Basic Principles of LED Lighting, Optoelectronics, Lighting Tools and Applications

Basic Principles of LED Lighting, Optoelectronics, Lighting Tools and Applications

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Description: LEDs: the efficient alternative: Developmental focus on optoelectronics- These are exciting times in architectural lighting. With the breakthrough of the LED as a ­viable light source across a wide front, we are currently experiencing a far-reaching technological upheaval. This is comparable with the transition from analogue vinyl records to digital music on CDs and memory sticks, or from analogue to digital photography.

Their enormous potential, both in terms of efficiency and regarding lighting quality and visual comfort, means that light emitting diodes will be the light source of the future. In particular, they are an alternative to incandescent lamps and tungsten halogen lamps which are known to be poor in terms of energy efficiency. It is at such times of change that there is a rise in the requirement for bona fide information, e.g.

what are the specific properties of LEDs for architectural lighting? What are their advantages compared with conven­tional lamps? How do LED lighting tools operate! What factors govern their efficiency in practical applications? What design possibilities do LED luminaires offer for lighting designers and to what extent does this alter design processes and cause paradigm changes? These and other questions are dealt with in this brochure. Additionally, ERCO’s specific approach to the subject matter of LEDs is explained. The first LED-based lighting tools appeared more than ten years ago in the form of orientation luminaires in the ERCO Program ...Please navigate Paper pages for more details.

 
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Contents:
tune the light

E

LED Lighting

E

Art.-No. 110.29466.000 EN 02/2013

Basic principles
Optoelectronics
Lighting tools and application

Contents

1

The Light Factory

2

The Light Factory

LEDs: the efficient alternative
Developmental focus on optoelectronics

4
6
8
14
16
18
20

Technology
Overview
LED modules
LED optical systems
Heat management
LED control gear and EMC
Lighting control
System design

It is only when all the system components are combined that the full potential of LED technology is
realised. Starting from the
fundamentals, we present
the ERCO-specific ways of
optimising the individual
components.

24

Comparing lamps

26

Planning data for efficient visual comfort

ERCO’s core competence
is its knowledge in lighting technology. Even the
optoelectronic systems
and elements for inno­
vative LED lighting tools
are designed and built
in-house.

Thanks to system design,
ERCO LED lighting tools
integrate seamlessly
with the existing product
range. Nevertheless, the
new technology requires
changes in the design
process and in the interpretation of design data,
which, in turn, raises the
potential for additional
efficiency.

100 %
80
60

V (λ)

40
20
0
300

28

Lighting tools
Indoor overview
Outdoor overview

40

ERCO media and showrooms

600

700

800 nm

Applications

36
38

500

Efficient visual comfort
Comparing LED lighting concepts

32

400

The ERCO Program features a wide range of LED
lighting tools for highly
varied applications, ranging from spotlights and
recessed luminaires to
n
lumi­ aires for the outdoor area.

C
ERCO’s Technical ­ entre
in Lüdenscheid offers a
functional arena for the
close cooperation of the
design, marketing and
sales departments.

ERCO specialises in architectural lighting. First
and foremost, we see ourselves as selling light,
not luminaires. This approach has been the
trademark of our work for many years. That’s
why we call ourselves: ERCO, the Light Factory.
­
Light interprets spaces and helps us to perceive and experience them. In this sense, we
c
­ onsider light to be the “fourth dimension” of
architecture.
Making good architecture even better with
light is what we see as our cultural contribu­
tion and the raison d’être of our activities.
Today, ERCO illuminates museums, universities,
retail chains, churches, airports, hotels, administrative buildings, private residences, parks,
squares and much more besides. Irrespective
of whether the architectural concept emphasises functionality or presentation, our goal is,
and has always been, to find a solution that
does justice to the specific use and architectural features of each individual project. In
the same way we give consideration to the
requirements of human perception and to the
need for sustainability and energy efficiency.
ERCO’s indoor luminaires, outdoor luminaires and lighting control systems constitute
an extensive range of lighting equipment for
general, comprehensive, architectural lighting solutions. The luminaire is a lighting tool, a
piece of lighting equipment with a particular
and practical purpose.
The breakthrough of LED technology currently being experienced in architectural lighting is probably the biggest development in
lighting technology for decades. ERCO plays a
a
leading role in implementing these ­ dvances
with practical LED lighting tools. The new
technology opens up possibilities for realisp
ing efficient visual comfort to a ­ reviously
unattainable level. With our “tune the light”
approach, we develop innovative products and
methods for making, directing and controlling light, enabling designers and users alike
to optimally exploit the advantages of LEDs.
The aim of this brochure is to explain ERCO’s
s
­ pecific approach and to help shape a safe
and inspirational transition into a new age of
architectural lighting.

Design seminars are
r
­ egularly held at ERCO
for groups of architects,
lighting designers, engineers and students.

  1

LEDs: the efficient alternative
Developmental focus on optoelectronics

These are exciting times in architectural lighting. With the breakthrough of the LED as a
v
­ iable light source across a wide front, we are
currently experiencing a far-reaching technological upheaval. This is comparable with the
transition from analogue vinyl records to digital music on CDs and memory sticks, or from
analogue to digital photography. Their enormous potential, both in terms of efficiency and
regarding lighting quality and visual comfort,
means that light emitting diodes will be the
light source of the future. In particular, they
are an alternative to incandescent lamps and
tungsten halogen lamps which are known to
be poor in terms of energy efficiency.
It is at such times of change that there is
a rise in the requirement for bona fide information, e.g. what are the specific properties
of LEDs for architectural lighting? What are
their advantages compared with conven­ ional
t
lamps? How do LED lighting tools operate?
What factors govern their efficiency in practical applications? What design possibilities do
LED luminaires offer for lighting designers and
to what extent does this alter design processes
and cause paradigm changes? These and other
questions are dealt with in this brochure. Additionally, ERCO’s specific approach to the subject
matter of LEDs is explained.
The first LED-based lighting tools appeared
more than ten years ago in the form of orientation luminaires in the ERCO Program. In our
current range of LED lighting tools, light emitting diodes are no longer used merely as coloured effects or for orientation. They are now
2  

suitable for professional accent lighting and
ambient lighting and also for high-­ uality,
q
e
­ nergy-saving wallwashing. LEDs are already
the predominant lamp used not only in the
Quintessence range, but also in new spotlight
ranges such as Logotec, Light Board or Opton.
Similarly, in established luminaire ranges for
both indoor and outdoor applications, they
take up a natural place alongside fluorescent,
halogen or high-pressure discharge lamps.
Our philosophy "Light not luminaires" relates
to the quality of light and is ­argely independl
ent of the technology actually producing it. As
such, its validity remains even now, in the age
of the LED. Successful concepts such as vertical illuminance and efficient visual comfort can
be raised to new levels with the help of LEDs.
Regarding design terminology, for example,
­
for different light distributions our intention
is to maintain maximum-­ ossible continuity.
p
­
A washlight remains a washlight and a narrow
­
spot characteristic remains a narrow spot
­characteristic.
One thing that will change with the new
technology, however, is luminaire data. Both
the wattages and the nominal luminous ­ luxes
f
of light sources have to be interpreted differently. The Light Output Ratio (LOR) is of ­ittle
l
use when judging the performance of a lighting proposal because it gives little consideration either to human factors of perception
such as visual comfort or to the question of
how much light arrives where it is required.
It seems more prudent to look at the ratio of
the energy consumption and the illuminance
­

u
­ ltimately obtained on the target surface.
Intelligent, qualitative lighting design is an
indispensable factor in efficient visual comfort
with LED lighting tools.
The rise of the LED has caused lighting technology to develop further towards optoelectronics, a seamless connection of optical and
­
electronic components. As with existing lighting technology, ERCO has long recognised that
optoelectronics will be a core competence and
a developmental focus in future. ERCO sees
that the potential lies in taking widely available LED modules and creating lighting tools
that will add value for ERCO’s designers and
users alike. The slogan “tune the light” defines
competence in production, direction and the
control of light. The necessary optoelectronic
­
systems are designed and built in-house. This
includes everything from the PCB of the LED
module to the complex secondary and tertiary
lens systems consisting of ­ ollimating and
c
Spherolit lenses through to the control gear
and software tools for digital lighting control.
This allows the potential of the new technol­
ogy to be fully exploited, not only for increased
­
energy efficiency and resource conservation,
but also for greater creative freedom in architectural ­lighting.

Cantax LED spotlights
being laboratory tested.
ERCO’s aim is to provide
designers and users with
innovative technology
in the form of practical,
highly functional lighting tools.

Lighting tools with
LEDs run contin­uously
through all of ERCO’s
product ranges.

With the Spherolit
t
­ echnology in reflectors
and lenses ERCO demonstrates its leading role
in lighting tech­ ology
n
to fully exploit the effi­
ciency potential of LEDs.

Without ­compromise:
ERCO brings ­ ecades
d
of experience in heat
­management into
­designing and build­ing ­maintenance-free
LED lighting tools to
match the reliability
and longev­ty of LEDs.
­
i

DALI-controlled LED
­luminaires and ­lighting
controls form a consistent, digital lighting
n
­ etwork, providing efficient visual comfort and
freedom in sceno­ raphic
g
design.

  3

Technology
Overview
Optoelectronics
The breakthrough of LEDs to become an important light source has caused the focus in lighting technology to shift towards the combination of optical and electronic elements, i.e. to
optoelectronics. ERCO’s competence in design
and production in this field is extensive. In
order to create innovative products to reach
the goal of efficient visual comfort, technologies and processes are continuously being
developed throughout the LED’s value-adding
chain. Optoelectronic competence means mastering all the new challenges with excellence:
from electronic component heat management
to the development of efficient optical systems
and from optimising control gear and ­ igital
d
interfaces to developing the corresponding
tools in the control software.

