Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry Development Research

Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry Development Research

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Domain:  Green Tech Category: Battery & Fuel Cell 
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Contents:
Research on Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry Development
Sep. 2016

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free PDF edition!

The following terms are used in this report
Acronym

Definition

FCEV / FCV

Fuel cell electric vehicles / fuel cell vehicles

BEV

Battery electric vehicles

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

PEMFC

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell

DMFC

Direct methanol fuel cell

SOFC

Solid oxide fuel cell

AFC

Alkaline fuel cell

MCFCI

Fusion carbonate fuel cell

PAFC

Phosphoric acid fuel cell

PFSA

Perfluorinated sulfonic acid

PEM

Proton exchange membrane

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Hot News

Toyota’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mirai at the Chengdu Car Exhibition
Sep. 2, 2016

1

Source: powerlife.com

Toyota brought its Mirai hydrogen fuel cell vehicle to the 2016
Chengdu car exhibition, which had been on the 2015 Shanghai car
exhibition but it still received a lot of attention.
The car can fill up an empty hydrogen tank in 3-5 minutes, with
endurance reaching 600km, which are almost the same as ordinary
petrol car. In contrast, charging fully may take at least 1-2 hours for
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), and the maximum endurance is about
300 km.

Over 200 of China’s Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Entered Demonstration Operation
Sep. 5, 2016

Source: Yangzi River Daily

The 2016 Taiwan and China Mainland Summit Forum of Fuel Cell Technology &
Industry Development was held recently in Wuhan Development Zone (Hannan
District), which was co-sponsored by China Electrical Equipment Industry Fuel Cell
Branch and Taiwan Institute of Economic Research Fuel Cell Promoting Office.

2

Many international leaders like Audi, Toyota and Nissan all keep investing and
making breakthroughs in the research of fuel cell vehicle industry and try to improve
its degree of commercialization, as well as companies at home. Over 200 fuel cell
electric vehicles were put into operation, which serviced the Beijing Olympic Games
and Shanghai World Expo, with travelling distance over 100,000 km.

© SMM. All rights reserved.

3

Abstracts
1

Fuel Cell Vehicles are Major Users of Hydrogen Fuel Cell



2

Currently the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is widely used in fuel cell vehicles, which uses pure
hydrogen as fuel, also known as hydrogen fuel cell
In comparison with lithium battery vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles have longer endurance and shorter charging
time. The cost of fuel cell electric vehicles is the lowest compared to diesel vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles

China’s Fuel Cell Vehicle Market is in Its Introduction Period, and Fuel Cell System, Hydrogen Production,
Storage and Refueling Station are Its Key Parts





Fuel cell system represents 63% of total cost. China’s fuel cell technology is still immature compared to foreign
countries
China’s hydrogen production is still in the exploratory stage, and cost is expected to fall further
Hydrogen storage bottle is decisive for endurance. China has mastered technology for 35Mpa hydrogen storage
bottle, but using 70Mpa bottle is the industry trend
Hydrogen refueling stations are scarce in China, and core device still relies on import

Development of China’s Fuel Cell Industry is Still Restricted as Technology for Key Parts is 5-10 Years
Backward than Foreign Countries

3






4

Fuel cell pile, air circulation system and hydrogen air circulation system account for 91% of total cost of fuel cell
system. Such cost is still high in China due to weak key technology
Fuel cell pile consists of proton exchange membrane, bipolar plate and catalyst. In China, proton exchange membrane
almost realized industrialization, and graphite bipolar plate technology is relatively mature, but metal bipolar plate is the
industry trend. The catalyst relies heavily on platinum, which is expensive, and there is small-scale production in China,
and emphasis is put on the research of ultra-low platinum catalyst or platinum-free catalyst
Main technology of air circulation system’s air compressor is helical-lobe compressor and scroll compressor. In China, no
mature product has been developed yet.
Hydrogen circulating device has been put into utilization in foreign countries, but it remains being developed in China,
and there has been no mature product yet.

Subsidy Policy Keep Supporting Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry



© SMM. All rights reserved.

China’s Fiscal Support Policy for New Energy Vehicle Promotion 2016-2020 stipulates RMB 200,000-500,000 subsidy
for the fuel cell vehicle industry, which is much higher than battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
There are also additional policy supports the fuel cell vehicle industry and development of technology for key parts
4

Contents

1

Fuel Cell

6

2

Fuel Cell Vehicle

9

3

Representative Enterprises

21

4

Industry Opportunity Exploring

26

© SMM. All rights reserved.

