Progress in Lithium-sulfur And Lithium-air Battery Technology and Markets

Progress in Lithium-sulfur And Lithium-air Battery Technology and Markets

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Description: Lithium Batteries: - Lithium batteries are established commercial products. Further R&D is still needed to improve their performance in terms of safety, cost, and, especially, energy density to meet the HEV, PHEV, EV requirements. Jumps in performance require the renewal of the present lithium ion battery chemistry, this involving all the battery components, i.e., anode, cathode and electrolyte.

 
Author: Bruno Scrosati, Jusef Hassoun, Yang-Kook Sun  | Visits: 246 | Page Views: 714
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Contents:
Progress in Lithium-sulfur and Lithium-air
batteries
Bruno Scrosati, Jusef Hassoun and Yang-Kook Sun

Helmholtz Institute Ulm, HIU, Germany

Department of Chemistry, University
Sapienza, Rome, Italy

Department of WCU Energy Engineering,
Hanyang University, Seoul
Republic of Korea

1899 Ni-Cd
1973 era for lithium batteries:
The new Li metal
from consumer electronics to electromobility
1975 Ni-MH
1979 Li-polymer
Li-ion:
Sony 1990
Plastic Li-ion:
Bellcore 1994

The electric vehicle story

1900
In the USA

Present time

1 500 electric vehicles
1 000 ICE vehicles

Multibillions of ICE vehicles
Urban pollution, oil dependence, etc

Future 2020
Back to electric vehicles

The success of the electromobility relay on the
availability of efficient power sources: lithium batteries ?

Previsions tend to indicate that hydrid and/or electric vehicles will meet in the
year 2035 a share of 35% of the automobile market, with an associated,
considerable reduction of CO2 emissions

Lithium Batteries
Lithium batteries are established commercial
products
Further R&D is still needed to improve
their performance in terms of safety, cost,
and, especially, energy density to meet
the HEV, PHEV, EV requirements
Jumps in performance require the renewal
of the present lithium ion battery chemistry,
this involving all the battery components,
i.e., anode, cathode and electrolyte

Lithium ion batteries

200 kg to drive an EV
for 180 km with 1 single
charge

Present technology
based on intercalation
chemistry

Consistent reduction in
battery weigh is
required for the EV
market

Electric Vehicle Applications- The energy issue
Revolutionary
TechnologyChange

>500 Wh/kg

Li/S and Li/O2 batteries

200 Wh/kg*

Estimated
limit of
Lithium-Ion
Technology

170 Wh/kg*

140 Wh/kg*

Li-ion Batteries
Present

2012

2017

Year
Modified by courtesy of Dr. Stefano Passerini, Munster University, Germany

Cobalt: 42,000 US$/ton
Sulfur: 30 US$/ton

Li-O 2

n
i-io
L

500
0
400
0
300
0
200
0
100
0
0

Cobalt: 42,000 US$/ton
Oxygen: atmosphere ?

retica
l
( Wh energy
/ kg)

3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

Theo

Theoretica
l Energy /
Whkg -1

LNM
O sp
inel

LC
OL
aye
r

Su
lfu
r

Most appealing battery systems (energy and cost
effective): Lithium-sulfur and Lithium-air

The Lithium-Sulfur
Battery

The lithium-sulfur battery
Anodic rxn.:

< Theoretical capacity of lithium polysulfides >

2Li → 2Li+ + 2e-

Li2S8 : 209 mAh/g-S, Li2S4 : 418 mAh/g-S

Cathodic rxn.: S + 2e - → S2-

Li2S2 : 840 mAh/g-S, Li2S : 1675 mAh/g-S

Overall rxn.: 2Li + S → Li2S,
ΔG = - 439.084kJ/mol

Cobalt: 42,000 US$/ton
Sulfur: 30 US$/ton

OCV: 2.23V
Theoretical capacity : 1675mAh/g-sulfur

Cathode

e-

e-

Li+

Li+

Li+

Li+ + S

Li2S6
Li2S4
Li2S2

•Electrolyte
(polymer or liquid)

Li

Li2S8

Li2S

B. Scrosati, J. Hassoun, Y-K Sun, Energy &
Environmental Science, 2011

Li2S
Lithium
Sulfur

Discharge process

Anode

Charge process

S8

The lithium- sulfur battery
The electrochemical process
Li/S reaction
Voltage profile of a lithium sulfur cell

