National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2017

National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2017

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Description: Make lifestyle changes (e.g., healthy eating) to prevent more kidney damage. Use medications (e.g., drugs to lower blood pressure) to slow CKD progression.Learn about kidney disease from your health care team to make sure your treatment is optimal and also to help improve outcomes after beginning ESRD treatment.

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National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2017
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged or cannot filter blood as
well as healthy kidneys. Because of this, excess fluid and waste from the blood remain in the body and
may cause other health problems.

CKD Is Common Among Adults in the United States
Fast Stats
•• 30 million people or 15% of US adults are estimated to
have CKD.*
•• 48% of those with severely reduced kidney function
but not on dialysis are not aware of having CKD.
•• Most (96%) people with kidney damage or mildly
reduced kidney function are not aware of having CKD.

Risk Factors for Developing CKD
Adults with diabetes, high blood pressure, or both have a higher risk of developing CKD than
those without these diseases. Other risk factors for CKD include heart disease, obesity, and a
family history of CKD.

Keep your kidneys healthy
by controlling your blood
sugar and blood pressure.

•• CKD is estimated to be more common in
women than in men (16% vs 13%).*
•• CKD is also estimated to be more common
in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic
whites (18% vs 13%).*
•• 15% of Hispanics are estimated to have CKD.*

Prevalence* of CKD Among US Adults Aged
18 Years or Older, By Sex and Race/Ethnicity

Prevalence (percentage) of CKD stages 1–5 among US adults aged 18 years or older using data from the 2011–2014 National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey and the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. These estimates are subject to variability and do
not account for persistence of albuminuria or creatinine as indicated by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes recommendations.
Estimates by sex, race, or ethnicity were age-adjusted using the 2000 US standard population.


Symptoms, Testing, and Treatment
•• People with CKD may not feel ill or notice any symptoms. The only way to find out for sure if you have CKD is
through specific blood and urine tests. These tests include measurement of both the creatinine level in the blood
and protein in the urine.
•• Once detected, CKD may be addressed through lifestyle changes, including making healthier choices about what
you eat and drink, and can often be treated with medications. These approaches and treatments may keep CKD from
getting worse and may prevent additional health problems such as heart disease.
•• People with diabetes or high blood pressure who are diagnosed with CKD should talk to their doctor about treating
these conditions to keep their blood sugar and blood pressure under control and lower their risk for kidney failure.

Health Problems Caused and
Affected by CKD

Reported Causes of New Cases of ESRD
in the United States

Kidney Failure

•• Kidney disease usually gets worse over time
though treatment has been shown to slow
progression. When the kidneys stop working,
dialysis or kidney transplant is needed for
survival. Kidney failure treated with dialysis
or kidney transplant is called end-stage renal
disease (ESRD). Not all patients with kidney
disease progress to kidney failure and, in some
patients, kidney disease progresses to kidney
failure even with proper treatment.

N=118,014 (all ages, 2014)
Source: US Renal Data System
Includes glomerulonephritis and cystic kidney disease, among other causes.

Heart Disease and Stroke
Renal is a medical term
meaning “having to do with
the kidneys.”

•• Having kidney disease increases the chances of also having
heart disease and stroke.
•• Managing blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol
levels—all risk factors for heart disease and stroke—is more
difficult, but much more important in the presence of CKD.

Other Health Consequences of CKD
Some Facts About ESRD
•• In 2014, 118,000 people in the United States started
treatment for ESRD, and 662,000 were living on
chronic dialysis or with a kidney transplant.
•• Men are 64% more likely than women to
develop ESRD.
•• African Americans are 3 times more likely than
whites to develop ESRD.
•• Hispanics are 35% more likely than nonHispanics to develop ESRD.
•• In US adults aged 18 years or older, the main
reported causes of new cases of ESRD are
diabetes and high blood pressure.
•• In US adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, the
main reported cause of new cases of ESRD is
glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys).

•• Anemia or low number of red blood cells can cause fatigue
and weakness.
•• Infections can occur because of a weakened immune system.
•• Low calcium levels and high phosphorus levels in the blood
can cause bone problems.
•• High potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia) can
cause an irregular or abnormal heartbeat.
•• Loss of appetite or eating less.
•• Excess fluids in the body causing high blood pressure, swelling
in the legs, or shortness of breath because of fluid in the lungs (a
condition known as pulmonary edema).
•• Depression or lower quality of life.