6 Types of Main Fuel Cell in the Market, and 2 Types of Vehicle Fuel Cell
Definition and Principles of
Fuel Cell

Classifications of Fuel Cell

1. Six Main Types in the Market

1. Definition


Consisting of anode, cathode and
ionic conduction electrolyte



A power generation device which
converts chemical energy in fuel
and oxidizing agent into electric



Fuel cell ≠ storage battery. Fuel cell
generates electric, while storage
battery stores electric

Battery System

1. PEMFC

2. DMFC

3. SOFC

4. AFC

5. MCFC

6. PAFC

Fuel

High purity
hydrogen

Hydrogen or
liquid methyl
alcohol

Gas, methane

High purity
hydrogen

Gas, methane

Mainly hydrogen

Catalyst

Platinum

Platinumruthenium

Low reliance on
platinum

Non precious
metals
Normally nickel

Precious metals

Platinum

Operating
Temperature

60-100

100

1000-1200

100

500-800

60-200

Catalyst

Solid/ PFSA
polymer film

2. Principle

ˣ

Application Fields

Fuel

Automobile

Oxygen

Cathode

Electrolyte

Anode



Fuel
Oxide
e-

e© SMM. All rights reserved.

Consumer
electronics,
material
transporters

Large and small
power generation
station

Aerospace

100-400KW fixed
Large power
power generation
generation station
station, large
vehicles

2.Two Types of Vehicle Fuel Cell

Fuel
Oxide
e-

Solid/zirconium
Liquid/aqueous
Liquid/carbonate Liquid/phosphoric
Solid/polymer film dioxide ceramic
potassium
carbonate solvent
acid solvent
material
hydroxide solvent



Two main types of fuel cell are suitable for transportation: Proton
Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell(PEMFC)& Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
(DMFC)
The reason why they are suitable is that their operating temperature and
relatively rapid dynamic response as vehicle energy source meet
vehicle’s requirement
Currently the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is
widely used in fuel cell vehicles, which uses pure hydrogen as fuel, also
known as hydrogen fuel cell
6

Hydrogen Fuel Cell-The Main Type of Fuel Vehicles Power in the Future
Application Fields

Market Requirement

Driving Factor

Shipments in Different Application Fields
(1,000 units)
80

Annual Shipments of Different types of Cell
(MW)

Environmental Protection Requirement

400



70
60

300

50
40

200

30



20
100

10
0

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Portable
便携式
固定式
Fixed
交通领域
总计
Transportation
Total
Sources:E4tech, Essence Securities ,SMM

0
2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

PEMFC

DMFC

PAFC

SOFC

MCFC

The maximum energy efficiency
conversion ration exceeds 60%:
hydrogen cell directly converts chemical
energy of hydrogen and oxidizing agent
into electric energy
Environmental friendly: continuous
electricity generation and main product
of the reaction between hydrogen and
oxygen are water, which can achieve
zero emissions

2015
AFC

Sources: E4tech, Essence Securities,SMM

Performance Optimization Requirement






Global fuel cell shipments were 71,500
units in 2015, up nearly 304% from 2010,
but the level was still far from large-scale
commercialization
Shipments to transportation field only took
a small proportion during 2010-2015, but
nearly doubled in 2015
Utilization in the transportation field
has great potential




relevant strong



High energy density: nearly 120-fold of
lithium battery



Advantage in charging time and
endurance : can achieve hundreds of
kilometers endurance in a few minutes’
charging

Demand for PEMFC, SOFC and MCFC is

Shipments of PEMFC surged 147.04% YoY

in 2015 due to strong demand from the
transportation industry

Note: fuel cell is mainly used in fixed power source, portable power source
and transportation fields.
© SMM. All rights reserved.

7

Contents

1

Fuel Cell

6

2

Fuel Cell Vehicle

9

3

Representative Enterprises

21

4

Industry Opportunity Exploring

26

© SMM. All rights reserved.