System design
For rational planning
and practical application,
ERCO has fully inte­ rated
g
the LED technology
into the system design
of its existing ­ roduct
p
r
­ anges. The available
range of shapes, light
­intensity distributions,
wattages and colour
t
­ emperatures is suitably
comprehensive.

DALI
PLUG+
PLAY

Factors for innovative LED technology
LED modules

LED optical systems

Heat management

Control gear

Lighting control

System design

4  

LED modules
By using dedicated PCB
layouts equipped with
carefully selected LED
binnings, ERCO ensures
that optimum luminous
flux and colour rendition is obtained for each
s
­ pecific lighting task.

Optical systems
The optical systems for
LED lighting tools are
vastly different from
those of conventional
l
­uminaires. ERCO designs
and builds these systems
­
in-house to ensure a
perfect match, thereby
a
­ llowing their full potential to be exploited in
terms of efficiency and
lighting quality.

Heat management
ERCO places particular
importance on heat management. This ensures
that LED modules ­ perate
o
within their safe tem­
perature range, ­ chieving
a
r
­ ated life and output
for the specified power
throughout their operational life.

Control gear
LEDs require perfectly
matching electronic control gear. The development
of electronic modules
in-house gives ERCO freedom in designing the form
and function of innovative lighting tools.

Lighting control
LEDs and digital lighting
­
controls such as Light
System DALI are ­ ruly
t
made for each other. No
other light source can
be controlled as flexibly and efficiently as an
LED. The user-friendly
operation through lighting control allows great
scope to design scenographic lighting in the
sense of "tune the light",
this enables the potential
energy saving to be fully
­
realised.

  5

Technology
LED modules
LED PCB
An LED module consists of the individual LEDs
soldered onto a printed circuit board or PCB.
ERCO sources the LEDs globally from ­ eputable
r
manufacturers, specifying the luminous flux,
luminous efficacy, colour rendition, colour temperature (i.e. colour of light) and consistency in
mass production. The choice of suitable LEDs
and their arrangement on the PCB depends on
the actual lighting task. In-house PCB design
allows optimisation of the complete system.
This involves using suitable layouts for each
separate light intensity distribution and precise
mounting points for the secondary lens, while
also considering optimum heat dissipation from
the LED chips via the PCB to the housing.

Characteristics of LEDs
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are semiconductor elements that directly convert electrical
energy into light via electro-­uminescence.
l
The outstanding characteristics of LEDs
include robustness, long functional life and
a high luminous efficacy with high potential
­
for further increase. White LED light is free
of ultraviolet and infrared components and
therefore has advantages from a conservation point of view. Daylight white LEDs offer
higher effi­ iency, whereas warm white LEDs
c
have better colour rendition quality. LEDs are
dimmable and offer high switching stability,
making them ideally suited for lighting control and additive colour mixing. Unlike ­ ther
o
light sources, RGB LEDs do not produce any
transmission losses through colour filters. To
exploit the luminous flux of the temperature
sensitive LEDs to the full, good thermal management is indispensable.

Warm white LEDs
The relative spectral
d
­ istribution of the warm
white LED with luminescence conversion is
closely related to the
r
­ elative brightness sensitivity of the cone cells
of the human eye. The
result is high luminous
efficacy and good colour
rendition.

100 %

ww

V (λ)

80
60
40
20
0
300

500

B

100 %

600

G

R

500

400

600

G

700

800 nm

R

RGB LEDs
The RGB LEDs are ideal for
mixing highly saturated
coloured light. However,
the white light from RGB
LEDs does not give satisfactory colour rendition
quality, making it less
suitable for lighting tasks
where colour is critical.

80
60
40
20
0
300

0.7

Coloured light
The saturated LED lighting colours enable a
wide variety of mixed
colours within the triangle of red, green and
blue.

527
530

0.8

Green

510

555
0.6
0.5

575

500

y
0.4

600

White
0.3

Red

490

622
780

0.2
480

0.1

0.0

0.1

B

100 %

700

800 nm

ww

80
60

Blue

40

465 380

0.0

400

0.2

0.3

0.4
x

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

20
0
300

PCB for optical
­projection system
The yellow surface coating of the LEDs emitting
white light is a fluorescent material for luminescence conversion. Optimised spacing between
­
the LEDs assists the heat
management on the
PCB. The round openings
­
f
­ acilitate the precise and
safe mounting of the
c
­ ollimating lens as part
of the optical projection
­system.

500

600

700

800 nm

PCB for grazing light
Grazing light requires a
linear light source. The
PCBs for façade washlighting are therefore
arranged in a line.

PCB for optical
­reflection
Optical systems that
direct the light via a
light mixer improve effi­
ciency if the PCB has a
high reflectance. For this
reason PCBs are ­ ainted
p
white and the arrangement of LEDs on the PCB
is designed to suit the
optical system.

Neutral white and
warm white
ERCO offers LED luminaires in neutral white
(4000K) or warm white
(3000K). This allows
lighting designers to
select the colour of
light to suit the material colours and spatial
atmosphere or to create
cold-warm contrasts.

400

RGBW LEDs
Mixing RGB LEDs with
warm white LEDs combines the advantages
of both systems: RGBW
luminaires produce
v
­ ariable shades of white
along the Planckian
curve with excellent colour rendering, but also
coloured light in pastel
hues all the way to the
highly saturated range.

Binnings
The LED manu­ acturing
f
process results in certain variations in the
c
­ olour loci of LEDs. LEDs
are accordingly sorted
into so-called “binnings”.
U
­ niform lighting quality
requires the strict selection of components from
defined binnings.

0.46
0.44
3000K
0.42

2700K

3500K
blackbody locus

4000K

0.40
4500K
5000K

0.38

LED manufacture
Like microchips, LEDs consist of semiconductor crystals and are produced using similar methods. The production plants build
up the semiconductor layer-by-layer on a
wafer. The upper and lower layer of the LED
chip features an anode or cathode and the
light is produced from the zone in the centre. Despite the use of cutting-edge production plants, not all areas of the wafer have
the same properties of luminous flux and
colour location. The result is that “binning”,
i.e. the selection category after cutting the
wafer into individual LED chips, becomes
essential. ERCO only uses LEDs of the highest grade and with identical characteristics
in its luminaires.

Manufacture
Modern production
plants for compound
­semiconductor materials are geared to short
throughput times and
high production quantities. Hundreds of LED
chips are produced
from one wafer. (Photo:
­AIXTRON)

Construction of an LED
The small, light-­ roducing
p
LED chip is fitted onto a
large heat sink for good
heat management. The
lens takes care of the primary light guidance.

Silicon lens

5700K

0.36
6500K
0.34

Cathode/
anode

0.32

Thermal contact

LED chip

0.30
0.28

6  

0.30

0.32

0.34

0.36

0.38

0.40

0.42

0.44

0.46

0.48

0.50

  7

Technology
LED optical systems
Projection: collimating lens
The quality of the optical systems ­ reatly
g
affects the overall efficiency of an LED lumi­
naire. To produce directed light, as occurs in
spotlights, ERCO develops their optical projection systems in-house. A collimating lens, as
a secondary lens, is the interface between the
LED lens on the printed circuit board and the
exchangeable Spherolit lenses acting as tertiary lenses. The collimating lens directs the
light of the LEDs into a parallel beam in order
that the required light distribution can then
be created by the tertiary lens. The principle
of total internal reflection in the collimating
lens contributes to the high efficiency of the
optical system. Decades of experience in injection-moulded polymers ensure the highest
quality levels from our in-house production
plant.

Short distances for optimum quality: photometric laboratories, tool shop
and production department for the optical systems are all located on
the same site. This allows
for rapid comparison of
computer simulations,
prototypes and fabricated
components.

Spherolit lens for
varychrome RGBW
spotlights
An additional layer in the
optical system is used to
ensure full mixing of coloured light even before
collimator and Spherolit
lens shape it into the
required beam. The result:
LED light in any hue, of
any colour temperature,
c
­ ompletely free of irritating colour shadows.

With extensive experience in optical simulations, ERCO identifies
­
i
­nnovative solutions for
new challenges such
as the development of
h
­ ighly efficient lens systems.

Optical principle
The light is guided by
three elements in an
ERCO LED spotlight: the
primary lens which is
directly mounted on the
LED chip and produces
a semi-spherical beam,
the secondary lens in the
form of a collimating
­
lens to create a parallel
­
beam and the tertiary
lens in the form of a

Spherolit lens. The design
of the tertiary lens determines the actual light
intensity distribution for
the specific application.

Total internal reflection
Due to its shape and
material, the collimating lens for narrow spot
directs the light with
practically no losses using
the principle of total
internal reflection. This
results in optimum light
guidance efficiency.

8  

Collimating lens for
narrow spot
The appropriate colli­
mating lens is used with
LED spotlights and projectors with the narrow
spot characteristic. Its
function is solely based
on the optical principle
of total internal reflection, which contributes
to the high efficiency of
the optical system.

Collimating lens
For all light intensity distributions – except for
narrow spot – the threepiece collimating lens is
suitable for the module
with three LEDs. The beam
is controlled by total
internal reflection at the
sides and by the central
lens. Precise mounting
points result in secure
and effective mounting.

Spherolit lens
After focusing the beam
through the collimating
lens, it is the Spherolit
tertiary lens that determines the light distribution. This ranges from
narrow beams to wide
beams and ­ symmetrical
a
light intensity distributions for vertical illuminance.