B. Scrosati, J. Hassoun, Y-K Sun, Energy &
Environmental Science, 2011

The lithium-sulfur battery
Major Issues:
 solubility of the polysulphides LixSy in the
electrolyte (loss of active mass  low utilization
of the sulphur cathode and in severe capacity
decay upon cycling)

 low electronic conductivity of S , Li2S and
intermediate Li-S products; volume changes upon
cycling (low rate capability, low kinetics, volume
changes, isolated active material)
 Reactivity of the lithium metal anode
(dendrite deposition, cell shorting, safety)

The solubility issue: Our approach: Solid polymer
electrolyte lithium sulfur cell
The solid electrolyte act as a barrier that
physically prevents the polysulfides dissolution
The cell operates at the temperatures > 70 oC to
meet the electrolyte conductivity

PEO20LiCF3SO3Li2S-10%ZrO2
T / oC

Jusef Hassoun & Bruno Scrosati,
Adv. Materials, 22 (2010) 5198-5201

The kinetic issue: Our approach : Improved sulfur-based
cathode morphology

SEM

Scheme

FIB

EDX

Homogeneous dispersion of the sulfur
particles in hard carbon spherules: (HCS-S)
electrode morphology.Top right: sample
morphology as derived from the SEM image
(top left) Bottom right: EDX image (green
spots = sulfur)
J.Hassoun, J. Kim, D-J. Lee, H.-Gi.Jung,S-M.Lee,Y-K.Sun, B. Scrosati, J.Power Sources,

202 (2012) 308–313

The safety issue: our approach #1: replace lithium
metal with SnC nanocomposite
SnC nanocomposite / gel electrolyte/ Li2S-C cathode
tin-sulfur lithium-ion polymer battery
ANODE
Conventional :Li metal



our work : Sn-C nanocomposite
(gain in reliability and in cycle life)

ELECTROLYTE
Conventional : liquid organic  our work : gel-polymer
membrane (gain in safety
and cell fabrication)
CATHODE
Conventional : sulfur-carbon  our work : C- Li2S composite
Conventional : liquid organic
(Li-metal-free battery )
(Li metal battery)
Jusef Hassoun and Bruno Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 2371

SnC/ Li2S lithium ion battery

Capacity (Li2S-C mass) / mAhg

1400

600

C/10 C/20

500
400

1000
800

C/6

300

1200

600

C/5

200

400

100

200

0

0
0

20

40
60
80
Cycle number

100

Capacity vs cycle number at
medium rate

J. Hassoun & B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 2371

-1

Average voltage: 2.0V
Capacity:500 mAh/g (electrode mass) 1,000
mAh/g (Li2S mass)
Energy density (max) 1,000 Wh/kg (electrode
mass) 2,000 Wh/kg (Li2S mass)

700

Capacity (Li2S-C mass) / mAhg

Charge (SnC+ 2.2Li2S →Li4.4SnC+ 2.2S)
discharge (Li4.4SnC+ 2.2S → SnC+
2.2Li2S ) voltage profiles at C/20 rate

-1

Capacity vs cycle number at
low rate

The safety issue: our approach #2: replace lithium metal
with lithiated silicon-carbon nanocomposite
LiSiC nanocomposite / gel electrolyte/ S-C cathode
T ( C)
silicon-sulfur lithium-ion battery
20
40
60


10

5

-2

Lithium battery applications

-1

ANODE
Conventional :Li metal

Conductivity (S cm )

o

our work : Li-Si-C nanocomposite
10

-3

10

-4

ELECTROLYTE
-5
Conventional : liquid organic  our work : LiCF3SO3TEGDME
10
3.0

3.2

CATHODE
Conventional : sulfur-carbon  our work : HCS-S
Conventional : liquid organic (Li-metal-free battery )
(Li metal battery)
Jusef Hassoun , Junghoon Kim; Dong-Ju Lee; Hun-Gi Jung; Sung-Man Lee; YangKook Sun and Bruno Scrosati, J. Power Sources, 202 (2012) 308-313

3.4
3.6
-1
1000/T (K )

LiSiC/ S-C lithium ion battery
2000

2.5
2.0
1.5

3.0
2.5

Voltage / V

-1

(S)

Capacity (mAh g

1500

2.0
1.5

th

1
nd
2
th
3
th
4

1.0
0.5

1000

0

250
500
-1
Capacity (mAh g (S) )