Main Technical Proposal for Fuel Cell Vehicle is Mixed Type of Fuel
Cell and Storage Battery
Technical proposal

Feature



Fuel Cell Engine
Driven Only




Mixed Type of Fuel
Cell & Storage
Battery(Full Power
Type)

Main
Mixed Type of Fuel
Cell & Storage
Battery (Plug-in
Type)










Fuel Cell Engine +
Super Capacitor

Fuel Cell Engine
+Storage Battery +
Super Capacitor







High power and high cost
Power changes with load. Efficiency of fuel cell
system is low when vehicle is low loading
Slow dynamic response, which will affect
accelerating ability
No regenerative brake

Abandoned by most
companies

Fuel cell is major energy source
Storage battery is unable to meet requirement
of driving with no load
Have advantages when keep high-power
output for a long time
No need for circumscribed charging unit

International Main technical
proposal

Relatively low battery power rating
Storage battery can meet demand for a pureelectric-driving drive in certain distance
Circumscribed charging

Used by SAIC

Fuel cell is major energy source and super
capacitor provides peak power
Super capacitor has good instant charging and
discharging ability, long cycle life and low cost.
But storage capacity is limited, with big voltage
fluctuation

Used by Volkswagen’s
HY.POWER

Lower requirements for power of fuel cell and
storage battery
Super capacitor has high current discharge
ability when the temperature is low
Longer service life of battery

Both Structure and Operation
are Complicated

Note: Super capacitor is a new type of energy storage device, with high power density and short charging time
© SMM. All rights reserved.

9

Fuel Cell Vehicles may be More Economical & Convenient
Lithium Battery Electric Vehicle

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

Similarity


Zero fuel consumption, zero release and low noise



Zero fuel consumption, zero release and low noise







Endurance: Above 500km
Charging Time: 3 minutes
Performance at Low Temperature: Still good
Energy Exchange Efficiency: Over 60%
Safety: Risk of leakage during hydrogenation

Performance comparison






Endurance: 400km
Charging Time: 30 minutes for fast charge,8 hours for trickle charge
Performance at Low Temperature: Weakens significantly
Energy Exchange Efficiency: High
Safety: Overcharging, fire at high temperatures

Compared to
Lithium Battery
Electric
Vehicles,
Fuel Cell

Cost comparison
• Purchase Cost: For vehicles made in china, below RMB
300,000/vehicle, a RMB 30,000-55,000 subsidy can be set off
• Working Cost: Tesla model s 60(battery capacity 60kwh,
endurance 390km),RMB 0.075/km providing electricity prices during
third level of low demand period in shanghai

• Purchase Cost: For vehicles made in china, above RMB
600,000/vehicle, a RMB 200,000 subsidy can be set off
• Working Cost: Toyota Mirai, hydrogenation cost JPY
5000 once, supporting endurance 500km, which means
RMB 0.65/km(based on exchange rate of 0.65)

Vehicles may be
More Convenient

Infrastructure construction comparison
• Charging Station: 81,780 public chargers has constructed as of H1 2016
in China, and aims to complete 4.80 million chargers by 2020
Note: Red words denote advantage

• Hydrogen Refueling Station: There are only three
which are all at demonstration stage at home, located in
Beijing, shanghai and Zhengzhou, and there remains no
clear government construction plan now

Cost per 100 kilometers
Compared to
Vehicle model

Fuel cost

Consumption

Cost

Diesel Vehicle

RMB 2.04/kWh

9.2L/ 100km

RMB 47/100km

BEV, fuel cell

BEV

RMB 1.16/kWh

23kWh/ 100km

RMB 26.7/100km

vehicles may be

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle

RMB 0.96/kWh

23kWh/ 100km

RMB 22/100km

more economical

Diesel Vehicle &

Source: SMM
© SMM. All rights reserved.

10

Fuel Cell Vehicle Industry is in Introduction Period, Restricted by
Backward Key Part Technology
1.Development Stage of Major Vehicle Types at Home and Aboard

Introduction

Growth

Mature

Decline
FCV industry aboard has entered
initial stage of commercialization

Aboard

China
Fuel Cell Vehicle
Lithium Battery Vehicle
Fuel Oil Vehicle

FCV industry in China remains
in introduction stage. Only 10
out of the 330,000 EVs sold in
2015 were hydrogen FCV

2.Development Stage of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles at Home and Aboard

GM started to
R&D

Honda and Toyota
started to R&D

In 2008, Honda developed
In 2013, South Korea
FCX clarity, the first hydrogen
materialized mass
energy source vehicle used
production of Tucson
in leasing business
FCEV

