Stem Cells for the Failing Heart

Stem Cells for the Failing Heart

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Failing Heart

Stem Cells

Description: Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources: Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development (embryonic stem cells) and. Adult tissue (adult stem cells).

 
Author: Zeljko J. Bosnjak PhD  | Visits: 333 | Page Views: 552
Domain:  Medicine Category: Therapy 
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Contents:
Stem Cells for the Failing Heart
Zeljko J. Bosnjak, PhD, FAHA
Professor and Vice Chairman for Research
Departments of Anesthesiology and Physiology
The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
3rd DUBROVNIK CARDIOLOGY HIGHLIGHTS

OVERVIEW
 New modalities for HF treatment
 Stem cell therapy - potentially disease modifying
 Individual clinical studies
 Meta-analyses
 Future directions and likely outcomes

New modalities for HF treatment
 The management of HF has extended the lifespan of this patient
population; however, not able to reverse the disease
 Short of heart transplantation, there are currently limited options to
overcome the poor prognosis of end-stage HF
 This urgent clinical need drives the exploration of cardiac repair
with stem cells
 Many efforts aim to use the regenerative properties of stem cells
for strategies to repair injured myocardium

New modalities for HF treatment
 For nearly a century, the heart has been considered a
terminally-differentiated post-mitotic organ unable to replace
dying cardiomyocytes
 This premise is no longer valid
 Pool of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) that can acquire
the cardiomyocyte, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial
cell lineages has been identified in the human heart

Leri A et al. Circulation Research 2011;109:941-961

Birth date of cardiac cells

Science. 2009 April 3; 324(5923): 98–102

The role of hCSCs in restoring damaged
myocardium

 Spontaneous cardiac repair is minimal; regenerative
response to the non-infarcted tissue
 Spontaneous myocyte regeneration does not compensate
for the loss of myocytes in the chronically pressureoverloaded heart
 Spontaneous cardiac repair may delay, but does not avoid
or reverse the progression of HF

Sources of stem cells for cardiac regeneration and
potential reparative mechanisms

Sanganalmath S, Bolli R. Circulation Research 2013;113:810-834

Implantation of stem cells

Potential mechanisms of action of stem cells

Sanganalmath S, Bolli R. Circulation Research 2013;113:810-834

Implantation of stem cells
 Most transferred cells are dead within a week
 Difficult for cells to engraft, survive, proliferate, and differentiate

 Clinical trials demonstrate that autologous cell based therapies
for cardiovascular repair are feasible and safe
 Although efficacy of cell-based therapy has been limited, it holds
enormous promise at preventing or reversing myocardial
remodeling and promoting tissue regeneration

Clinical studies using MSCs

342 studies examining the effects of MSCs
160 studies examining the effects of MSCs in heart failure

http://clinicaltrials.gov (September 2013)

Use of various types of stem cell therapies in patients
with cardiovascular disease

ALCADIA
CADUCEUS
SCIPIO

Sanganalmath S, Bolli R. Circulation Research 2013;113:810-834

Trials with Negative results:
Late-TIME, Transplantation in Myocardial Infarction Evaluation
Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network [CCTRN]
TIME

Trials with Positive results:
Percutaneous Stem Cell Injection Delivery Effects on
Neomyogenesis (POSEIDON)
Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
(SCIPIO)
Cardiosphere-derived Autologous Stem Cells to Reverse
Ventricular Dysfunction (CADUCEUS)

 Open label, non-randomized, prospective study

 Intracoronary BMC therapy improves ventricular performance,
quality of life, and survival in patients with heart failure
 These effects were present when BMC were administered in
addition to standard therapeutic regimes
 No side effects were observed

STAR-heart study

Eur J Fail. 2010 Jul;12(7):721-9.