500
0

1.0

0

250
500
750
-1
Capacity (mAh g (S) )

Average voltage: 2.0V
Capacity: 500 mAh/gs
Energy density (max) 1,000 Wh/kgs

20

)

1800

-1

0.5 A g

1500

(S)

(S)

Discharge (LixSi + HCS-S → Si + HCSLixS) charge (Si + HCS-LixS → LixSi +
HCS-S) voltage profiles at C/3 rate

10
Cycle number

Capacity controlled cycling

Capacity (mAh g

0

-1

Voltage (V)

-1

0.5 A g

)

-1

(S)

0.5 A g

3.0

1200
900
600
300
0
0

20

40
60
Cycle number

80

100

Capacity versus cycle number at
C/3

Jusef Hassoun , Junghoon Kim; Dong-Ju Lee; Hun-Gi Jung; Sung-Man Lee; YangKook Sun and Bruno Scrosati, J. Power Sources, 202 (2012) 308-313

Our approaches to address the Li-S battery issues
(SUMMARY)
Solubility: use of optimized electrolytes:
PEO-based gel electrolytes
Kinetics: development of a suitable
sulfur electrode morphology .
Homogeneous dispersion of the sulfur
particles in hard carbon spherules
SEM

Scheme

Safety: replacement of the
reactive lithium metal anode
with a lithiated silicon-carbon
composite
FIB

EDX

LISSEN
LIthium Sulfur Superbattery Exploiting
Nanotechnology
Main motivation: Identification and
development of nanostructured electrode and
electrolyte materials to promote the practical
implementation of the very high energy
lithium-sulfur battery.
Main goal: fabrication, test and recycling of
lithium- ion sulfur batteries to be addressed to
the electric vehicle market.
LISSEN Project, 1° Progress Meeting , Ulm,
Germany, March 6,7,2013

Partners
A highly qualified group of 10 partners join the project. They include:
Sapienza Innovazione, CSI Italy
Università Roma Sapienza UNIROMA 1, Italy
Università Gabriele D’Annunzio of Chieti , Italy
Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola AB, CHALMERS Sweden
Westfaeliske Wilhems –Universitaet Muenster ,WWW Germany
Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff ZSW Germany
Volkswagen AG, VW Germany

Celaya Emparanza Y Galdos Internacional S.A. , CHEGASA Spain
DLR, Germany
Hanyang University, HANYANG Republic of Korea
LISSEN Project, 1° Progress Meeting , Ulm,
Germany, March 6,7,2013

The Lithium-Air Battery

thium
ode

h/kg

The lithium-air battery
Potential store 5-10 times more energy than today best systems

retica
l
( Wh energy
/ kg)

n
i-io
L

500
0
400
0
300
0
200
0
100
0
0

Theo

Li-O 2

Lithium-air battery with unprotected lithium metal anode (non aqueous
electrolyte)
Lithium-air battery with unprotected
Li + ½ O2  ½ Li2O2 anode (non aqueous
lithium metal
Theor. energy density : 4,000 Wh/kg
electrolyte)
Li + ½ O2  ½ Li2OLithium Ion technology (C-LiCoO :
Present 2
2
Theor. energy density : 11,420 Wh/kgWh/kg
Theor energy density: 420
23

The lithium-air battery (non aqueous electrolyte)
Considerable progress has been achieved in the most
recent years .
C.O. Laoire, S.Mukerjee, E.J. Plichta, M.A. Hendrickson, K.M. Abraham
. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2011, 158, A302-A308.)
A.Debart,J. Peterson, J. Bao, P.G. Bruce,, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 4528
(2008)
Y.-C Lu, Z.Xu, H.A. Gasteiger. S.Chen.K. Hamad-Schifferli. Y. Shao Horn,
J.Am.Chem.Soc. 132, 12170 (2010)
J. Hassoun, F. Croce, M. Armand, B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50,
2999 (2011)
R. Black, S.H. OhJ-H. Lee, T.Kim, B. Adams, L.F. Nazar, J.Am.Chem.Soc.
134, 2902 (2012)
P.G. Bruce, S.A.Freunberger,L.J.Hardwick, J.-M. Tarascon, Nature Mater.,
11, 19 (2012)
Z.Peng, S.A. Freunberger, Y.Chen, P.G. Bruce,, Sciencexpress, (2012),