Aboard

Experimental Study Stage
1960s

1970s

1980s

China

1990s

2000s

In 2008, hydrogen FCV
were used as
demonstration vehicles for
Beijing Olympic

Commercialization
is expected
in 2025

Popularization stage
2010s

Tech R&D
Stage
In 2001,
R&D started in
China

In 2014,
Toyota developed
Mirai FCEV

2010 Shanghai Expo
used hydrogen FCV
as demonstration
vehicles

2020s

2030s

Popularization stage
In 2014, Roewe 750
Commercialization
FCV was appointed as
is expected
china’s technical
in 2030
representative

Overall, hydrogen FCV at home is 5-10 years backward than aboard

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11

Government Accelerates Fuel Cell Vehicle Development(1): Policy
Policy type

Time

Document Name

Main content

2001

Technology
Guidance

FCV, BEV and PHEV were included in the "Three Horizontal and Three Vertical“

2015

Made in China 2025

Three-step development for fuel cell vehicle

2016

Planning Target

863 Plan-Major Special Projects for Electric Vehicle

Guidance Directory of major Products and Services of
Strategic Emerging Industries

Introduction of fuel cell system and core parts, FCV, hydrogen charging & storage
facility

2014

Plan for electric vehicle in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

Improving surface modification technology for metal bipolar plate and durability
technology for vehicle fuel cell, and pushing hydrogen refueling station construction and
FCV demonstration operation works in the next few years
Mastering efficient hydrogen preparation, purification, storage and transportation
technology, realizing utilization of hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology in energy
and hydrogen refueling station fields

2016

Action Plan for Energy Technology Revolution Innovation
(2016-2030)

2011

China Vehicle and Vessel Tax Law

Vehicle and vessel tax is exempt for fuel cell vehicle

2014

Notice Regarding Exemption of Purchase Tax for New
Entergy Vehicle

Purchase tax for new energy vehicle was exempted during September 1, 2014 and
December 31, 2017.12

2009

Provisional Regulations on Fiscal Subsidy Funds for
Energy-Saving & New Energy Demonstration Vehicle

Zero release electric and fuel cell vehicles enjoy RMB 60,000-600,000 fiscal subsidy

Tax Preference

Fiscal
Subsidies

2014
2015

Charging Facility for New Energy Vehicle
Guidance Directory of Major Products and Services of
Strategic Emerging Industries

Newly manufactured FCV hydrogen refueling stations that meet national standard and
with daily hydrogenation capacity no less than 200 kg enjoy RMB 4 million award
Fuel cell passenger vehicles will enjoy RMB 200,000 subsidy during 2016-2020, with
RMB 300,000-500,000 for commercial vehicles

Made in China 2025- Development Strategy for FCV
Strategy

Goal

Step 1: Domestication of Key
Material And Parts

By 2020, realizing security of quality in mass
production for fuel cell key materials

By 2020, service life of fuel cell will reach 5,000
Step 2: Increasing Performance hours, with power density over 2.5kw/L, endurance
reaching 500km, charging time below 3minutes, and
of Fuel Cell and Cell Pile
minimum starting temperature below -30℃
Step 3: Expanding FCV
Operation Scale
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By 2020, producing 1000 FCVs by and improving
hydrogen production and hydrogenation facility

Note:
• Chinese government has already planned to develop FCV as
early as 2001. “863 Plan-Major Special Projects for Electric
Vehicle” identified "Three Vertical and Three Horizontal" ,
"three vertical” includes BEV,PGEV and FCV
• In 2015, "Made in China 2025" Plan issued, proposed a
three-step FCV development strategy
• By 2020, achieving the target that producing 1,000 FCVs and
carrying out the demonstration operation

12

Government Accelerates Fuel Cell Vehicle Development(2): Subsidy
1. Subsidy for Fuel Cell Vehicles 2016-2020
Subsidy (RMB
10,000/vehicle)

FCV Types
Passenger Vehicles
Light Bus and Truck

30

Large and Medium-Sized Bus, Medium and
Heavy Truck

Subsidy for FCV is up to 20-50
per vehicle, which shows the
national policy strong support
for the development of FCVs

20

50

2. Subsidy Comparison for New Energy Passenger Vehicle 2016-2019
Mileage(km)

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2013-2015
(80≤R