Projection and reflection
Conventional point light sources emit light
in a solid angle of virtually 360°, whereas the
i
­nherent design of LEDs means their light is
directed in a solid angle of 45°.

Oval flood
The Spherolit lens, oval
flood, has an axially symmetrical light intensity
distribution, producing
an oval beam of about
30° by 90°.

Wallwash
The light intensity distribution of the lens
wallwasher is designed
to provide very good
­uniformity.

Spherolit lenses
By designing the shape of each Spherolit
lens individually, a wide range of lens characteristics can be created. The parallel incident light is spread to a greater or lesser
extent depending on the curvature of the
surface. This results in lenses that have different beam angles, ranging from ­ arrow
n
spot to wide flood, yet retain the same
overall geometry. In addition, ­ symmetrical
a
spherolites enable oval beams and wallwashing lenses. A common feature of all
these beam characteristics is light of the
highest quality: the beams are particularly
uniform, free of striations and have a
clean, slightly soft edge.

Spot
The spot Spherolit lens
has flat Spherolit surfaces producing low
d
­ ispersion for a narrow
beam angle.

Thermoplastic injection
moulding
Cutting-edge injectionmoulding machines,
­qualified employees,
high-quality raw materials and careful ­ hecking
c
all contribute to the perfect quality of ERCO’s
collimating and Spherolit
lenses.

Wide flood
The wide flood
S
­ pherolit lens has the
greatest curvature.
The wide spread produces a beam with a
large emission angle.

  11

Technology
LED optical systems
Reflection
Especially in LEDs where high visual comfort is
required ERCO uses optical systems based on
the principle of reflection. This is the case in
the Quintessence range of recessed luminaires
with darklight reflectors. Here, to provide optimum glare control, the illuminated plane of
the diffuser is set back from the plane of the
mounting surface. This allows the exact cut-off
angle to be defined. Darklight reflectors with
Spherolit wallwasher segments produce asymmetrical light intensity distributions for energy
efficient washlights and double washlights. To
meet the stringent quality requirements, ERCO
­
carries out all calculation, design and production work in-house.

Projection: Lens system
In developing the new LED lens system for
general and office lighting, ERCO focused
s
­ pecifically on factors such as compact and
functional style, shallow depth, simple system
design, efficiency and visual comfort. To provide optimum glare control in downlights for
conventional lamps, the lamp is recessed from
the mounting surface in an almost concealed
­
position – with a corresponding height of
the luminaire. The much smaller dimensions
of LED system are helpful in their own right,
and combined with the new lens system and
glare control, this makes for exceptionally
­
c
­ ompact, yet highly efficient luminaires with
good visual comfort. While the flexibility of
interchangeable Spherolit lenses is a crucial
advantage in spotlights, it is less significant
in downlights meaning that efficiency is the
­primary goal.

Efficiency with compact
lighting technology
A light output ratio (LOR)
of up to 87% illustrates
the efficiency of the new
LED lens system compared
to conventional recessed
luminaire designs. At
ERCO, the entire optical
­
system – from the calculation and design to the
dies and tools in production – is produced inhouse.

Precise lighting
­technology
The one-piece lens sys­
tem made of optical
p
­ olymer is notable for
its high efficiency and
striation-free beam for
general lighting. It lends
a distinct and attractive ­
appearance to products
fitted with it.

Characteristics
The two different light distributions of the
lens system solve different lighting tasks. The
wide, round beam is used for the efficient
general lighting of surfaces and spatial zones,
e.g. for product presentations. The oval beam,
on the other hand, is suitable for the illumination of rows of tables, counters or pathways
with wide and thus efficient luminaire ­ pacing.
s

Lens system wide flood
The collimator ­ unctions
f
by aligning the light
into a parallel beam. The
upper circular lens then
creates a rotationally
­
symmetrical light distribution.

12  

Lens system oval flood
The upper parallel ribs
of the lens system bend
the rays of light to pro­
duce an axially symmet­
rical light distribution.
The oval beam is aligned
as required by turning
the luminaire insert in
the mounting ring.

Light mixer
The upper reflector of
Quintessence LED downlights is divided into eight
segments and is made of
mirror-finish alumin­ium.
The reflections ­ ithin this
w
light mixer ensure the
best possible colour mixing from immediately in
front of the luminaire,
especially with RGBW LED
modules.

Cut-off angle and darklight technology
With their computer-generated contours,
ERCO’s darklight reflectors combine maximum visual comfort with high light output ratio. As long as the lamp is within the
cut-off area, there is virtually no luminance
on the darklight reflector – the eye is not
d
­ azzled. For optimum visual comfort, the
higher cut-off angle is ­ ecommended for
r
prestigious rooms with high ceilings or for
deskwork. The UGR process (Unified Glare
Rating) quantitatively evaluates psychological glare. A downlight with a cut-off
angle of 40° and a UGR value of 17.3 provides more visual comfort than an otherwise identical luminaire with a 30° cut-off
angle and a UGR of 19.0.

Light mixer

Diffuser

Spherolit wallwasher
segment

Darklight reflector

Spherolit wallwasher
To achieve the uniform
vertical illu­minances
required for wallwashing, one segment of the
d
­ arklight reflector is
p
­ rovided with spherolites.
In the photo, the dif­ user
f
has been removed to
show the position of the
LED module. The ­ atented
p
reflector technology
results in the light on the
wall beginning just below
the ceiling.

Diffuser
The purpose of the diffuser technology is to
optimise the visual comfort. The frosted glass
diffuser reduces the high
luminance of the individual LEDs and disperses
this evenly across its surface to reduce the glare.
The diffuser technology
enables the design and
construction of highquality, energy-efficient
washlights.

30°
A cut-off angle of 30°
provides good uniformity on the floor with a
very high light output
ratio. Luminaires with a
cut-off angle of 40° provide higher visual comfort. This can also be seen
from the UGR values in
the product data sheets.
If the observer is in the

40°
cut-off area of the luminaire, the reflector will
appear glare-free.

30° /40°

  13

Technology
Heat management
Thermal simulations
Beginning with the development phase of
LED ­umi­ aires, the ERCO engineers produce
l n
thermal simulations to optimise the heat
management. Tests in the measurement laboratory take place to confirm the ­ ccuracy of
a
the detailed simulations and ­ uarantee excelg
lent light output when the finished ­ roduct is
p
in use.

High-power LEDs generate heat just as all
o
­ ther light sources, resulting from the resistance to the flow of current in the semicon­
ductor. To ensure that the nominal luminous
­
flux and functional life are attained, the
i
­dentified maximum temperature of the LEDs'
depletion layer must not ever be exceeded
even in continuous operation. ERCO therefore
p
­ laces particular importance on heat management in the luminaire, ensuring that the
LED modules operate below the critical tem­
perature range in order that they produce full
p
­ ower output throughout their entire functional life. ERCO uses passive heat sinks, which
are maintenance-free and reliable, and unlike
­
active systems do not consume any additional
energy. Their thermally optimised design minimises the drop in luminous flux, which occurs
with LEDs whenever they heat up.

Heat dissipation
through the housing
With spotlights, the heat
can be effi­ iently dissic
pated away from the LED
module via the ­ ousing.
h
The cast-­ luminium matea
rial gives the lumi­ aire
n
good thermal conductivity
and a high thermal capacity. The large-area connections between the rear of
the housing and the LED’s
PCB ensure good heat
conduction.

Dissipation through
heat sink plate
In certain housing shapes,
such as with Cylinder
­surface-mounted luminaires for the outdoor
area, it can be necessary
­
to fit an additional heat
sink plate between the
LED module and the lumi­
naire housing to improve
thermal coupling. Here
too, the construction and
dimensioning are based
on thermal simulations
which are part of the
design process.

Heat dissipation via
cooling fins
The correct design of
cooling fins ensures that
the recessed luminaires
have an ideal thermal
balance. The position,
length and thickness of
the cooling fins are thermally simulated in the
development process to
determine the optimum
design for efficient heat
dissipation.

-56° Drehung

Thermal radiation from
LED luminaires
In high-power LEDs, as
with other lamps, heat is
generated because of the
flow of current. This heat
is largely dissipated to
the rear of the luminaire
via the PCB and via the
coupling to heat sinks or
the luminaire ­ ousing. On
h
the positive side, the light
of white LEDs is free of
infrared radiation, which
means that the beam
does not warm up the
target object. This aspect
is particularly relevant
for museums as, for conservational reasons, plac-

ing a thermal load on the
exhibits is undesirable.
The same applies to the
lighting of heat sensitive
foodstuffs.

Lifetime (h)
70.000
60.000
50.000
40.000

Thermal coupling
The LED module is permanently bonded to the
spotlight housing, creating ideal conditions for
heat dissipation. This is
one fundamental advantage of such integrated
­
LED solutions over all
other types of retrofitted
designs.

14  

Ribbed housings
The cooling fins on the
rear of the Powercast
housing increase the surface area and enable the
LED’s heat to be optimally
discharged through radiation and convection.

30.000
20.000
10.000
0
90

100

110

120

130

140

Thermal radiation from
luminaires with lowvoltage halogen lamps
As thermal radiators, lowvoltage halogen lamps
generate light via a glowing filament, causing heat
emission in all directions.
Compared with LEDs, the
electromagnetic spectrum
of low-voltage halogen
lamps has a higher proportion of infrared. This
means that infrared filters are usually necessary
for the illumination of
artworks, which ­ educes
r
the efficiency.