Risk of Dying
Premature death from both heart disease and from all causes is
higher in adults with CKD compared with adults without CKD.
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Opportunities to Prevent CKD and
Lower the Risk for Kidney Failure
•• Control risk factors for CKD that can be
–– High blood pressure.
–– High blood sugar levels.
•• Test for kidney disease among people who are
at high risk for developing CKD.
–– Testing people with diabetes or with high
blood pressure has been shown to be a
cost-effective way of identifying people
with CKD.
•• Manage CKD.
–– Make lifestyle changes (e.g., healthy eating)
to prevent more kidney damage.
–– Use medications (e.g., drugs to lower blood
pressure) to slow CKD progression.
–– Avoid conditions or exposures that can
harm the kidneys or cause a sudden drop in
kidney function (called acute kidney injury)
and may quicken CKD progression.
• Kidney infections.
• Medications.
ŒŒ Over-the-counter pain medicines like
ibuprofen and naproxen.
ŒŒ Certain antibiotics.
• Herbal supplements.
• Dyes that are used to make the blood
vessels or organs visible on X-rays or other
imaging tests.
•• Learn about kidney disease from your health
care team to make sure your treatment is
optimal and also to help improve outcomes
after beginning ESRD treatment.

Page 3 of 4


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic kidney
disease surveillance system website.
Accessed March 9, 2017.

12. Hoerger TJ, Wittenborn JS, Segel JE, et al. A health policy model
of CKD: 2. The cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria screening.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(3):463–473.


Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD Work Group.
KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and
management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Inter. 2013;3(1)

13. Hoerger TJ, Wittenborn J, Zhuo X, et al. Cost-effectiveness of
screening for microalbuminuria among African Americans. J Am
Soc Nephrol. 2012;23(12):2035–2041.


Meisinger C, Döring A, Löwel H, KORA Study Group. Chronic
kidney disease and risk of incident myocardial infarction and
all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged
men and women from the general population. Eur Heart J.


National Institutes of Health. 2016 USRDS Annual Data Report:
Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States. Bethesda, MD:
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases;2016.


Astor BC, Hallan SI, Miller ER 3rd, Yeung E, Coresh J. Glomerular
filtration rate, albuminuria, and risk of cardiovascular and
all-cause mortality in the U.S. population. Am J Epidemiol.


Hemmelgarn BR, James MT, Manns BJ, et al. Rates of treated
and untreated kidney failure in older vs younger adults. JAMA.


Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Chronic
kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and
hospitalization. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(13):1296–1305.


Perlman RL, Finkelstein FO, Liu L, et al. Quality of life in chronic
kidney disease (CKD): a cross-sectional analysis in the Renal
Research Institute-CKD study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(4):658–


Kinchen KS, Sadler J, Fink N, et al. The timing of specialist
evaluation in chronic kidney disease and mortality. Ann Intern
Med. 2002;17;137(6):479–486.

The following organizations* collaborated in developing and
reviewing this fact sheet:
•• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
•• Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
•• US Department of Defense
•• US Department of Veterans Affairs
•• Kidney Interagency Coordinating Committee
•• National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National
Institutes of Health
•• National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
Diseases of the National Institutes of Health
•• National Kidney Disease Education Program

10. Vassalotti JA, Li S, Chen SC, Collins AJ. Screening populations
at increased risk of CKD: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program
(KEEP) and the public health problem. Am J Kidney Dis.

•• American Society of Nephrology

11. Snyder JJ, Collins AJ. Association of preventive health care with
atherosclerotic heart disease and mortality in CKD. J Am Soc
Nephrol. 2009;20(7):1614–1622.

•• University of California, San Francisco, and University of
California, San Francisco Center for Vulnerable Populations

For Public Inquiries and Publications
CDC-INFO Contact Center
Telephone: 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636)
1-888-232-6348 TTY
In English and Spanish 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
For Other Information
Division of Diabetes Translation
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop F-75
Atlanta, GA 30341-3717
Telephone 770-488-5000; Fax 770-488-8211

•• National Kidney Foundation
•• United States Renal Data System

•• University of Michigan, Division of Nephrology, Department
of Internal Medicine, and University of Michigan Kidney
Epidemiology and Cost Center

*Links to nonfederal organizations are provided solely as a service to our users. Links do
not constitute an endorsement of any organization by CDC or the federal government,
and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual
organization web pages found at this link.

This publication is not subject to copyright restrictions.
Please duplicate and distribute copies as desired.
Suggested Citation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National
Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2017. Atlanta, GA:
US Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2017.
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