DOI:1/10.1126/science.1223985
and others……
triggering a large interest in the lithium-air system….
However, issues still remain to be solved

The lithium-air battery (non aqueous electrolyte)

Major Issues:
 kinetics of the oxygen electrode in the nonaqueous electrolyte (reversibility of the ORR /OER
process. Low kinetics. Role of the catalyst)
 Instability of the electrolyte in the cell environment
(decomposition reactions. Limited cycling life.)
 Reactivity of the lithium metal anode
(dendrite deposition, cell shorting, safety)

The kinetic issue: our approach: study of the oxygen
electrochemical process in a stable electrolyte cell.
lithium / PEO-LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte/ O2-C cathode
lithium-oxygen polymer battery
ANODE
Conventional :Li metal
ELECTROLYTE
Poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-based membrane.
Resistance of the PEO ether linkage(Grignard
reagents) and LiCF3SO3 is stable towards
nucleophiles,
CATHODE
Porous carbon

J. Hassoun, F. Croce, M. Armand & B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 2999

Li / Polymer electrolyte / SP,O2 cell study by PCGA
Study of the electrochemical
process by Potentiodynamic
Cycling with Galvanostatic
Acceleration, PCGA, analysis
Very reactive
oxygen radical
anion!

Lithium superoxide
formation
Lithium peroxide
formation

Lithium oxide
formation
Reaction mechanism

J. Hassoun, F. Croce, M. Armand & B. Scrosati,
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 2999

Y-C. Lu, Z. Xu, H.A. Gasteiger, S. Chen, K. HamadSchifferli, Y. Shao-Horn, 2010, JACS, 132, 12170-12171
Y-C. Lu, H.A. Gasteiger, Y. Shao-Horn, Electrochem
Solid State Lett , 2011, 14, A70-A74

The electrolyte stability issue
1/2Li2O2 +1/2 O2

O2

e-


O2

Li+

LiO2

Li+ + eLi+ + e-

Li2O2

Stefan A. Freunberger, Yuhui Chen, Zhangquan Peng, John M. Griffin,
Laurence J. Hardwick, Fanny Barde, Petr Novak, and Peter G. Bruce
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 8040–8047
Jusef Hassoun, Fausto Croce, Michel Armand, and Bruno Scrosati
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 2999 –3002

2Li2O

The oxygen radical anion
aggressively decompose
coinventional electrolytes

The choice of a suitable,
stable electrolyte is a major
challenge in the Li-air battery
technology.

The electrolyte stability issue: our approach:
choice of : tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether(b)
lithium triflate (TEGDME)-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte

1, 2, 4, 5

Carbonate esters:very strong
electrophile carbonyl group
easy attack by the nucleophile
peroxide 1, 2, 4, 5
and
2, 3superoxide species
3
opening of ethero-cycles
linear carbonates

8

7

6

5

End-capped glymes (linear
3
12
2, 4
3
and high mw): poorly
electrophile of the ethereous
R-O-R carbon
greater resistance to the
4
3
2
1
attack from nucleophile
Charge
ppm
greater stability.

ppm

(a)
8

7

6 2,

51

30

Di

(TEGDME)-based electrolytes in
lithium-air cells
H-G. Jung, J. Hassoun, J.-B park, Y.-K. Sun, B.
Scrosati, Nature Chemistry, 4, 579 (2012)
H.-G. Jung, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Park, I.-H. Oh, J.
Hassoun, C. S. Yoon, B. Scrosati, Y.-K. Sun, Nano
Letters, 12, 4333 (2012)
C.O. Laoire, S.Mukerjee, E.J. Plichta, M.A.
Hendrickson, K.M. Abraham
J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, A302 (2011)
R. Black, S.H. OhJ-H. Lee, T.Kim, B. Adams, L.F.
Nazar, J.Am.Chem.Soc. 134, 2902 (2012)

XRD analysis of a Li-O2 cell prior and after cycling in TGDME –
based electrolytes

H-G. Jung, J. Hassoun, J.-B park, Y.-K. Sun, B. Scrosati, Nature Chemistry, 4(2012) 579

5000

Total counts

4000

(e)
(f)

Discharged electrode

3000
+

Li2O2 (46.02)

2000

+

Li2CO3 (73.89)

1000
0
5000
5000

(e)
Total counts
Total counts

4000
4000

Discharged electrode
Charged electorde

(g)