Functional life of LEDs
Good heat management allows the
p
­ otential of LEDs to be used at full ­ ower
p
over their entire functional life. The depletion ­ayer temperature, which is measured
l
between the LED’s two conductive layers,
is the critical parameter for the heat management. If this temperature rises above a
c
­ ritical value, the first thing to be reduced
is the func­ ional life. If the maximum value
t
is exceeded, the LED will be com­ letely
p
destroyed. The possible reduction of the
luminous flux to 70% and the perfect function of 50% of the LEDs are entered into
the equation to calculate the nominal func­
tional life. ERCO designs the heat management of its LED luminaires such that a functional life of 50,000 hours can be expected
(graphic source: Philips).

Thermal Pad Temperature (°C)

  15

Technology
LED control gear and EMC
LED recessed luminaires with control gear
Combining LED recessed luminaires on-site
with control gear from other suppliers ­ reates
c
unnecessary complexity and risk. Incorrect
operating parameters impair performance and
­
reduce the life of the LEDs through overheating, possibly even ­ ausing total failure. Potenc
tial electromagnetic ­nterference in the suri
roundings may also affect other electronic
devices such as computers, mobile phones or
medical equipment, but ­ qually ­ uilding equip­
e
b
ment such as lift ­ ontrols. ERCO’s recessed
c
l
­uminaires with LEDs are always provided as
a unit, with matched, pre-connected ­ ontrol
c
gear. This package of luminaire and control
­
gear, familiar to users of luminaires with DALI
control gear, has many advantages. The control gear is precisely matched to the relevant
LED module to ensure maximum life of the
­
LED with high luminous power. The ­uminaires
l
are tested by ERCO together with the control
gear so the user is provided with a combination that ensures ideal operation and safety. It
also guarantees, in particular, compliance with
EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) requirements. The outer dimensions of the control
gear and the length of the cable are designed
to facilitate installa­ ion in the appropriate ceilt
ing aperture.
Tested safety
ERCO’s LED recessed
l
­uminaires with control
gear are developed, optimised and ­ ested as a
t
unit. This is indicated on
the luminaire and control gear labelling with
article and ­ erial number.
s
The cable has a ferrite
core for optimised electromagnetic compatibil­
ity (EMC).

­Electromagnetic
­compatibility (EMC)
When combining LED
l
­uminaires with control
gear from other ­ ources,
s
components and cables
can have the effect of an
antenna emitting elec­
tromagnetic radiation
which may interfere with
other electronic equipment or systems. ERCO
recessed luminaires with
control gear are ­ ested
t
for ­compliance with
c
­ urrent EMC requirements.

Installation
Other advantages of
ERCO’s recessed ­ eiling
c
luminaires with control gear include easy
h
­ andling on the building
site and smooth instal­
lation. The outer dimen­
sions of the housings and
the length of the cables
are matched to the size
of the ceiling aperture.

Dimmable
Dimmable LED luminaires
with control gear can be
operated via the circuit
using external trailingedge dimmers.

DALI
Luminaires with DALI
control gear provide the
advantage of fac­ ory
t
encoding. This enables
automatic recognition
of the luminaire in the
Light Studio software
­
to provide relevant
luminaire information
and functions. Convenient commissioning uti­
lising all the advantages
of networking.

Control gear versions
The luminaire/control gear units with LED are
often available in three versions: switchable,
dimmable through trailing-edge technology,
or DALI-controlled.
Switchable
Switchable LED luminaires with control gear
can be switched on or off
as required using manual
switches or actuators.

16  

DALI control gear encoding
One of the key features of ERCO’s Light Clients,
i.e. DALI-compatible luminaires, is their factoryencoded DALI control gear. It enables the
fully automatic recognition of all Light Clients
installed in a Light System DALI installation
to provide real plug and play connectivity.
This advantage comes in useful particularly
for varychrome RGBW luminaires: The manual
assignment of four colour channels to DALI
addresses is no longer necessary, as the varychrome RGBW LED control gear comply with
the standardised DALI type and therefore only
require one DALI address in spite of having
four control channels. ERCO’s DALI control
gear is encoded with an article and serial
number along with other characteristics of
the luminaire. The Light System DALI installation recognises the code, which is displayed
in the Light Studio software together with
the appropriate control elements: optionally,
a colour circle (which will be familiar to users
of previous RGB varychrome luminaires) or a
slider control to regulate the colour of white
along the Planckian locus from cool to warm.
Encoding ERCO’s DALI control gear therefore is
the key to an efficient installation of lighting
systems with RGBW LED technology as well
as their safe commissioning and user-friendly
operation.

Colour compensation with varychrome
LED luminaires
Due to the manufacturing process, LEDs
vary in terms of their luminous flux and
dominant wavelength. Even with ERCO’s
stringent specifications for the selection by
binning and consistent DALI control values,
it is possible that the light colours produced
by RGB colour mixing can deviate visibly
from one luminaire to the next. To ensure
colour constancy, each colour compen­ ated
s
ERCO luminaire is individually measured
and adjusted in the factory. Special software calculates the compensation factors
which are permanently stored in the control
gear. The user is therefore provided with
l
­ighting tools that always reproduce exactly
the same colour of light.

Luminaire

Control gear
Coding
- Article number
- Luminaire ID
- Lamp index
- Control capability index
- Control gear position

Coding for greater
user comfort
The Light Clients are
encoded with a unique
code in the DALI control gear. When powering
­
up the system, the Light
System DALI automati­
cally recognises the lumi­
naire type and provides
the relevant information
and functions.

Encoding and checking
In addition to the article
information, the software
also writes the indi­ idual
v
compensation factors into
the respective control
gear as per the measurements for colour compensation. This is an important aspect for achieving
perfect lighting quality
with RGBW LED luminaires.

The human eye is capable of noticing even the
slightest deviations in
hue.

The advantage of colour compensation with
varychrome luminaires
is therefore partic­ larly
u
useful in applications
requiring high consistency, such as coloured
­wallwashing.

  17

Technology
Lighting control
Control characteristics of LEDs
The optimum switching and dimming behaviour of LEDs makes them ideal for ­ntegration
i
in electronic lighting systems such as Light
System DALI. LEDs have absolute switching
stability and are capable of hot re-strike.
They can be continuously dimmed from 100%
to 1% – without any of the negative effects
a
­ ssociated with other lamps, such as the effect
on lighting colour, colour rendition or functional life. For this reason the majority of
ERCO’s LED lighting tools are also available as
Light Clients, i.e. with DALI-compatible control gear. Individually addressable luminaires,
p
­ owerful software and a wide variety of interfaces for switches and sensor technology all
come together in Light System DALI, to combine scenographic lighting with efficient visual
­
comfort.

Control of varychrome rings
Quintessence recessed luminaires with vary­
chrome rings are designed for user-­ riendly
f
control via Light System DALI. In this type of
luminaire, the primary light source and the
varychrome ring form two distinct ­ echnical
t
lighting systems each with their own dedicated DALI control gear. As a Light Client, the
luminaire is factory encoded with a unique
luminaire ID, allowing the Light Studio software to automatically recognise the luminaire
as a unique entity and to clearly assimilate
the data. The colour of light in the varychrome
ring can be easily adjusted using the colour
wheel in the software, and dynamic progressions can be programmed in just a few mouse
clicks.

Light Server

DALI

Control gear
varychrome ring
In luminaires with vary­
chrome ring, the light for
the varychrome ring is
adjusted sepa­ ately. For
r
instance, dimmed light
can be selected for the
ambient lighting effect
and a ring of coloured
light as a decorative
attraction.

Collaboration between
IT engineers and designers at ERCO has ­ esulted
r
in a powerful package of
hardware and software
for user-friendly lighting
control.

Dimming
The brightness of LED
l
­uminaires can be continuously adjusted. The
m
­ aster dimming function
in the Light Changer+
also allows the ­ verall
o
brightness of a ­ elected
s
light scene to be regu­
lated. Unlike other lamps,
colour temperature and
colour rendition remain
constant with LEDs.

Colour temperature
Light Clients with the
RGBW LED module are
displayed in Light Studio
with the 4-channel vary­
chrome attribute. The
colour temperature can
be infinitely adjusted over
a wide range using the
relevant slider control in
the software.

Coloured light
For use with DALI-­
compatible varychrome
technology luminaires,
Light Studio features a
colour wheel. This familiar and user-friendly control for infinite RGB colour mixing provides an
intuitive and interactive
means of selecting the
light colours. It relieves
the user from the tedious
task of having to input
separate dimmer settings
for the individual colour
components.

DALI
PLUG+
PLAY
DALI plug and play
Every Light Client, i.e.
every DALI-­compatible
ERCO luminaire, is supplied by the factory
­
with a digital code pre-­
programmed in its DALI
control gear. The lumi­
naire ID contains the
article and serial numbers for the special userfriendly functions when
commissioning, programming and operating Light

18  

System DALI. The Light
Studio software identifies the type of luminaire
and provides the appropriate information and
functions.

Light Studio software
The Light Studio software makes it easy
to set up lighting installations with Light
System DALI and makes its complex functions available in a user-friendly format. It
consists of five modules: The Light Master
module is used for editing and ­ anaging
m
the light scenes. The Light Book is used for
organising and structuring Light Studio
projects. The Light Timer module allows
light scenes to be recalled at pre-defined
times. The Light Sequencer is a tool for
defining the chronological progression of
light scenes. Finally, the functions in the
Light Keeper module support the user in
planning maintenance and help utilise the
potential for saving energy.

Control gear
luminaire

Luminaire

To enable a separate
adjustment of ­ rightness
b
and lighting colour, this
type of lumi­ aire has two
n
separate sets of DALI control gear. Through these
encoded control gear
units the luminaire is recognised as an entity by
the system, to simplify
programming.

