Disease Surveillance at VSD

Disease Surveillance at VSD

Loading
Loading Social Plug-ins...
Language: English
Save to myLibrary Download PDF
Go to Page # Page of 33

Description: Disease Surveillance at VSD. Veterinary Sciences Division, Main site Stormont, Belfast, Diagnostic lab, Omagh, Co. Tyrone ~ 300 core staff.

Disease Surveillance & Investigation Branch, Provide an animal disease surveillance service throughout NI. The large throughput of diagnostic submissions underpins statutory work in key areas. Key Science Areas, Surveillance for novel diseases, Changing patterns in endemic diseases, Potential introduction of notifiable diseases, Leptospirosis, Zoonotic infections.

Disease surveillance definition, Ongoing systematic collection and collation of useful information about disease in a defined animal population, Timely analysis and interpretation of information, Dissemination of relevant outputs to customers and stakeholders. Disease surveillance objectives, Early identification of exotic diseases, Rapid detection of diseases, infections and intoxications intoxications, Early warning system for emerging diseases, Identification of emerging trends among existing diseases, Confirm absence of specific diseases or infections. Benefits of disease surveillance, Key role in informing policy on animal health and food safety, Key component of: Key component of: Northern Ireland animal health and welfare strategy, All-Island Animal Health and Welfare Strategy, which was agreed by NSMC Ministers in March 2010, Key role in detection of epizootic disease, Key role in support of export trade.

Animal disease surveillance- scanning, Veterinary practition ...Please navigate Paper pages for more details.

 
Author: Frank Malone (Fellow) | Visits: 1743 | Page Views: 1988
Domain:  Medicine Category: Veterinary Subcategory: Diagnostics 
Upload Date:
Link Back:
Short URL: https://www.wesrch.com/medical/pdfME19LM7B4NBIP
Loading
Loading...



px *        px *

* Default width and height in pixels. Change it to your required dimensions.

 
Contents:
Disease Surveillance at VSD
Frank Malone

Veterinary Sciences Division
Main site Stormont, Belfast
Diagnostic lab, Omagh, Co. Tyrone
~ 300 core staff

Stormont

Omagh

Livestock numbers in NI – June 2010

• Cattle

- 1.6 million

– cows

- 0.54 million

• Pigs
• Poultry
• Sheep

- 0.42 million
- 16.53 million
- 1.85 million

– Ewes

- 0.89 million

• Horses
• Goats

- 12,500
- 2,900
- 1,500 adult females

Veterinary Sciences Division
Dr David Bryson
Acting Deputy Chief Executive

Bacteriology Branch
Dr Stanley McDowell

Chemical Surveillance
Branch
Dr Glenn Kennedy

TB
Hormone residues

Disease Surveillance
and Investigation
Branch
Mr Frank Malone

Omagh and
Stormont:

Immunodiagnostic
Branch
Dr Alastair Douglas

Antibiotic residues
Salmonella

Post-mortem
examinations

Shellfish toxins

Brucellosis testing

Tests on clinical
samples

Test development for
epizootic diseases

Monitoring disease
freedom

Pig circoviruses
Avian virology

Import/export testing

Campylobacter
Biometric
identification

Virology Branch
Dr Michael Welsh

TSE testing

Brucella

Clostridia

Mr William Campton Business
Manager

Ruminant virology
Cattle Health
Scheme

Avian serology
Fish diseases

leptospira
Cattle, sheep,
pigs, poultry

Emergency Response: Foot-and-mouth, avian and vH1N1 influenza, bluetongue, dioxins, nitrofurans

Disease Surveillance & Investigation Branch
Provide an animal disease surveillance
service throughout NI.
The large throughput of diagnostic
submissions underpins statutory work in
key areas.

Key Science Areas
Surveillance for novel diseases
Changing patterns in endemic diseases
Potential introduction of notifiable diseases
Leptospirosis
Zoonotic infections

Disease surveillance - definition

• Ongoing systematic collection and collation of
useful information about disease in a defined
animal population

• Timely analysis and interpretation of information
• Dissemination of relevant outputs to customers
and stakeholders

Disease surveillance - objectives

• Early identification of exotic diseases
• Rapid detection of diseases, infections and




intoxications
Early warning system for emerging diseases
Identification of emerging trends among existing
diseases
Confirm absence of specific diseases or
infections

Disease surveillance - stakeholders

• Department of Agriculture and Rural







Development – DARDNI
Local agri-food industry
Veterinary practitioners
Farmers
EU and OIE
DEFRA - GB
Food Standards Agency

Benefits of disease surveillance

• Key role in informing policy on animal health and


food safety
Key component of:
– Northern Ireland animal health and welfare strategy
– All-Island Animal Health and Welfare Strategy
• which was agreed by NSMC Ministers in March 2010

• Key role in detection of epizootic disease
• Key role in support of export trade

Surveillance

• Scanning (passive)
– PVP/farmer
– Vet Service
– Abattoir

• Targeted (active)
– TB, BSE, scrapie
– Avian influenza
– Wildlife surveys
– Antimicrobial resistance surveillance

Antimicrobial surveillance

• Salmonella
– isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance
(AMR)
– a panel of 17 antimicrobials by disc-diffusion
methods performed to CLSI (clinical and
laboratory standards institute) standards and
interpretation criteria.
– Approximately 400 isolates are tested for
antimicrobial resistance each year.