3000
3000
+

Li2O2 (46.02)

2000
2000

+

Li2CO3 (73.89)

1000
1000

+

+

Li2O2 (46.02)
00
40

Li2CO3 (73.89)

45

50

m/z

TEGDME-LiCF3SO3

70

75

Secondary Ion Mass
Spectrometry
analysis of a Li-O2
cell prior and after
cycling in TGDME –
based and PC-based
electrolytes

PC-based electrolyte
Hun-Gi Jung, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Bum Park, In-Hwan Oh, Jusef Hassoun, Chong Seung
Yoon,Bruno Scrosati, and Yang-Kook Sun,, submitted

SEM images of an oxygen electrode at a discharge (formation of
Li2O2 )-charge (dissolution of Li2O2) cycle in a lithium cell

(a)

(b)
discharge

prior to discharge

(c)
charge

reverse charge state
500 nm

aggregation of ~100 nmsized carbon particles

discharge state

500 nm

500 nm

particles substantially larger
assuming the toroidal (or
“doughnut”) shapes that are
believed to be associated with
the formation of Li2O2 (see
circled regions). The
presence of lithium verified by
EELS

particles revert back
matching the shape
and size morphology of
the initial state

H-G. Jung, J. Hassoun, J.-B park, Y.-K. Sun, B. Scrosati, Nature Chemistry, 4(2012) 579

TEM images of the oxygen electrode at different discharged states
in a lithium cell
(a)

(b)
Images (a) and (b)
refer to the oxygen
electrode discharged at
a fixed capacity of
5,000 mAh gcarbon-1
(5 mA cm-2 current). .

500 nm

(c)

500 nm

(d)
Images (c) and (d) of
the same electrode
after discharge at a
fixed capacity of
10,000 mAh gcarbon-1

500 nm

500 nm

H.-G. Jung, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Park, I.-H. Oh, J. Hassoun, C. S. Yoon, B. Scrosati,
Y.-K. Sun, Nano Letters, 12, 4333 (2012)

TEM images of different parts of the oxygen electrode discharged at
10,000 mAh gcarbon-1 (5 mA cm-2 current).

(a)
(a)
(a)
Electrode morphology at initial stage
of discharge: mixture of amorphous
solid Li2O2 particles combined with
perfect spherical hollow particles
having wall thickness of about 50 nm.
Inset: select area electron diffraction
patterns

High-resolution
image showing
the crystalline
nature of the
primary particles.

400 nm
400 nm
400 nm

Final stage of
discharge: a Li2O2
particle covered by 10nm-size crystalline
primary nanoparticles.
Inset: selected area
electron diffraction
patterns.

(b)
(b)
(b)

(c)
(c)
(c)

100 nm
100 nm
100 nm

10 nm
1010 nm
nm

H.-G. Jung, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Park, I.-H. Oh, J. Hassoun, C. S. Yoon, B. Scrosati, Y.-K. Sun,
Nano Lett, 2012, dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl302066d

TEM images of an oxygen electrode at a discharge (formation of Li2O2 )charge (dissolution of Li2O2) cycle in a lithium cell
(a)

(b)

Li2O2 particles
progressively
dissolve
500 nm

500 nm

(a)
(d) (a)

(c)
(a)

500 nm
500 nm

(c)

(b)

(b)

1 µm

400 nm
500 nm400 nm

(d)

TEM images of the electrode in the discharge state reveal an abundant
presence of Li2O2 semi-crystalline particles that closely match in shape
and size those observed by SEM.
500
500 nm
H.-G. Jung, H.-S. Kim, J.-B. Park, I.-H. Oh, J. Hassoun, C. S. Yoon, nm Scrosati, Y.-K. Sun,
B.
Nano Letters, 12, 4333 (2012)

100 nm

The kinetics issue

Capacity / mAh g)

1400

-1

Current: 1000 mA g

1200

Time limited, galvanostatic
cycling. Maximum energy density:
3000 Wh/kg. Projected 500-1000
Wh/kg

1000
800
600
400
Charge
Discharge

200
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Cycle number

Voltage / V

5

Reversible reaction in the 2.8-3.8 V
potential window ! High energy
efficiency

4
st

1 cycle

3
2
1
0

200

400

600

800
-1

Capacity / mAhg

1000

The kinetic issue. Graphene Oxide Supported Rutheniumbased Electrocatalysts

(a)