Pre-defined light scenes
make it easier for the
lighting ­ esigner to
d
inspect the lighting installation. The Light Studio
software has a clear user
interface, enabling rapid configuration of light
scenes through to timecontrolled light sequences.

The Light Changer+
PC software makes the
user interface of a Light
Changer+ available to
operate Light System
DALI on a PC.

The special functions in
the Light Keeper module provide users with a
particularly ­convenient
means to realise the
­energy-saving potential
of their lighting instal­
lation with the help
of intelligent lighting
control.

  19

Technology
Lighting control
Energy saving through lighting control
Sensor technology gives Light System DALI
systems the capability to adapt to ­ hanging
c
influences in the surroundings. Via the Light
Studio software, the relevant light scenes
can be conveniently programmed and made
dependent on the readings from the sensors.
In this context, DALI-compatible LED lighting
tools, both through their high luminous efficacy and through their optimal controllability,
contribute to lighting solutions with efficient
visual comfort.

The energy-saving functions of Light Studio
graphically display the
connected load of the
light scenes in order
to clearly identify the
potential for energy
­saving.

External sensor

Lighting

0

Indoor sensor

Outdoor light sensor

6

12

18

24

User-dependent lighting control
The lighting is adjusted to suit personal
­
requirements.

0

6

12

18

24

0

6

12

18

24

Time-dependent lighting control
The lighting is planned around time
progressions and calendar events with
automation optimising energy usage.

Event-driven lighting control
The lighting is adapted to suit the
o
­ ccasion and type of use.

0

6

12

18

24

Daylight-dependent control
A typical application for the
a
­ nalogue inputs is the daylightdependent control. An external
sensor controls an analogue ­ alue
v
in response to daylight ­ onditions.
c
The sensor's range of values allows
up to 12 switching thresholds to
be set in Light Studio. The sensor’s
analogue value triggers the appropriate scene or sequence when a
threshold value is exceeded.
One application for external sensors: daylightdependent control of
museum lighting.

Sensor technology and energy
saving regulations
In many parts of the world legislation is currently being introduced
to save energy in buildings. Such
provisions already frequently prescribe the use of presence detectors and constant light regulation
to defined reference values. They
therefore require the installation
of an appropriate lighting control system as a prerequisite for
the practical implementation. The
result is that efficient visual comfort through intelligent lighting
control is made a mandatory part
of lighting design.

Daylight-dependent lighting control
The lighting is adjusted to suit the available daylight using an outdoor sensor.

Connection of media technology
Ethernet can be used to connect
the Light System DALI with standard media technology controls.
Many functions of Light System
DALI can be controlled using a
documented programming interface. Media controls from the
manufacturer AMX are compatible
with Light Studio.

Indoor light sensor
Illuminance
level

0

6

Total energy

12

18

24

Brightness-dependent lighting
­regulation
The illuminance level is kept constant
taking both natural and artificial lighting into account.

20  

0

6

12

18

24

Presence-dependent lighting control
The lighting is dimmed or switched
using a presence detector or motion
sensor.

0

Using daylight to save
energy and costs: with
the constant light regulation of Light System DALI.

Light
Source selector
Projector

additional
functions
VCR
control panel
DVD
control panel
Audio Foyer

END

Audio Controls

MIC

mute

Temperature sensor

6

12

18

24

Consumption-dependent lighting
control
To reduce peak loads, the lighting is
dimmed dependent on total energy
consumption.

0

6

12

18

24

Temperature-dependent lighting
­control
In order to limit the thermal load with
regard to the air-conditioning, dimming
of the lighting is made dependent on
temperature.

  21

Technology
System design
Characteristics
A wide selection of photometric characteristics lays the foundation for qualitative lighting
design and efficient visual comfort. ERCO’s LED
luminaires cover all the essential characteristics: energy-efficient vertical illuminance with
various wallwashers, ambient lighting with
downlights and accent lighting with direc­
tional luminaires.

Taking system design to its logical conclusion
­
is a characteristic feature of ERCO products.
LED luminaires are therefore never seen as
s
­ olitary products, but are fully integrated into
­
the ­ ystematic structure of the overall prods
uct range. This allows the designer to use LED
lighting tools for many different lighting tasks
and to combine them seamlessly with conventional products. Efficient and rational planning
is ensured by consistent product range structures with comparable light intensity distributions and by uniform terminology, but also
­
by defined interfaces such as the adapter for
track-mounted spotlights. The DALI technol­
ogy gives our product system an additional ­
virtual software level – on which all ERCO
Light Clients can be conveniently networked.

Double washlight
Double washlights are
offered for uniform illumination of parallel walls
as well as the floor in
hallways. The light is controlled using a darklight
reflector which has two
integral Spherolit reflector segments.

Characteristics
With characteristics
r
­ anging from narrow
spot to wide flood, the
light intensity distributions of the LED luminaires follow the established structure of ERCO’s
product range and offer
a wide scope for design.
LED ­ loodlight and wallf
washer characteristics
are currently being devel­
oped, and replaceable
Spherolit lenses provide
addi­ ional flexibility in
t
selected ­luminaires.

System design has been
a characteristic feature
of ERCO’s product structure for decades. Today,
the design and development process not only
covers the construction
of the lighting technol­
ogy and the design of
the luminaire’s shape,
but also includes the
conception of product
­
groups, of product systems, of production
­

22  

Colour temperature
and coloured light
By using deliberate contrasts between warm
white and neutral white
light, the lighting ­ esigner
d
can create subtle contrasts and atmospheres
while also responding to
spe­ ific materials. Furtherc
more, lighting tools for
vibrant effects with saturated colours are also
available in the form of
varychrome LED luminaires.

Lumen categories
Due to the high – and
continually ­mproving –
i
luminous efficacy of LEDs,
it is particu­arly imporl
tant when planning to
think in terms of lumen
categories. The LED luminaires in the ERCO product range cover a wide
variety of lumen categories and therefore offer
an appropriate ­ olution
s
for a large number of
lighting tasks.

p
­ rocesses and of digital
interfaces, plus extensive
technical documentation
for each product.

Differentiated lighting
design requires various
lighting tools that each
offer the optimum lighting quality and efficiently
complete their task.

Directional luminaire
Highlighting is pro­ ided
v
by directional luminaires.
The beams can be ­ ilted
t
up to 30° from the vertical axis and rotated
through 360°.

Lens wallwasher
Special lens reflector systems ensure highly uniform wall illumination.
The darklight reflectors,
which are visible from
below, are glare-free.

Systems
The principles of system design make a
convincing argument not only from the
design point of view, but also from the technical perspective. Conventional spotlights
on ERCO track can be easily supple­ ented
m
with LED spotlights or replaced altogether.
Within an ERCO product group, LED spotlights can be combined with conven­ ional
t
spotlights with design consistency. The
Quintessence range of recessed luminaires
offers comparable flexibility thanks to the
uniform mounting rings. Updating with
efficient LED technology or changing any
other photometric characteristics is a simple matter due to the modular system.

Spotlights and track
Innovative LED spotlights
can be simply installed
into existing ERCO track
installations.

Mounting ring

Downlight

Wallwasher

Directional
luminaire

Quintessence
The modular system of
Quintessence is based on
uniform mounting rings
and mounting frames.
This enables luminaires
with different characteristics to be installed.
Subsequent alterations
such as replacing a low-­
voltage halogen downlight with an LED directional luminaire do not

present any difficulty
with Quintessence.

  23

Comparing lamps

Lamp power P (W)
Luminous flux (lm)
Luminous efficacy (lm/W) max.
Colour of light
Colour temperature T (K)
Colour rendition
Colour rendition index Ra
Functional life t (h)
Dimming behaviour
Brilliance
Starting behaviour

LED ww
2–48
160–3840
80
ww
3000
1b
90
50000
+
+
+

Luminous flux (lm)
The luminous flux is the total light power of
a light source over the visible spectrum taking the varying spectral sensitivity of the eye
into account, as given by the V(λ) curve. This
means that a radiant flux in frequency ranges
­
­
where the eye is less sensitive will result in
rela­ ively lower luminous flux values. LEDs are
t
being developed towards increasingly higher
­
connected loads and luminous fluxes. This
makes them increasingly effective for lighting
­
tasks that require higher luminous flux. For
this ­ eason the selection of suitable lamps and
r
wattages is recommended through the use of
lumen categories.

LED nw
2–48
200-4800
100
nw
4000
1b
80
50000
+
+
+

LED
QT
HIT
TC
F (lm)

LED varychrome
10–28
375–960
44
various
1700–10000
1b
90
50000
+
+
+

100

200

24  

2000

5000

TC / T
9–54
600–4450
94
ww, nw, dw
2700–6500
1b
80–89
12000–20000
+
+

10000 20000

50000

Colour rendition
The spectrum of a light source determines
the colour rendition. A continuous spectrum
provides optimum colour rendition, whereas
band spectra result in poorer colour rendition.
Incandescent lamps achieve very high colour
rendition. Whereas warm white LEDs provide a
colour rendition which is comparable to that
of metal halide lamps.

