighting technology so far Greater adoption of HB-LED technology depend on bringing down the cost of production, improving LED efficiency, quality and functionality Continuously increasing light consumption requires long-term growth of production capacity (i.e. high volume production capability) Building up the necessary infrastructure (IT, metrology, Equipment Integration, etc.) for holistic use APC is now in progress Successful improvements demonstrated with already existing APC capabilities

Although APC is not yet reality we are on the right track
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 31 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

Acknowledgement
Harald S�ldner (IT) Christian Schmid (IT) Bernd Gissibl (FoL Production) Markus Lersch (EoL Production) Ulrich Jacob (Process Integration) Roland Stieglmeier (Process Integration) Peter Eigenstetter (Process Integration) Andreas Weimar (Technology & Innovation)
Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 32 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ

It's just the beginning !

Thank you for your attention
join us @ www.osram-os.com

Disclaimer
This document constitutes neither an offer to sell nor a solicitation to buy or subscribe for securities. Any such offer will be made solely on the basis of the Securities Prospectus yet to be approved by the German Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) and published thereafter. The information legally required to be provided to investors will be contained only in the Securities Prospectus. The information contained herein is not for distribution, directly or indirectly, in or into the United States of America (including its territories and possessions of any State of the United States of America or the District of Columbia) and must not be distributed to U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended ("Securities Act")) or publications with a general circulation in the United States of America. This document is not an offer of securities for sale in the United States of America. The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Securities Act and may not be offered or sold in the United States of America absent registration or an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. The Issuer does not intend to register any portion of the offering in the United States of America or to conduct a public offering of the securities in the United States of America. This document is not an offer of securities for sale in the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan or Australia.

Deployment of APC in LED manufacturing | Page 34 2011 I OSRAM Opto Semiconductors I Technology & Innovation I HZ