5.0

4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5

catalyst free rGO
Ru-rGO hybrid
RuO2.H2O-rGO hybrid

2.0
1.5

(b)

4.5
Voltage / V

Voltage / V

4.5

30

0

500

1000

4.0 20

3.0 10
2.5

-1

Capacity / mAh g

1.5

2000

backgroundRu-rGO hybrid
rGO
200 mA/g-10h
Ru/rGO hybrid
RuO2/rGO hybrid

3.5

th

0

0

th

5
th
20

2.0

1500

5.5

0

500

15
th
30
2000

(c)

R

4.5

th

10
th
25

1000

5.0

Voltage / V

5.0

5.5

th

5 cycle
-1
200mA g -10h

Current / mA

5.5

4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5

th

5
t
20

2.0
3000

1.5
4000

1000
1500
2000 -1
Capacity / mAh g
-1

0

5000

Capacity / mAh g

ORR-OER voltage profiles of Li/O2
5.5
th
coin-type cells under capacity5 cycle
5.0
-1
controlled regimes of 2,000 gmAh g-1
500mA -10h
4.5

(d)

Capa

Chronoamperometric curves of three
5.5
fully discharged cells potentiostatically
(e) re-charged upRu-rGO hybrid
(f)
5.0
to 4.0 V
5.0
500 mA/g-10h
5.5

4.5

4.5

4.0

e / V

e / V

e / V

H-G. Jung, Y-S. Jeong, J-B. Park, Y-K.Sun, B. Scrosati, Y-J. Lee, ACS Nano, 7 (2013) 3532
4.0

500

4.0

The kinetic issue. The role of temperature

The cell polarization considerably decreases moving from low to
high temperature.
J-B. Park, J. Hassoun, H-G.Jung, H.-S. Kim, C-S. Yoon, I-H. Oh, B. Scrosati, Y-K. Sun,
Nano Lett, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl401439b

The safety issue: our approach: replacement of
the unstable, reactive lithium metal with a
lithiated-silicon anode.
1500

Capacity / mAh g

-1

4.8

Voltage / V

4.0
3.2
2.4
1.6
st

nd

1 cycle
th
8 cycle

0.8

2 cycle
th
10 cycle

th

5 cycle
th
15 cycle

1000

500
Charge
Discharge

B
0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

Capacity per carbon weight / mAhg

-1

0

3

6

9

12

Cycle number

J.Hassoun, H-G. Jung, D-J. Lee, J-B. Park, K. Amine,Y-K. Sun, B.
Scrosati, Nano Letters, 2012

15

Conductivity (S cm

-1

Lithium battery applications

Our approaches to address the Li-O2 battery issues
10
(SUMMARY)
-3

10
10

-4

-5

Stable electrolyte : LiCF3SO3TEGDME
Kinetics: cycling under fixed capacity
regimes, use of Ru-based catalysts

3.2
1400
Capacity / mAh g)

3.0

3.4
3.6
-1
1000/T (K )
-1

Current: 1000 mA g

1200
1000
800
600
400

Charge
Discharge

200
0
0

20

40

60

Cycle number

Safety: replacement of the reactive
lithium metal anode with a lithiated
silicon-carbon composite

80

100

The advanced Lithium-oxygen battery
Capacity: 1000

Voltage: around 2.8V

Li-O 2

n

i-io
L

750
500
250
0

Prac
tical
ener
g
( Wh
/ kg) y

100

0

Maximum energy
density: 2,800 Wh/kg
Projected energy
density: >500 Wh/kg

CONCLUSION

New approaches and new materials investigated worldwide for the
progress of Li/S and Li/O2 batteries……..
….however the road for reaching full commercialization is still long.
Bruno Scrosati, Jusef Hassoun, Yang-Kook Sun, Energy Environ. Sci., 2011, 4, 3287–3295

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work was in part performed within the Project “REALIST”
(Rechargeable, advanced, nano structured lithium batteries with high
energy storage) sponsored by Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), the
EU LISSEN ( LIthium Sulfur Superbattery Exploiting Nanotechnology)
Project and the WCU (World Class University) program through the
National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology (R31-2008-000-10092).

University Sapienza Roma
Research Group

Bruno Scrosati

Giuseppe Elia

Stefania Panero

Marco Agostini

Jusef Hassoun

Roberta Verrelli

Hanyang University Research Group Seoul

Many thanks
for your
attention!