LED
QT
HIT
TC

20

LED
QT
HIT
TC

LED ww

QT

100 %

100 %

ww

V (λ)

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

V (λ)

0
400

500

600

700

800 nm

Lumen category
< 2,000lm
Accent light of mediumsized objects from moderate distances, wallwashing
up to 3m, grazing light,
projection

300

400

500

600

700

800 nm

LED
QT
HIT
TC

20

Lumen category
< 5,000lm
Accent lighting of larger
­
objects, wallwashing
up to 4m, washlighting,
grazing light, projection

Lumen category
< 10,000lm
Ambient lighting, washlighting and accent
l
­ighting of larger objects
or over great ­ istances,
d
wallwashing up to 6m,
grazing light, projection

Lumen category
> 10,000lm
Ambient lighting and
wallwashing of very high
rooms, washlighting and
accent lighting of very
large objects over very
great distances

Damage factor
The relative damage factor is used to assess
suitable light sources for conservation requirements such as in museums. It specifies the ratio
of the damaging radiation intensity and the
illuminance. Warm white LED lighting is better suited for delicate objects than low-voltage
halogen lamps with or without UV ­ ilter.
f

20000

40

LED ww

60

80

30000

100

100 %

ww

80

80

60

60

40

n (lm/W)

40000

80

50000 t (h)
resultant luminous effi­
cacy is a truly perceptionrelated dimension for the
efficiency of a lamp. The
functional life (bottom)
is measured in operating
hours (h).

100 Ra

Warm white LEDs provide
better colour rendition
quality, whereas ­ eutral
n
white LEDs have higher
luminous efficacy.

LED nw

100 %

40
20

20

Colour of light
The colour of light from a lamp depends on
the spectral distribution of the emitted light.
In lighting design practice, white light is categorised into colours such as warm white,
n
­ eutral white or daylight white. Warm white
lamps bring out the red and yellow ­ pectral
s
range, whereas blues and greens, i.e. cool
c
­ olours, are emphasised under daylight white
light.

60

The luminous ­ fficacy
e
(top) is measured in
lumen per watt (lm/W).
Since the spectral sensitivity of the human eye
is taken into account in
the luminous flux, the

0
300

One reason why LEDs
have a higher luminous
efficacy than halogen
lamps is that their radia­
tion spectrum is more
congruent with the sensitivity of the human eye,
as indicated by the V(λ)
curve.

40

10000

0

300

Lumen category
< 500lm
Accent lighting of small
objects from very close
projection distances,
grazing light, orientation
lighting

500

HIT
20–400
1800–35000
114
ww, nw
3000–4200
1b
81–90
5000–15000
+
-

The different ranges of
luminous flux result from
the different connected
loads of the lamps or LED
modules.

0

Lumen category
< 50lm
Orientation lighting in
dark surroundings, picking out architectural
lines, directive lighting

QT 12V
20–100
320–2200
22
ww
3000
1a
100
4000
+
+
+

Economic efficiency:
Luminous efficacy and functional life
The economic efficiency of a lamp depends on
its luminous efficacy and functional life. As a
measure of the efficiency of a lamp, the luminous efficacy is the ratio of the emitted luminous flux in lumen to the expended electric
power in watts. With their high luminous efficacy and long functional life, LEDs represent
an important alternative for energy-efficient
planning. In contrast to conventional lamps,
there is still much developmental potential to
increase the luminous efficacy of LEDs. This
means that when calculating the luminous
flux or illuminance, it is important to use current figures for the luminous efficacy of LEDs
as opposed to the wattage of the LED module.

LED
QT
HIT
TC

400

500

600

700

2000

800 nm

300

400

500

600

700

3000

800 nm

4000

5000

6000

T (K)

White LEDs are available
in versions ranging from
warm white to neutral
white. With 4-channel
varychrome luminaires,
the colour of light of the
RGBW LED module can
be infinitely varied using
the Light System DALI.

Light source
Relative damage

factor f (mW/lm)
LED warm white, Ra 90 0.149
QT12-RE with UV filter 0.159
QT12-RE 0.169
HIT 930
0.182

  25

Planning data for efficient visual comfort

Efficient lighting technology
ERCO provides all the data necessary for a differentiated analysis and planning of efficient
lighting. This includes lamp characteristics,
photometric details relating to the luminaire
and planning data for the specific lighting
task, as well as information on visual comfort.

There are three aspects
that determine the efficiency of lighting. While
the luminous efficacy of
a lamp and the LOR provide quantitative measures, it is the issue of how
effectively a luminaire fulfils its lighting task that is
the essential qualitative
measure.

Efficient luminaires for different lighting
tasks
The efficiency of a luminaire for a specific
­
lighting task necessitates individual ­ valuation
e
criteria due to the variety of requirements.
Such criteria might be good uniformity with a
grid arrangement for horizontal ambient lighting, linear and uniform wallwashing or even
high illuminances for accent lighting.

Lamp
Luminaire
Application

Power (W) and luminous flux (lm)
Power consumption is used to compare the
electrical energy requirement of luminaires.
The lamp rating identifies the power, while the
luminous flux is the emitted light. The active
power describes the actual energy used, which
is reduced when dimmed.

For the same ­uminous
l
flux, LED luminaires
require considerably less
power than low-voltage
halogen lamps. A 28W
LED module, for instance,
requires only a third as
much energy as a 90W
low-voltage ­halogen
lamp, yet both emit about
1800lm. The nominal
­
power is always listed in
­
the product data. With
the LED luminaires, the

Luminous efficacy (lm/W)
Since luminous efficacy is defined as the ratio
of the emitted luminous flux to the expended
electrical power of a lamp, it is ideal for comparing lamp efficiencies.

The luminous efficacy of
­
LEDs is constantly increasing due to the rapid tech­
nical development. For
more detailed information
on lamps, please visit the
Guide section of the ERCO
Light Scout website:

power is given by the
quantity and type of LEDs
on the PCB.

Lamp
LED 4000K, 24W
LED 3000K, 24W
HIT, 20W
QT12, 100W

47812.000
Cut-off angle: 40°

Unified Glare Rating (UGR)
The Unified Glare Rating (UGR) procedure is
an approach to quantify the visual comfort
of a luminaire. It describes the psychological
direct glare of luminaires. The UGR reference
value is calculated for a standard space. The
graduation value indicates the limiting angle
at which the luminaire has an all-round luminance of < 1000cd/m2 or less. For efficient visual comfort, the aim is to achieve a balance
of high Light Output Ratio and good Unified
Glare Rating.

47812.000
Cut-off angle: 40°

LOR 0.70

47826.000
Cut-off angle: 30°
LOR 0.71

UGR 16.3
55° <
200cd/m2

47826.000
Cut-off angle: 30°
UGR 17.4
65° <
200cd/m2

A higher LOR value indicates raised ­ fficiency.
e
However, this is often
accompanied by a lower
UGR value, i.e. less ­ lare
g
protection and visual
comfort. Furthermore, the
LOR gives no indication
as to how effectively a
luminaire directs its light
to a given target surface.
­
LOR and UGR data for
l
­uminaires is available in
the printed ERCO cataA lower UGR value
means less glare. Luminaires with a 40° cut-off
angle will always have a
b
­ etter UGR value than
l
­uminaires with 30°. For
the lighting design, it is
n
­ ecessary to relate the
UGR values to the actual
space rather than simply
using the reference value
for the standard space.

lm/W
100
80
90
22

Ambient lighting
P*, the connected load
per m2 and 100lx for a
standardised space, is
given as a planning value
for downlights.

62

77

80

37

UGR
17.1
16.3
17.7
18.4

P*

P*
1.57
1.96
1.40
6.76

The P* value shows that
today’s efficient light
sources such as LEDs or
HIT lamps have a clear
advantage over lowvoltage halogen lamps
in terms of energy consumption.

2008 2009 2010 2012 2013

Lamp
LED 4000K, 24W
LED 3000K, 24W
HIT, 20W
QT12, 100W
logue and in the product
data sheets on the Light
Scout website.

Wallwashing
Wallwashers for vertical
illuminance can be compared using the ­ verage
a
illuminance Ev, on the
wall. The prerequisite is a
regular luminaire arrangement and a suitable ratio
of minimum to maximum
illuminance.

lm/W
100
80
90
22
1/3 h

h (m)

Ev (lx)
80
63
57
61

lx/W

lx/W
3.3
2.6
2.9
0.6

For evaluation purposes,
­
the illuminance per watt
can be derived from the
catalogue’s planning
data. The vertical illuminance data shows that
LED and HIT have higher
­
figures.

As the ceiling height
increases or the spacing
becomes wider, the average illuminance Ev, in lx,
decreases.

1/3 h

Lamp
LED 4000K, 8W
LED 3000K, 8W
HIT, 20W
QT12, 50W
Accent lighting
The properties of spotlights or projectors can
be expressed using illu­
minance and diameter
at specific distances.

lm
2400
1920
1800
2200

lm
800
640
1800
1250

lm/W
100
80
90
25

h (m)

E (lx)
D (m)

26  

LOR
0.70
0.70
0.60
0.64

In practice, the guide values have to be ­ djusted
a
using the correction and
maintenance ­factors
(to be calculated separately) in order to take
into account the room’s
geometry, material and
maintenance factors.
Detailed information is
provided in the product
data sheets.

100

lm/W

www.erco.com/guide

Light Output Ratio (LOR)
To compare the lighting technology of luminaires, the Light Output Ratio (LOR) is often
used. However, a higher LOR only allows lim­
ited conclusions to be drawn about the suitability of a luminaire because it does not
c
­ onsider either visual comfort or how effectively a luminaire directs its light onto a ­ arget
t
surface.

lm
2400
1920
1800
2200

D (m)
0.37
0.37
0.47
0.47

Angle
7
7
9
9

Meaningful comparisons
of spotlights require that
the beam angles are the
same. If one of the beams
is narrower, the luminous
flux will be ­ oncentrated
c
onto a smaller area,
resulting in a higher illuminance.

E (lx)
3657
2926
2352
2394

lx/W
457
366
118
32

lx/W

In comparison with the
reflector systems of HIT
lamps or halogen lamps,
the higher efficiency of
the projection-based LED
technology results in a
more favourable ratio
of achieved illuminance
to energy consumption
(lx/W).