 Phase 1/2 randomized comparison with 13-month follow-up
(n=30)

 Absence of significant alloimmune reactions in patients
receiving allogeneic MSCs
 Cell therapy may not only improve left ventricular structure but
may also improve quality of life and functional capacity
JAMA. 2013 Aug 21;310(7):750

JAMA. 2013 Aug 21;310(7):750

Change in New York Heart Association Classification
Quality of Life

JAMA. 2013 Aug 21;310(7):750

Lancet 2012; 379: 895–904

 Infusion of autologous CDCs after myocardial infarction is safe
 Significant increases in viable myocardium is consistent with
therapeutic regeneration

 No differences in EF or volumes

Manufacture of cardiosphere-derived cells

Lancet 2012; 379: 895–904

CADUCEUS trial changes in scar size

6 months

12 months
Lancet 2012; 379: 895–904

Circulation. 2012;126:S54–S64

 CSC infusion produces a striking improvement in both
global and regional LV function
 Reduction in infarct size
 Increase in viable tissue that persist at least 1 year and
are consistent with cardiac regeneration

SCIPIO trial – LVEF
Baseline (27.5 ± 1.6%)
4 months after CSC infusion (35.1 ± 2.4%),
12 months after CSC infusion (41.2 ± 4.5%).

Circulation. 2012;126:S54–S64

Meta-analysis of 29 studies (1830 patients)

 Intracoronary BMSC therapy post-STEMI improves LVEF beyond
standard medical treatment, in both the short and longer term

Effect of intracoronary BMSC on LVEF at 3–6 months

Zimmet H et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2012;14:91-105

Effect of intracoronary BMSC on LVEF at 12–18 months

Zimmet H et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2012;14:91-105

Meta-analysis of 50 studies (2625 patients)
 Improvement of LV function, infarct size, and remodeling in
patients with ischemic heart disease compared with standard
therapy
 Benefits persist during long-term follow-up
 Reduction in deaths, recurrent myocardial infarction, and
stent thrombosis
Circulation, 126(5):551-568, 2012

Forest plot of unadjusted difference in mean change in LVEF in patients treated with BMCs
compared with control subjects

Transplantation of BMCs resulted in a 4% increase in mean LVEF
Jeevanantham V et al. Circulation 2012;126:551-568

Forest plot of mean change in infarct scar size in patients treated BMCs compared with
control subjects

Transplantation of BMCs resulted in a 4% decrease in infarct scar size

Jeevanantham V et al. Circulation 2012;126:551-568

Forest plot of mean change in LVESV in patients treated with BMCs compared with control
subjects

Transplantation of BMCs resulted in a 9% decrease in mean LVESV
Jeevanantham V et al. Circulation 2012;126:551-568

Forest plot of mean change in LVEDV in patients treated with BMCs compared with control
subjects

Transplantation of BMCs resulted in a 5% decrease in mean LVEDV
Jeevanantham V et al. Circulation 2012;126:551-568

Cell types used for cardiac repair
Cell type

Source

Advantages

Disadvantages

Bone marrow

BM
Blood

Autologous
Paracrine effects

Pluripotency
uncertain

Adult cardiac
progenitor cells

Cardiac
biopsy

Autologous
Differentiate into
all cardiac
lineages
Paracrine effects

Invasive cardiac
biopsy
Xenogenic antibodies used for
isolation

To improve the outcome of current cell therapy for
cardiac regeneration in the future:
 Resolve the issues concerning optimal cell type, factors, dosage,
patient population, and route and timing of administration
 Proceed with rigorous, large-scale, rationally designed, and
randomized clinical trials
------------------------------- Tissue engineering
 MicroRNA regulation of cardiac regeneration

 Reprogramming the fibroblasts

Approaches to direct cardiac reprogramming

Cardiac
Fibroblasts

Adult Injured
Heart

In vitro iCMs

In vivo iCMs

Qian L, Srivastava D. Circulation Research 2013;113:915-921

Likely outcomes in the future
 Off-the-shelf products likely in decade or so
 Different mixture of cells for patients with recent MI and
those with chronic HF

 Infused into the coronary arteries for patients with dilated
nonischemic cardiomyopathy
 Transendocardial injection to patients with major coronary
blockages
 Cell therapy unlikely a sole treatment for HF, but an
important adjunct to other therapeutic approaches,
(prolonged LVA, microRNA, and gene therapy)

Thomas E. Starzl MD, PhD
(“The father of modern transplantation”)

“The history of medicine is that what was
inconceivable yesterday and
barely achievable today often becomes
routine tomorrow”

Thank you

MicroRNA regulation of cardiac regeneration

Circ Res 2013;112:1412-1414

Remuscularising the Failing Heart
 Myocardial infarction - one billion myocytes dead
 Intramyocardial cell injection - over 95% of the cells are lost
 Calculated therapeutic cell dose - 20 billion myocytes
 Total myocytes number of the heart is 4 billion