Antimicrobial surveillance



Other bacterial isolates



clinical disease submissions, such as postmortem cases or clinical pathology samples
over 7000 isolates per year

Antimicrobial surveillance





MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).
– Staphylococcus aureus isolates have cefoxitin included in the
panel.

ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta lactamase)
– Antimicrobial resistance gene with potential public health
implications
– Group of enzymes which confer resistance to β-lactam
antimicrobials
– E.coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa

Surveillance since 2006

Animal disease surveillance
- scanning

• Veterinary practitioner/farmer interactions
• State (veterinary service) vets on farms
• VSD animal disease diagnostic service
• Abattoir surveillance

Scanning surveillance pyramid

• Herd owner
– May or may not seek help

• Veterinary practitioner/meat VO
– May send sample to lab for testing

• Laboratory
– To date main source of scanning surveillance
– Information that would aid detection of new diseases
– Laboratory submissions depends on PVP/farmer decision
• Would lab help to make diagnosis
• Cost/benefit of sample submission

Veterinary practitioners on farms

• Close contacts between veterinary practitioners
and AFBI’s Veterinary Sciences Division (VSD)

• Regular clinical and statutory (e.g. TB testing)
work on farms

• Development of herd/flock health planning

Veterinary meeting at VSD Omagh

Abattoir surveillance

• Meat inspection carried out under control of




DARD vets
Unique opportunity for surveillance for diseases
of animal and public health significance
Food hygiene legislation requires surveillance
data to be collected and communicated to
producers and vets
Electronic collection of data - APHIS

Sheep tapeworms
Muscle

Central Nervous
System

Peritoneum

Intestines

Liver

Cysticercus
ovis

Coenurus
cerebralis

Cysticercus
tenuicollis

Monezia

Hydatid cyst

Taenia ovis
(Dog)

Taenia
multiceps
(Dog)

Taenia
hydatigena
(Dog)

Cysticercoid
(Mites)

Echinococcus
granulosus
(Dog)

Cysticercus ovis
•Samples of mutton from two lamb
carcases were submitted for postmortem examination from abattoir
•The carcases were part of a batch
of 450 lambs which had been
condemned at the abattoir

Disease surveillance and Investigation
Branch (DSIB) - VSD

• Carcases and clinical samples
• Widely used
• Diagnostic investigations
• Components of targeted surveillance

Wildlife and companion animal
surveillance

• Wildlife surveys

– Avian influenza
– Badger RTA
– Fox Trichinella and Echinococcus

• Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme
• Wildlife crime - PSNI
• Companion animals
– Limited
• Welfare cases – USPCA and PSNI

Marine mammals

• Marine mammal PMs
– on behalf of NIEA

• Cetaceans examined as in GB
– Part of UK ASCOBANS

• Seal PMs in Strangford Lough
– Response to Strangford tidal turbine

Disease surveillance

• Diagnostic reports to vets/farmers
• Quarterly animal disease surveillance report



– DARD
– Veterinary Record
– AFBI website
Technology transfer meetings/articles
– e.g. botulism, fluke & worm forecasts
– Vets, farmers, other institutes, students

Disease surveillance - VSD

• Large throughput of diagnostic submissions
facilitates:
– Surveillance for novel diseases
– Changing patterns in endemic diseases
– Potential introduction of notifiable diseases
– Zoonotic infections

Surveillance for novel diseases

• Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA)



– Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
First diagnosed in UK sheep in 1990
– Northern Ireland in 1999
Mainly terminal sire breeds

Potential introduction of notifiable diseases
•Bluetongue - non-contagious, insecttransmitted (Culicoides species), viral
disease of domestic and wild
ruminants that does not affect humans.
•Tens of thousands of sheep affected increased mortalities and production
loss

Potential introduction of notifiable diseases
•Bluetongue
•affects mucous lining of
mouth and coronary band of
foot
•Present in England since 2007
•BTV8 and BTV1 (November 08)
•Not present in Ireland

Contagious pustular dermatitis - Orf

• Pox virus infection
• Proliferative lesions
– Muco-cutaneous
junction of mouth
– Coronary band of
hoof

Orf – differential diagnosis of bluetongue
•Twelve lambs in a flock had
swollen oedematous heads, ears
and eye-lids. The lambs were
pruritic and had a nasal
discharge. Ulcers were present
on the hard palate and lips
•Serology and RT-PCR tests for
bluetongue virus were negative
•Proliferative pustular lesions
and extensive oedema were
observed on head.
•Orf diagnosed on
histopathology and EM
demonstration of virus.

Salmonella Kottbus

• 15 cases in VSD since 2008
• All bovine
– One in turkey poults

• Faeces isolates
– 7 adult cows, 2 neonatal calves

• Six PM cases
– Four calf/foetus stomach contents
– One from SI of 6-mth old calf neurological signs

Salmonella Kottbus Isolates 2008-2011

2008 Two cases
Bovine foetus
Stomach contents

2008 Bovine foetus
Stomach contents

2008 Dairy cow
Faeces

2008 Neonatal calf
Stomach contents
2008 Faeces
4-yr-old heifer

2008 6-yr-old cow
Faeces
2009 Bovine
Faeces

2011
Two cases faeces
Postpaturient cows

2008 1 wk calf
Faeces

2010
6-mth Bovine
Faeces

2009 1 wk calf
Faeces
2010 Bovine
Faeces

Salmonella Kottbus
• Rare isolate at VSD
• Cluster of cases in East Down
• Potential human pathogen
– Associated with number of human disease cases

• May be associated with wild birds
• Is it circulating in bovine population?
• Isolated from abortion and diarrhoea cases