  27

Efficient visual comfort
Lighting concepts

Low-voltage halogen lamps
For differentiated lighting of a
prestigious reception area, downlights are used for ambient lighting, wallwashers for spatial
d
­ ivision and directional luminaires
for highlighting the artworks. This
was previously a typical application area for low-voltage ­ alogen
h
lamps when aiming to satisfy
c
­ riteria such as brilliance, warm
c
­ olour light, very good colour rendition and dimmability.

Floor 150lx
Wall  80lx
Counter 260lx
1725W
16.7W/m2

LED
Luminaires with 28W LED modules in warm white are comparable in terms of luminous flux to
90W low-voltage halogen lamps
and, like the latter, also provide
brilliant light together with good
colour rendition. For an identical
lighting concept and ­ omparable
c
illuminance, the LEDs can give a
67% energy saving with the ­ dded
a
benefit of no ­ aintenance costs.
m
Even if used for 10 hours a day
every week, LED luminaires can be
expected to have a functional life
of about 20 years; at which time,
half of the luminaires will still
be emitting at least 70% of their
luminous flux.

Floor
190lx
Wall   100lx
Counter
320lx
510W
4.9W/m2

Lamp

Planning data

Quantity

Connected
load

QT12 75W

1575lm

21lm/W

P* 7.9W/m2
LOR 0.58
UGR 19.1

4

300W

QT12 75W

1575lm

21lm/W

Wall height 3m
Offset 0.9m
Ev 86lx

12

900W

QT12 75W

1575lm

21lm/W

h 3m
E 284lx
D 1.55m

7

525W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

P* 2.0W/m2
LOR 0.7
UGR 16.3

4

96W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

Wall height 3m
Offset 0.9m
Ev 116lx

12

LED ww 18W

28  

Luminous flux Luminous efficacy

1440lm

80lm/W

h 3m
E 399lx
D 1.39m

7

-70%

Low-voltage halogen lamps:
horizontal ambient lighting
A conventional approach to lighting design for a reception area,
for instance, will primarily aim at
achieving sufficient horizontal
ambient brightness. Such lighting,
which is directed at the floor or
working planes, is less concerned
with the spatial quality of the surrounding vertical surfaces, despite
the fact that these occupy a large
proportion of the field of vision
and contribute to the brightness
impression.

Floor 270lx
Wall  90lx
Counter 500lx
3025W
27.7W/m2

LED: differentiated lighting
design with wallwashing
If, in the context of a qualitative,
perception-orientated lighting
design, the human field of vision
is considered, then the potential
of vertical illuminance for ­ reating
c
a bright spatial impression can be
utilised. The use of wallwashers
or double washlights for ­ allways
h
would then provide an ­deal solui
tion. Directional luminaires accentuate the working planes to produce pleasant workplace lighting.
By using LEDs in this way, a higher
lighting quality can be combined
with lower energy consumption.
­

Floor 200lx
Wall  100lx
Counter 540lx
690W
6.3W/m2

Lamp

Luminous flux Luminous efficacy

Planning data

Quantity

Connected
load

QT12 100W

2200lm

22lm/W

P* 7.1W/m2
LOR 0.64
UGR 18.4

28

2800W

QT12 75W

1575lm

21lm/W

h 3m
E 599lx
D 1.0m

3

225W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

P* 2.0W/m2
LOR 0.7
UGR 16.3

6

144W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

Wall height 3m
Offset 0.9m
Ev 115lx

10

240W

288W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

Wall height 3m
Offset 0.9m
Ev 158lx

9

216W

126W

LED ww 18W

1440lm

80lm/W

h 3m
E 399lx
D 1.39m

5

-77%

90W

ERCO lists specific ­ riteria
c
for the lighting design
depending on the partic­
ular characteristic, e.g.
with downlights this is
the reference value P* for
the connected load, the
Light Output Ratio (LOR)
and the Unified Glare
Rating (UGR). For washlights, the average vertical illuminance is listed,
­
while with directional
­
l
­uminaires it is the illuminance dependent on
the distance and beam
diameter.

This lighting design can
be optimised in two
directions: firstly, changing the lamps from lowvoltage halogen lamps
to LEDs. Secondly, by
c
­ hanging the lighting
concept from horizontal
a
­ mbient lighting to differentiated, ­qualitative
lighting design. ­ ouble
D
washlights and lens
wallwashers with LEDs
are used as tools for
v
­ ertical illuminance to
provide efficient visual
­
­comfort.

  29

Efficient visual comfort
Lighting concepts

Efficient visual comfort
Relighting with LEDs
Operators of lighting ­systems
are faced with the question of
when to invest in LED light. It is
safe to say that we can expect
further advances in the future
– yet the technology ­available
today already provides ­enormous
potential for cost ­savings without compromising on safety and
light quality. Anyone planning
to replace their lighting system
should therefore include ERCO’s
LED offering in their considerations. The direct increase in efficiency when changing from, for
example, low-voltage halogen

Compact fluorescent lamps:
horizontal ambient lighting
At first glance, a grid of downlights with compact fluorescent
lamps may seem to be an efficient, rational lighting concept
for a waiting area. Yet, here too,
there is considerable potential
for increased efficiency through
q
­ ualitative lighting design and a
differentiated use of LED ­ighting
l
tools.

Lamp
TC 26W

Floor 230lx
Wall  90lx
Check-in
310lx
2704W
7.8W/m2

Luminous flux Luminous efficacy
1800lm

70lm/W

LED: differentiated lighting
design with wallwashing
Even in comparison to ­ lassic
c
lighting solutions with compact
fluorescent lamps, LED luminaires
still make a convincing choice
when used in a differentiated
lighting design. The wallwashers
heighten the spatial ­mpression
i
and give a feeling of spaciousness. The higher reflectance of
the bright walls, compared to the
usually darker floors, is used to
advantage in this case. A wide
grid of downlights ensures sufficient ambient lighting in the seating areas and also the number of
l
­uminaires to be minimised.

Planning data
2.53W/m2

P*
LOR 0.56
UGR 19

2.0W/m2

Quantity
104

technology to LED technology is
evident from the lx/W analysis
which considers the illuminance
on the target surface in relation to
the power consumption. Further
advantages arise under the aspect
of “total cost of ownership” and
include lower maintenance costs
and savings in air-conditioning or
local energy/CO2 tax.

National Gallery, London
Old system
This comparison focuses on a typical
­
hall with a base area of 227.5m².
The increase in efficiency of the new,
compared to the old, spotlight system
is established by calculating the illuminance achieved per watt. The old
system consisted of Eclipse spotlights
for 100W low-voltage halogen lamps
with flood reflectors to illuminate the
works of art. The low luminous efficacy
­
of 22lm/W results in a poor ­ fficiency
e
score of 5lx/W. This does not even
account yet for the UV filter necessary
for low-voltage halogen lamps to protect the exhibits: the losses of transmission reduce the efficiency by a fur­
ther 8%.

Lamps:
40 Eclipse spotlights with low-­ oltage
v
halogen lamps 100W (conventional
transformers, PL=120W)

Floor 240lx
Wall 120lx
Check-in
330lx
1992W
5.8W/m2
-26%

Connected
load
2704W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

P*
LOR 0.7
UGR 16.3

48

1152W

LED ww 24W

1920lm

80lm/W

Wall height 3m
Offset 0.9m
Ev 158lx

35

840W

With the LED solution,
reducing the number
of downlights in favour
of lens wallwashers not
only produces improved
l
­ighting design, it also
contributes to energy
saving.

Connected load: 4800W
(21W/m2)
Illuminances:
Average 150lx on a 1m high circum­
ferential strip on the walls, strip centre
at 1.70m (eye level).

Flood reflector
QT12-ax, 100W

Luminous flux
Luminous efficacy
Illuminance 3m
Beam diameter

Lamps:
40 Optec LED spotlights 14W (PL=17W)
Connected load: 680W
(3W/m2)
Illuminances:
Average 120lx on a 1m high circum­
ferential strip on the walls, strip centre
at 1.70m (eye level).
Energy savings: 85.8%
The new 12W version of Logotec
underwrites energy savings of 90%.

Spherolit lens, flood
LED 3000K, 13W

2200lm
22lm/W
754lx
1.39m

Efficiency 5lx/W

30  

National Gallery, London
Relighting 2011
The new LED spotlights with Spherolit
lens and a comparable emission angle
achieve an efficiency of 26lx/W. Five
times as high as before, this value
­
results from the higher luminous efficacy of the warm white LEDs of 62lm/W
and the efficient Spherolit ­ echnology.
t
Additional savings are made ­ ossible
p
by the curator’s decision to reduce the
illuminances on the target surfaces
from 150lx to 120lx.

Luminous flux
Luminous efficacy
Illuminance 3m
Beam diameter

870lm
67lm/W
365lx
1.44m

Efficiency 28lx/W

  31

LED applications

Leica trade fair stand and
gallery, Photokina 2012,
Cologne. Architecture
and lighting design: Leica
marketing team, Solms.

The current status of LED technology, as
i
­mplemented in ERCO’s LED-based ­ighting
l
tools, allows a wide range of applications
in architectural settings in both indoor and
o
­ utdoor areas. Successful projects with ERCO
LED lumi­ aires confirm the fundamental techn
nical and planning concepts, making efficient
visual comfort a tangible reality.

Galleria Nazionale di Arte
Moderna (GNAM), Rome.
Exhibition and lighting
design: larderArch studio
di architettura, dott. arch.
Federico Lardera, Rome.

Stiefelkönig shoe store,
Vienna. Architect: Mag.
Hans Michael Heger,
Graz. Lighting design:
­Vedder Lichtmanagement,
Munich/Mitterberg.

Worthing Museum & Art
Gallery, Worthing, Sussex.

Pizza Hut restaurant,
Solihull. ­Architecture
and ­ighting design:
l
­Checkland ­Kindleysides,
Leicester.

BSH Bosch Siemens
Hausgeräte Netherlands
head office, Hoofddorp.
Master plan and design:
William McDonough +
Partners. Executing architects: KOW, The Hague.
Interior design:
D/Dock, Amsterdam.
Landscape architecture:
Nelson Byrd Woltz,
Charlottesville/New York.

32  

“Superflash” ­branch
c
­ oncept for Bank Intesa
­
Sanpaolo, Milan.
Architect: aMDL Architetto Michele De Lucchi S.r.l.

Mace headquarters,
155 Moorgate, London.
Architecture and lighting
design: Mace, London.

Dior c/o Selfridges,
London. Lighting design:
Speirs + Major, London.

  33

LED applications

Benetton megastore,
Kärtner Straße, ­ ienna.
V
Architecture: Marc &
Tino Wieser, MTM Textil­
handel GmbH, Vienna;
MVD Austria, frank, rieper
architekten, Vienna/Graz.
Interior & CI designer:
Vincenzo De Cotiis, Milan.

Konserthus Stavanger
square lighting. Lighting
design: Zenisk AS, Oslo.

Outdoor lighting effects
at the BI Norwegian
Business School, Bergen.
Architecture and ­ighting
l
design: Smedsvig
­Landskapsarkitekter AS.

Oseana Art & Culture
Center, Os (Bergen).
Architect: Grieg ­ rkitekter,
A
Bergen. Lighting design:
­
Multiconsult AS.

Flight of steps, ­ augesund
H
(Norway).

Statoil head office,
Stavanger.

34  

Private residence,
­Dortmund. Architect:
Heiderich Architekten,
Lünen. Lighting design:
LDE Kober, Dortmund.

  35

Lighting tools with LED
Indoor overview

In order to make it easy to find the right lighting tools for a specific lighting task, ERCO’s
Program is divided into indoor and outdoor
areas, then arranged by luminaire types and
luminaire families. The following pages summarise the different types and product groups
with LED technology showing their wattages
and the light intensity distributions available.
Full, up-to-date product information is avail-

able in our catalogue, the ERCO Program, and
online in ERCO’s Light Scout:
www.erco.com/products

Spotlights,
­floodlights and
wallwashers

Light Board
5.4W - 54W
290lm - 4320lm

Opton
9W - 27W
580lm - 2160lm

Logotec
4.5W - 13W
290lm - 1080lm

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Light Board
27W
1740lm - 2160lm

Quintessence
2.2W - 20W
145lm - 1620lm

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Optional:
DALI

Quintessence
round
6.7W - 40W
435lm - 3240lm

Quintessence
square
6.7W - 40W
435lm - 3240lm

Compact LED

Quadra

Cylinder

8W - 40W
640lm - 4000lm

8W - 24W
640lm - 2400lm

13W - 34W
870lm - 2700lm

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Optional:
DALI

Optional:
DALI

Optional:
DALI, varychrome ring

Cantax
9W - 27W
580lm - 2160lm

Pollux
2W - 6W
160lm - 600lm

Optec
2W - 24W
160lm - 2400lm

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Optional:
DALI

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Spotlights

Floodlights

Lens wallwashers

Spotlights

Floodlights

Projector spotlights

Lens wallwashers

Recessed
spotlights

Logotec
4.5W - 13W
290lm - 1080lm

Compar
9W - 20W
580lm - 1620lm

Recessed
­luminaires and
surface-mounted
downlights

Downlights

Washlights

Floor
­washlights

Directional
luminaires

Lens
­wallwashers

Directional
luminaires

Ceiling
­washlights

Grazing light
­wallwashers

Double ­washlights

Wall-mounted
­luminaires

Floor washlights
3.2W - 6.7W
240lm - 540lm

Trion
12W - 24W
960lm - 2400lm

Recessed floor
luminaires

Nadir IP67
3.2W
240lm - 300lm

36

Recessed floor
luminaires

37

Lighting tools with LED
Outdoor overview

Projectors and
floodlights

Powercast
13W - 54W
870lm - 4320lm

Grasshopper
9W - 20W
580lm - 1620lm

Beamer
4.5W - 54W
290lm - 4320lm

Parscoop
24W - 48W
1920lm - 4800lm

Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Projectors

Lens wallwashers

Floodlights

Wallwashers/
ceiling washlights

Façade luminaires

Kubus
3.2W - 6.7W
240lm - 540lm

Axis Walklight
1.7W - 3W
64lm - 90lm

Cylinder
6.7W - 20W
435lm - 1620lm

Optional:
varychrome

Focalflood
22W
1450lm - 1800lm
Optional:
DALI, varychrome

Façade luminaires

Floor washlights,
walklights

Bollard luminaires

Kubus
3.2W - 6.7W
240lm - 540lm

Midipoll
9W
580lm - 720lm
Optional: DALI

Floor washlights

Ceiling luminaires

Lightcast
recessed
luminaires
13W - 27W
870lm - 2160lm

Compact LED
8W - 40W
640lm - 4000lm

Compact LED
16W - 24W
1280lm - 2400lm

Cylinder
6.3W - 27W
480lm - 2160lm
Downlights

Lens wallwashers

Directional luminaires

Lens wallwashers

Orientation luminaires

Floor washlights

Optional: DALI

In-ground
luminaires

Tesis IP68
27W
1740lm - 2160lm

LED orientation luminaires IP68
0.3W - 0.8W
1lm - 24lm

Optional: DALI

38

Tesis IP68
27W
1740lm - 2160lm
Optional: DALI

Optional:
varychrome

39

ERCO Media

ERCO showrooms
Experiencing light and using services – worldwide

To provide designers with optimum support
at every stage of their work, ERCO offers a
multitude of both classic and digital media.
Our extensive range of material is divided into
information on products, reference projects
and didactic subjects.
All ERCO documents have been designed
to perfectly complement the design of coherent and uniform lighting concepts. The layout,
structure and terminology of the various areas
­
of the product range have been harmonised to
make orientation as easy as possible for users.

Didactics
Interactive knowledgebased modules in the
Guide area of the Light
Scout cover the fundamentals of designing with
light and provide user
information on lighting
tools. Various specialist
brochures provide information on topics such as
LED technology or light
in the outdoor area.
ERCO Program
The printed catalogue
contains all the important information and
design data – in black
and white, compact
and always accessible.

Product specification
sheets
These documents are
available online in PDF
format and contain
detailed information on
a specific product.

Products
Our extensive range of
lighting solutions for
architectural applications is divided into the
three product ranges
lighting controls, indoor
l
­uminaires and outdoor
luminaires. This structure is repeated in both
the Light Scout and the
printed catalogue.

Digital design data
In the Light Scout, information on each ERCO
article is available for
download with comprehensive digital design
data for use in CAD, light
calculation and light simulation software. The data
can be used, for example, to create impressive
v
­ isualisations in DIALux
or Autodesk 3ds Max.

40 
40

Events and seminars
These turn ERCO showrooms into meeting ­ laces
p
for the local light and
architecture scene. The
showroom is designed
to make it possible to
explain “tune the light”:
to design the qualities
of light in terms of time
and space.

ERCO is a cosmopolitan, globally active
c
­ ompany. ERCO showrooms and offices can
be found in all major markets. Here, our welleducated, specially trained employees work
as lighting advisors. This worldwide network
ensures reliable service and competent, on-site
support especially on international projects:
from providing advice during the ­ lanning
p
stage, tendering, sample supply, project planning and supply logistics to customer service
and training.
“Consultant to the consultant” – this is how
ERCO lighting advisors see their role in the
building process: they provide professional
support to designers in all matters relating to
lighting technology and in each individual project phase. With case-related specialist information and customised product documentation they help customers to make the correct
decision when selecting lighting equipment.
The showrooms and offices provide ­deal
i
facilities for meetings during the project phase.
Each facility has a mock-up section for sample
and other product demonstrations, and quite
often, the showrooms outside show examples
of use for ERCO’s ­ighting tools.
l
However, our ERCO service does not end
with the punctual delivery of the products:
after switching on, our lighting advisors support customers with communication or site
services and also with recommendations, advice
and assistance in such aspects as maintenance,
adjustment or extension of a lighting system.

www.erco.com
The ERCO Light Scout on
the Internet is the leading
medium in terms of upto-date product information. The product section
of the Light Scout and
the PDF product specification sheets are all regularly updated. Light Scout
meets the requirements
of a globalised market
place with product information in 10 versions for
different languages and
­
regions and with ­nternet
I
navigation in 5 languages.

Projects
Much space in ERCO
communications is
­devoted to ­fascinating
light in architectural
­
applications – ­ xamples
e
include the “Projects”
area of the ERCO Light
Scout and our magazine
“ERCO Lichtbericht”.

Light qualities
Experiencing the product variety and scope for
design of ERCO’s range of
luminaires up close and
personal: ERCO’s showrooms provide ­ ivid examv
ples from the ­ xterior
e
design to the mock-up
section inside.
On site
Many issues only emerge
during the building process and require site
meetings. ERCO employees help to organise
­sample products, ­provide
assistance on lighting
technology issues and
solve logistical problems.

www.erco.com/contact

tune the light

E

LED Lighting

E

Art.-No. 110.29466.000 EN 02/2013

Basic principles
Optoelectronics
Lighting tools and application